Conquistador: a conqueror, especially one of the 16th-century Spanish soldiers who defeated the Indian civilizations of Mexico, Central America, or Peru.

Settler: (pioneer, colonist, colonial) a person who has migrated to a less occupied area and established permanent residence there, often to colonize the area. Settlers are generally people who take up residence on land and cultivate it, as opposed to nomads.

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Plantation: a colonial settlement.

Triangular trade: a trade between three ports or regions ->

Africa sent slaves to the Americas

The Americas sent sugar, tobacco and cotton to Europe.

Europe sent textile, rum and manufactured goods to Africa.

Pocahontas: Pocahontas is a Native American woman who saved the life of Captain John Smith, a colonial leader, who had been captured by Powhatan’s warriors; she was twelve at that time. She helped try to maintain peace between the two belligerents but was later captured, baptized, named Rebecca, and then married to John Rolfe.

John Rolfe: John Rolfe was one of the early English settlers of North America. He is credited with the first successful cultivation of tobacco as an export crop in the Colony of Virginia and is known as the husband of Pocahontas.

John Smith: John Smith was an English colonial governor who was elected president of the council and governor of the Virginia colony where the Pocahontas episode took place.

Virginia Company: English trading company chartered by King James I in 1606 to colonize the eastern coast of North America.

Thanksgiving: is November 29th, 1623 when the Indians gave food to the Pilgrims and they shared a large meal. Today, it has become a holiday.

Algonquin: tribe of Native American people inhabiting the Ottawa River valley of Quebec and Ontario.

Joint stock Company: a business whose capital is held in transferable shares of stock by its joint owners.

Mayflower Compact: document signed by 41 male passengers on the Mayflower before landing at Plymouth. William Bradford and others drafted the compact to bind the group into a political body and pledge members to abide by any laws that would be established, in case some members might leave their own colonies.

Puritan: a member of a group of English Protestants who in the 16th and 17th centuries advocated strict religious discipline along with simplification of the ceremonies and creeds of the Church of England.


1) When and why did Spanish settlers go to the Americas? What were the effects of Spanish conquest?

The Spanish colonization of the Americas began with their discovery in 1492 by Christopher Columbus. The Spanish settlers had gone there to find another route to the Far East and when he arrived to the Caribbean, he quickly saw the opportunity to extract riches from the new land.

The Spanish conquest transformed the Old World. It brought new foods; potatoes, corn, vanilla and such foods were introduced to Europe and changed the European diet. It brought new animals which created a new natural environment with animals eating many native plants. A new labor force was also introduced: enslavement. Ten to fifteen million Africans were shipped to the Americas for 200 years.

2) English Colonies

James River

New York

St. Lawrence River


Great Lakes


Ohio River


Mississippi River


Appalachian Mountains

3) French Territories

French, Spanish and English territories.



When and why did settlers first arrive?

1620. The settlers are called Pilgrims. They fled their country to preserve their religion and establish a new colony.

1607. The Virginia Company of London sent an expedition to establish a settlement in the Virginia colony.

What problems were faced?

Storms, disease, uncertain relations with the local Native Americans, finding food and shelter.

Swampy area, isolated from hunting animals, mosquitoes, saltwater poisoning.

How were they overcome?

By building houses, stealing from the local tribe and attend to personal hygiene at the beach.

They sailed back to London and came back with additional supplies.

Describe the economies and governments.

11 members of the council govern the settlement

4) Compare Jamestown and Plymouth colonies

Sum up the story of Pocahontas

Pocahontas is a Native American woman who saved the life of Captain John Smith, a colonial leader, who had been captured by Powhatan’s warriors; she was twelve at that time. She helped try to maintain peace between the two belligerents but was later captured, baptized, named Rebecca, and then married to John Rolfe.

Describe the first Thanksgiving

In November 1621, the Pilgrims sat down to eat together and to give thanks to God for helping them to survive the challenges of their first year in America. They were joined at their feast by local Amerindians who had shared corn with them and shown them the best places to catch fish.

5) Compare 3 Native American tribes; and locate them on the map.



Kootenai (modern)


A head “Sachem” presided over a number of other sachems. Each community had authority over one territory. Marriage was like today.

Members of the noble class can only marry members of the lowest ranking class.

At first signs of maturity, young boys and girls were taken to the wilderness to await a meeting with their spirit. Accompanied by doctors.


Semi sedentary, they ate corn and fish. Men and women had specific tasks. Close to nature, followed ancestors’ footsteps.

Farmers. Chief was like a living God. When he died his house was burned and his wife and family members were killed to join him.

Semi-Nomadic. They were not agriculturists, they survived on hunting and fishing


Families gathered together in the spring to fish, in early winter to hunt and in the summer they separated to cultivate individual planting fields.

Commoners are responsible for the farming, hunting, and gathering of wild fruits and vegetables. Nobles are responsible for the decisions of the tribe etc.

The government gives them money to pay for their needs.


They had a harmonious spiritual relationship between the people and the environment

Sun worshipers; they build mounds which were used for many things such as religious meetings, rituals…

They are Christian.

6) Compare native American and European settlers lifestyle

Native Americans

European settlers


Non “written” religion with specific founders. Different religions depending on the tribe, they didn’t disagree with each other. Some are polytheist. Religion led their way of life (hunting etc.)

Diverse forms of Christianity were practiced depending on the Colonials; they did not agree at all. They were all monotheist.


Lived with no rules or laws: freedom. Both: based on the principle of kinship. Men are considered “the stronger” sex

Lived in a society based upon the constraints of tyranny. Both: based on the principle of kinship. Men are considered “the stronger” sex


Victims of invasions, their lands and their populations decreased radically. Both: Adapted environment to their needs

They came and settled in as they pleased as if the land was theirs. More devastating effect Both: adapted environment to their needs

Perception of each other

They saw the English as invaders, they were sometimes violent and other times not. Depending on the settlers, they ignored them, fought with them, or negotiated with them.

Saw Native Americans’ religions as superstition. They saw them as barbaric individuals. They were afraid of them at first. They saw them as inferior.


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