1.1 Background of survey
Tourism is the activities of individuals going to and remaining in topographic points outside their usual environment for non more than one back-to-back twelvemonth for leisure, concern and other intents. In twenty-first century, travel is a common thing for people, but in the past people hard to go from topographic point to topographic point because deficiency of transit and engineering. Travel defines as people traveling from one topographic point to another.
Peoples travel because of pull and push factor, push and pull factor are influence by tonss of factors such as economic, societal, clime, geographical feature and etc. spacial motion is really of import and deserving our attending, it concentrating on tourer bring forthing countries and tourer receive countries every bit good as the theodolite path between its. To make so, I have adopted Leiper ‘s theoretical account, which was suggested in 1979 and adapted in 1995 ( Figure 1 ) .
Tourist flow is a flows or spacial interaction between topographic points, with the finish country incorporating a excess of a trade good and the bring forthing country holding a demand for a trade good. It influenced by a assortment of push and pull factors.
Batu Ferringhi located on the northern seashore of Penang, Malaysia. This topographic point is chosen as one of the attractive force topographic points in Penang because of the flaxen beach and luxury resort. The lone entryway by land to travel to Batu Ferringhi is the narrow mountain ‘s route.
Penang Hill or poignantly known by locals as “ Bukit Bendara ” , is one of the lone cool topographic points to see in Penang. A hill with lift of about 833 m ( 2723 foot ) has proved that it is one of the chief attractive forces non merely to the alien but besides locals.
The survey of tourer flows can be really of import because by understanding the travel motion, authorities or the private sector can make a new selling strategic to pull more tourers. By analyzing the geographic features of go outing tourer, it can uncover the possible market, such as ecotourism, heritage touristry and etc.
- What is the tourer form?
- What are the most celebrated attractive force topographic points in Penang?
- Where is the most of the tourer semen from?
- What is the tourer flow of Batu Ferringhi and Penang Hill
1.4 Study Methology
Phase 1: Preliminary Phase
On this phase, survey background and the range of survey will be written down ; end and research ‘s aim will be set up so that it can do the research way clearer beside that literature reappraisal and the significance of the research will be written down. Survey questionnaires will be designated in this phase. ( Refer to calculate 2 )
Phase 2: The Data Collection
The method usage in the research will be quantitative so that more information from the tourers will be acquiring by behavior study questionnaire. The information aggregation will be spliting into two, primary and secondary. For primary informations aggregation, study and interview will be conduct so that can cognize more about tourer travel form, I besides will interview with the stables marketer or store in Batu Ferringhi and Penang hill. For secondary, information will be get from books, diaries and cyberspace. ( Refer to calculate 2 )
Phase 3: Analysis and Synthesis
On the phase, the study questionnaire will be compile and utilizing the SPSS ( the statistics package ) to make the graph or statistics. Beside that, the tourer flows web in Penang will be created. ( Refer to calculate 2 )
Phase 4: Recomendation
In this phase, the recommendation how to better the touristry in Batu Ferringhi and Penang hill, how to work out the impact of tourer flows. So that, the touristry is Batu Ferringhi and Penang hill will non confront the diminution phase or over crowded in one topographic point. ( Refer to calculate 2 )
The end of this survey is to place the tourer motion forms and to work out the impact influence by tourer flows.
1.6 Study Aims
The major aims that will be indentified are:
- To indentify the travel form of tourer in Batu Ferringhi and Penang Hill
- To indentify which state tourer come to Batu Ferringhi and Penang Hill
- To indentify the major influences of tourer motion in Batu Ferringhi and Penang Hill
- The figure of tourer traveling to Batu Ferringhi and Penang hill
- The development in Batu Ferringhi and Penang hill will be addition.
- Tonss of tourer coming from Europe state and Middle East.
1.8 Significance of survey
The significances of the research for the touristry section and the private sector are they can utilize the research as mention so that the can understand the tourer flows in Penang beside that, they can implement new marketing strategic to acquire more net income.other than that, by cognizing the tourer form, authorities can turn up more resources to the topographic point.
By making the research, a statistic study will be written out, it will profit to future research worker to carry on the same research. The research besides will assist the developer to develop the topographic point after they review the statistic.
1.9 Scope of survey
The two major barriers are clip and seasonal.Time is a barrier for my research although I have limited clip to finish it because need to analyse the study and happening mention beginnings. Tourism is a seasonal so the research will non accurate when the clip goes by so clip direction really of import.
1.10 Study country
The survey country chosen for my research is Batu Ferringhi and Penang hill. Batu Ferringhi besides called as the alien ‘s stone is a strip of beaches on the northern seashore of Penang.The merely manner to travel up is the narrow mountain route, there are two entryway one is from Tanjung Bunga and another one is from Teluk Bahang. Batu Ferringhi besides is one of the tourer attractive force topographic point in Malaysia, a batch of foreigner tourer like to remain at here, on top of the hill besides got a batch of concatenation hotels group illustration Shangri la hotel group, holidays hostel and Parkroyal hotel.
Other than that, there besides have a batch of transit company, they ever stand by to pick up the invitee spell to down town. Beside that there besides have a batch of keepsake store so that the tourer can purchase keepsakes to their friends and relations. Everyday there besides have dark market, the most particular tendencies in the dark market is dickering. Batu Ferringhi is high tourers flows country in Malaysia because of the environments and the people are hospitality.The high tourer flow besides give positive and negative impact to the topographic point such as pollution, traffic congestion, addition in monetary value and etc. When extremum season, Batu Ferringhi will over crowded and is a chief issue for the local authorities.
Another topographic point chosen is Penang hill, Penang Hill is the oldest hill station in Malaysia. It comprises a hilly granite mass in the center of Penang Island making an lift of 833 metres ( 2723 foot ) at Western Hill. Penang hill besides is the lone cool topographic point in Penang and it is celebrated non merely for aliens but locals. There are three manner traveling up to Penang hill, by the funicular train, by landrover and by boosting.
2.0 Literature Review
Tourist flows are a signifier of spacial interaction between two countries, with the finish country incorporating a excess of a trade good illustration tourer attractive force and the bring forthing country holding a shortage or demand for that trade good ( Tourism and cordial reception Geography ) . Tourist flows do non happen indiscriminately but follow certain regulations and are influenced by a assortment of push and pull factors.
- Push factors are chiefly concerned with the phase of economic development in the generating are and will include such factors as degrees of richness, mobility and vacations entitlement.Often, excessively, an advanced phase of economic development will non merely give the population the agencies to prosecute in touristry but the force per unit areas of life will supply the ‘push ‘ to make so.An unfavourable clime will besides supply a strong drift to go.
- Pull factors include handiness and the attractive forces and comfortss of the finish country. The comparative cost of the visit is besides of import, as is the effectivity of selling and publicity.
From a geographical point of position touristry consists of three major constituents which are ; foremost, the topographic points of beginning of tourer, or bring forthing countries ; second, the tourer finishs themselves, or having country and eventually the paths travelled between these two sets of locations, or theodolite paths ( Leiper 1995 ) .These constituents are set within differing economic, environmental and societal contexts. This simple theoretical account is illustrated in figure 3.
- Tourist bring forthing country represent the places of tourer, where journeys begin and end.the cardinal issues to analyze in tourer bring forthing countries are the characteristics that stimulate demand for the touristry and will include the geographical location of an country every bit good as its socioeconomic and demographic characteristic.These countries represent the chief tourer markets in the universe and of course plenty, the major selling maps of the tourer industry are found here such as tour operation, travel retailing.
- Tourist having countries attract tourers to remain temporarily and will hold characteristics and attractive forces that may non be found in the generating country. The tourer industry attempt located in this countries will consist the attractive forces, adjustment, retailing and service maps, amusement and diversion installations.In our position, tourer finish countries are the most of import portion of the touristry system, non merely pulling the tourer and therefore stimulating the system but besides where the impacts of touristry occur and hence where the sustainable planning and direction of touristry is so of import.
- Transit path nexus these two types of countries and are a cardinal elements in the system as their effectivity and characteristic form the volume and way of tourer flows. Transit path besides represent the transit constituent of the tourer industry.
There are three different paths from topographic point of lasting abode to tourist path, refer to calculate one, tourer can take their path to the finish, entree path mean direct entree to the chief finish every bit same as return paths.For diversion path, the tourer make usage of the assorted tourer installations along the manner to the finish.Some of the tourer merely utilize the diversion path for portion of the journey, they do n’t hold chief end or finish. There are three paths for the tourer to come to Penang, there are H2O, air and land conveyance but for Batu Ferringhi, it merely can travel by land because no 1 is supplying the air and land conveyance for the tourer.
This impression is developed in Campbell ‘s ( 1967 ) theoretical account which portrays different forms of motion off from an urban Centre ( Figure 5 ) . Campbell distinguishes between assorted groups on the BASIC of the comparative importance of the travel and stay constituents of their trip.for the ‘recreationist ‘ the recreational activity itself is the chief component while for the vacationer the journey as such constitutes the chief activity of the trip, with a figure of way stations being made on a unit of ammunition trip off from the metropolis.An intermediate group, the recreational vacationer, is shown to do side trips from some regional base. Harmonizing to figure 5, recreational travel is scattered radically from the metropolis whereas ‘vacation ‘ travel is basically additive and main road oriented, with ‘recretional vacational ‘travel affecting elements of both Campbell ‘s work. While the constructs of these different types of travel is utile for analysing tourer flow forms there are clearly semantic jobs in curtailing the term ‘tourist ‘ or ‘vacationist ‘ to person whose primary involvement is ‘invariably in sightseeing and going ‘ .
Beginning from: redrawn from Campbell ( 1967 )
In Miossec ‘s theoretical account ( Figure 6 ) , the beginning or nucleus is surrounded by four major belts or zones and travel motivations, agencies and costs change every bit good ( Sector 1 ) .In the existent universe these theoretical habitue concentric zones are capable to alteration by ‘position distortion ‘ ( low cost of life, favourable clime, historic links ) which extend the belts and the ‘negative ‘ 1s ( basically political ) which compress them ( sector 2amd 3 ) .These positive and negative distortion are non independent.More over, in world a series of nucleus exists giving rise to concurrent spacial demand ( sector 4 ) . Miossec besides attempts to integrate perceptual experience of this infinite in his theoretical account, although the conventional representation of this is non peculiarly clear.In general.knowledge of finish diminutions with distance but there may be certain points of mention or redolent names so that the person ‘s mental map of the tourer infinite has both homocentric and sectoral constrains.Miossec besides suggests that the quality of the image will depend on the socio-political lingual environment of the point of going and reaching.
Beginning: After Thurot ( 1980 )
Four wide tourer finish types are identified by Lubdgren in this manner ( figure 10 ) :
- Centrally located metropolitan finish which have high volume of mutual traffic and map both as a bring forthing country and a major finish. These include high order metropolitan Centres good integrated into the international and transcontinental conveyance webs.
- Peripheral urban finish, which have smaller populations, a less of import cardinal topographic point map and which tend to hold a net influx of tourers
- Peripheral rural finishs, which are less nodal in character, depending upon a geographically more extended environment which draws visitants through a combination of landscape characteristic. As the population of such countries is frequently little and spread, a strong net influx normally consequences.
- Natural environment finishs which are normally located at long distances from the bring forthing countries really sparsely populated and frequently capable to rigorous direction policies.
3.0 Research methodological analysis
In this chapter, processs or method used to carry on research will be set up ; there are two types of research methodological analysiss, these two types of methodological analysiss are quantitative and qualitative. During the research, quantitative will be used, quantitative research is to find the relationship between one thing ( an independent variable ) and another ( a dependant or result variable ) in a population. As for research design, descriptive research will be usage in the research, it attempts to depict and explicate conditions of the present by utilizing many topics and questionnaires to to the full depict a phenomenon.
3.2 Data aggregation
3.2.1 Primary informations
The primary informations are informations which are being collected by the research worker for that specific intent of replying the job in the research. For this research, questionnaires will be distributed to acquire information or reply after compile will identify in to SPSS ( the statistic package ) . Statistic and graph will be bill of exchange.
The secondary information is being obtained by the literature survey, books and the articles from the cyberspace beginning.
3.3 Questionnaire method
A questionnaire is defined as a signifier that people fill out used to obtain demographic and positions and involvements of those questioned ( Brehob 2001 ) .Questionnaires is usage in this research to acquire more information and to acquire feed back from the people, questionnaire encompassed of a series of inquiries for the intent of garnering informations or information from potentially a big figure of respondents. Below are the advantages of utilizing questionnaire method:
- The responses are gathered in a standardised manner, so questionnaires are more nonsubjective, surely more so than interviews.
- By and large it is comparatively speedy to roll up information utilizing a questionnaire
- Potentially information can be collected from a big part of a group.
These are the few stairss taken to plan questionnaire for thesis intent ( dspace.fsktm.um.edu.my ) :
- Aims of the study are defined
- Determined the sampling group
- Designed the questionnaire by making the inquiries
- Administered the questionnaire
- Consequences readings
3.3.1 Questionnaire design
A well designed questionnaire is of import, linguistic communication and utilizing propel sentence to build questionnaire must be taken good beside that agreement of the inquiry besides need be in right flows. The sentence or inquiry utilizing must be easy to understand and the words must be clear. The research questionnaire will be at appendix 1 and 2.
In planing the questionnaire, the inquiry that inside the study questionnaire ca n’t be excessively complicated and direct inquiry needed to ease the letter writers. On questionnaire consist of 16 inquiries. The questionnaire of this research contains of portion A, Part B, Part C and Part D. The questionnaire divides into bomber subject because to allow the letter writers more understand about the inquiry and it look more systematic. The questionnaire will be at appendix 1 and 2.
Layout is really of import because first feeling when the letter writers see the questionnaire is the formation of the inquiry, the layout must be attractive plenty to pull the letter writers. Other than that, the logical of sequence of the inquiry besides really of import, same sort of inquiry demand to group together. ( Refer to Appendix 1 and 2 )
3.3.4 Questionnaire Distribution
The study questionnaire were distributed to respondents manually, mean that, a squad of people will near them. For Dissertation lower limit of 150 letter writers needed to finish the study. Those questionnaires will administer in Batu Ferringhi and Penang hill but non all of the questionnaire distributed will returned with full of engagement because some of them non truly interested with the subject or possibly they have limited cognition about the subject and there where no any wages or gift for them after they finish the questionnaire
The aim of administering questionnaire is to cognizing the tourer flows in two Areas, there are Batu Ferringhi and Penang Hill beside that besides can cognize what is the tourist sentiment and suggestion.
3.3.5 Software Development Methodology
After roll uping all the consequence from the questionnaire, the consequence will identify in into the SPSS ( the statistic package ) after that statistic and graph will be drawn out. In the Statistic and graph, it can find that the figure of tourer flow and which state tourer most frequently come to see those topographic points.
This research is discussed about the tourer flows in Batu ferringhi and Penang hill.