Many people defined the tourer investing and some of them defined it as the ability of the tranquil production to the formation of the material capital and puting up the human capital in the field of touristry to increase and better the productive and operating energy and offer the best services in the different Fieldss of touristry.

4-1-1 William claude dukenfields of tourer investing Daniel,2006

William claude dukenfields of tourer investing are capable to a high and broad flexibleness in the constructs and they are characterized by diverseness and generalization. Some of these Fieldss can be specified as the followers:

1. Tourist hosting: it includes hotels, tourer small towns, flats, and composites. This activity is considered as the cardinal activity among many others in the tourer investing.

2. Religious sites: they are of the basic concerns in the tourer investing, and are connected to history and religious and moral factors ; there are many states that have a great specialness of spiritual sites so as Iraq which is distinguished by the handiness of many spiritual sites like holy topographic points, mosques, churches, and abbeys. In add-on to Iraq, there ‘s Saudi Arabia, which considers the spiritual touristry as the first support to its tourer investing, and there are besides Iran particularly by its Alrida and Kom metropoliss and Syria which has of import spiritual sites such as churches, abbeys, Sayida Zainab, Sayida Rukaia, the shrines of some Prophetss, and some of the Companions of the Prophet.

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3. Natural sites: natural sites are one of the of import tourer sites, and harmonizing to the seasons, we have winter sites like skiing sites in Lebanon, Turkey, France, and Italy. We have besides summer sites in Kurdistan, Iraq, and Syria. These natural sites form about 71 % of the entire cosmopolitan demand.

4. Education and centres of research: it includes schools of linguistic communication, universities, research centres, scholastic and tourer classs, companies, and expeditions. There are states that have become specialized in this field like Cyprus, Malta, and Malaysia which cared for that a batch and issued different statute laws in add-on to a large investing in puting up the universities and linguistic communication instruction schools.

5. Festivals and conferences: it includes puting up folk festivals at many times in the twelvemonth of which expands the circle of tourer attractive force like Spain, Brazil, and Malaysia, in add-on to the activity of keeping conferences. Qatar, Emirates, and Jordan have become interested in that a batch.

6. Shopping: it includes set uping large and assorted shopping centres and shopping festivals to increase the tourer attractive force. For illustration, Dubai metropolis, which has become greatly celebrated for its shopping festival that is considered as a singular mark in the Middle East, and other shopping centres in Malaysia and London.

7. Folk industries: it includes all the goods that fulfill the tourer ‘s demand in a manner that matches the specialness of each state. Therefore, many states like Spain, Egypt, the United Kingdom, and Turkey raced to set up the folk industrial workshops which sell the tourer what concerns him/her. Other states, excessively, are concerned in the Fieldss of trade sell to the tourers like Syria, Lebanon, France, and the United Kingdom.

4-2 The Tourist investing in Kurdistan Daniel,2006

We already discussed the tourer investing in Iraq as an debut to discourse the tourer investing in Kurdistan of Iraq, since this district is connected to all general inside informations of the statute laws in Iraq and affected by the Iraqi state of affairs politically, historically, and economically.

Through analyzing all the Iraqi Torahs issued by the Iraqi authorities get downing from the jurisprudence ( 73 ) in 1956 which was considered as the beginning of the tourer statute laws in Iraq and stoping with the jurisprudence ( 14 ) in 1996 and even the order ( 39 ) related to the foreign investing in Iraq and issued on 19/9/2003 by the impermanent alliance authorization before organizing the Iraqi authorities after the parliamentary elections, through analyzing all these Torahs, we conclude that all the Torahs have positively and negatively affected the tourer investing in Iraq. Besides, because of the prevailing fortunes in Iraq and since publishing the order ( 39 ) Iraq and Kurdistan had merely received undistinguished ratio of the foreign investings, as the general director of the international fiscal foundation,

Which is an bureau subordinated to the international bank, indicated that the organisation received after the April of 2003 6 or 7 offers from imposts to put in Iraq ( Al Kabas Newspaper, 5 February 2005, issue No. 11471 ) .In fact, the addition of international gap to Iraq, particularly the international vow conferences held for subsequent old ages since 2004 boulder clay Stockholm conference in 2008, these conferences promoted foremost the cancellation of Iraq ‘s debts ; this cancellation started from Paris Club enterprise by naming off 90 % of the entire debts amounting to 120 billion dollars in phases.

4-3 The Tourist statute laws in Kurdistan Daniel,2006

We said that the direction in Kurdistan was divided into 2 disposals, whose authorities was interested in the district in a manner that matches the available possibilities, advancing the attractive force of the investing to the district locally and internationally, and making an investing environment to develop local and foreign investings.

4-3-1 the jurisprudence of the Ministry of Municipalities and Tourism ( 15 ) 1992

This jurisprudence consists of 9 articles managing the administrative formation, assignments, and specialisations. Harmonizing to this jurisprudence, the general board of touristry was set up ; this board is related to the same ministry and works harmonizing to the jurisprudence of the general foundation of touristry ( 49 ) in 1977.

4-3-2 the jurisprudence ( 39 ) in 2004 ( the general foundation of touristry )

Daniel,2006

Harmonizing to the determination of the national council of Kurdistan of Iraq, the council issued on 28/9/2004 the jurisprudence ( 39 ) as a jurisprudence of the general foundation of touristry in Kurdistan district. This jurisprudence defined the general foundation of touristry in Kurdistan as a legal personality, independent administratively and financially, and related straight to the Council of Ministers. This foundation aims at ( : Article ( 2 ) of Tourism General Establishment in Kurdistan Act no. 39 of twelvemonth 2004 )

1. Promoting touristry as it is one of the national wealth beginnings.

2. Expanding touristry in the district, taking attention of tourer countries and puting them.

3. Raising the tourist criterion of the tourer public-service corporations in the district.

4. Developing the tourer motion in the district.

4-3-3 Privileges and freedoms Daniel,2006

The jurisprudence granted the undertakings and tourer public-service corporations privileges and freedoms which are:

1. It exempted the foundation from all the fees excepting the imposts responsibilities on nutrient substances and drinks imported by the foundation.

2. It granted the foundation the authorization to call hotels and tourer constitutions.

4-4 The Tourist direction ( The ministry of touristry in Kurdistan )[ 2 ]

We antecedently discussed in the former articles the graduation of publishing Torahs and statute laws refering touristry in Kurdistan ; since some statute law were related to what was issued once by the Iraqi authorities, and particularly before giving statute laws refering Kurdistan which were given in turn by the authorities of Kurdistan district. In fact, the existent beginning of the touristry section ‘s construction in Kurdistan was with the jurisprudence ( 39 ) in 2004.

A. The ministry of touristry in Kurdistan:

After the development of the governmental direction in Kurdistan and the formation of the Council of Ministers on 21/1/2006, a ministry of touristry was formed on 7/5/2007 refering development and detecting anything pertinent to tourism issues in Kurdistan, this ministry aims to accomplish the followers:

1 ) Promoting touristry as it is one of the wealth and national income of import beginnings particularly that the internal touristry is one of the income constituents in Kurdistan as it is the most of import country and tourer site in Iraq, particularly the summer tourer.

2 ) Taking attention of tourer parts and puting them for tourer intents harmonizing to instructions to ease and advance touristry in conformance with local Torahs or in conformity with the investing jurisprudence ( 4 ) in 2006 which is managed by the investing board.

3 ) Developing tourist motion culturally and by media through puting up festivals and conferences in order to pull as many tourers as possible.

4 ) Raising the tourist criterion of the tourer public-service corporations through observation and hunt.

5 ) Oversing anything pertinent to antiquities like seeking, digging and museums through one of the of import board of directorss ( the general board of directors of antiquities ) .

6 ) Coordination and observation with the educational ministries to fix and develop the tourer cells.

7 ) Oversing some tourer countries which have been related straight to the ministry like the section of Sami Abdurrahman Park.

8 ) Fixing charts and oversing them in coordination with the investors and the related ministries like the ministry of municipalities.

B. The information of the ministry and its fiscal supplies:

The ministry is related straight to the Cabinet, headed by a curate, and consists of a figure of touristry general board of directorss in the current states of the district which are Arbil, Alsuleimania, and Duhok. Besides, this ministry has a figure of specialised board of directorss which are related to the curate and organize the work of the ministry with all related sections.

As to the supplies of the ministry, it is granted fiscal allotments through the one-year program of the district, particularly the strategic undertakings, or through fees and net incomes resulted from the activities of the ministry, leasing out lands and tourer public-service corporations, in add-on to the gifts granted to the ministry.

The appendix ( a ) refers to the organisational construction of the ministry, whereas the appendix ( a ) first refers to the organisational construction of the general board of directors of touristry in Arbil, 2nd refers to the organisational construction of the general board of directors of touristry in Alsuleimania, 3rd refers to the organisational construction of the general board of directors of touristry in Duhok, 4th refers to the organisational construction of the general board of directors of antiquities.

C. Preparing and developing touristed cells:

Through planning and observation directorate the ministry supervises the readying of tourer cells through puting up specialised classs for the ministry employees and the tourer cells in all tourer public-service corporations in the full district. For this intent, the ministry sent a figure of employees, as a first phase, to Jordan and Lebanon for analyzing and preparation.

D. Observations about the construction of the ministry and its work:

Through analyzing the construction of the ministry, its responsibilities, and the work achieved by it, we observe the followers:

1 ) It seems that the construction of the ministry has been prepared rapidly and temporarily in a manner depended on spread outing the construction of the abolished general foundation of touristry.

2 ) There is no particular section for observation and seeking the tourer public-service corporations, but this of import responsibility is entrusted to the board of directors of bear downing and observation.

3 ) There is no section in charge of fixing and developing the tourer cells, particularly that all tourer public-service corporations are enduring a terrible deficit of trained and qualified tourer cells due to the fact that there are n’t coordinated colleges and tourer institutes, excepting the tourer institute in Arbeil that graduates tourist cells with a sheepskin of touristry after the preparatory phase.

4 ) The jurisprudence of the ministry construction did n’t include any indicant to the issue of the tourer companies, the mode of forming their work, and stipulating their ends accurately.

5 ) There are no specialised sections like festivals, conferences or winter touristry but the subject is still a general thought.

7 ) Through analyzing the cells of the current ministry we observe that there is a terrible deficit of qualified and trained tourer cells. It ‘s sufficient to bespeak that there are no employees in the ministry and at the general managers level or lower which are alumnuss of colleges or tourer institutes and these cells may be slightly far from touristry.

8 ) The stumbling of media activity, since the lone magazine published by the ministry is n’t published on a regular basis. Besides, there are n’t tourist/heritage festivals, taking into consideration that the ministry is freshly organized and enduring a terrible deficit of necessary fiscal supplies.

9 ) Although the ministry is freshly formed, it fulfilled some of import accomplishments like publishing the categorization of hotels and tourer constitutions in Kurdistan, in add-on to reasoning a figure of understandings and protocols with international tourer sections, of which will impact subsequently the development of the tourer activity in the district, with mention to the issue of preparation and fixing cells of the ministry.

4-5The investing board Saleh.2006

Harmonizing to the article ( 10 ) in the jurisprudence, an investing board was formed as a legal personality, independent financially and administratively, headed by a curate, and related to the undermentioned sections:

1. The section of surveies and information.

2. The section of advancing, measuring, and approving undertakings.

3. The section of administrative and legal personal businesss.

4-5.1The highest council of investing Saleh.2006

Harmonizing to the article ( 14 ) , the highest council of investing was formed of the Prime Minister, his deputy, and curates of finance, economic system, trade, municipalities, planning, agribusiness, industry, and head of the investing board. Later, the curate of touristry was added after the council was formed.

4-5-2 Governments of the council Saleh.2006

1. Making policies and schemes related to the investing.

2. Approving programs and plans of the activities of the board in the model of the general program.

3. Analyzing the fiscal centre of the board.

4. Approving to do loans and fiducial installations.

5. Puting up an order to detect and measure the public presentation of the foreign investings.

4.6 TOURISM IN A CHANGING WORLD[ 3 ]

Tourism in the 21st century must expect a hereafter marked by altering planetary relationships and social constructions, technological inventions, and turning spacial consciousness and environmental concern. Major displacements in the nature and graduated table of touristry are already in grounds as the industry struggles to react to a scope of forces at work. Change and the alteration agents involved are powerful and positive forces if harnessed constructively. Rather than opposing alteration, or simply accepting and suiting alteration, the touristry industry must pull off alteration to its advantage and that of the environment which nurtures it. Endorsement and application of the construct of sustainability and of best-practice environmental direction offer obliging grounds of how alteration can be harnessed to lend towards the accomplishment of environmental excellence. Although touristry flourishes best in conditions of peace, prosperity, freedom and security, perturbation to these conditions is to be expected. The industry response must be sufficiently resilient to bring forth chances for the growing of touristry in maintaining with the kineticss of a changing universe and increasing concern for ecologically sustainable development. ISince the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, force per unit area has grown for the touristry industry to raise its environmental public presentation in common with other economic sectors, and to work towards ecologically sustainable signifiers of touristry development. At the same clip, contrivers and developers seeking to make hearty scenes for tourers into the following century must expect a universe influenced by a new and bewildering array of forces, many of which are hard to foretell. Give such uncertainness, the challenge is to prosecute touristry growing in a mode resilient plenty to react positively to a altering planetary environment and social construction, while staying compatible with the rules and pattern of ecologically sustainable development

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