A metropolis of dreams, chances and glamor, that ‘s how population inflow perceives Mumbai. But the existent kernel of this metropolis lies in the age old history of it. Mumbai has a dramatic, historical and political background which forms the strong foundation of the metropolis that it is today. The series of invasions which metropolis underwent since get downing plays a important function in its development. It ever carried footmarks of the water under the bridges in front with it. Every event left an imprint of its ain over the metropolis, doing and determining it otherwise than earlier.
Assorted Hindu and Muslim swayers ruled the metropolis which influenced the metropolis ‘s planning but the British epoch was the most critical period in Mumbai ‘s history. Not merely Mumbai but many other topographic points across India were altered in footings of architecture, planning and life style. Traces of the same can still be found in the signifier of heritage edifices in south Mumbai. The outstanding illustrations are Victoria Terminus, Gateway of India, Mumbai University, Bandra station, etc. South Mumbai, since the beginning was the commercial nucleus of the metropolis. On the other manus, suburbs, which were planned to suit the turning population of south Mumbai, chiefly contained residential countries. The geographical location and a series of renewals are two of the grounds behind the metropolis ‘s additive development. Today, the Mumbai city is one of the biggest cities and the fiscal capital of India.
The Western Suburbs
As it has been mentioned before, Western Suburbs are portion of Mumbai ‘s Suburban District. It includes some of the really popular countries of the metropolis, like Bandra, Vile Parle, Andheri, Goregaon, Malad, Borivali, etc. The humdrum of the metropolis had to be altered and there was a demand to decentralize the commercial countries of south Mumbai. It was indispensable to develop both the metropolis & A ; the suburbs to be self sufficient and have a perfect balance of commercial and residential zones. Soon, this scheme was adopted and implemented consequently. Bandra Kurla Complex ( BKC ) was the first major milepost achieved in this decentralization procedure. The complex lies on the reclaimed land which connects Kurla ( an eastern suburb ) to Bandra and Santacruz ( western suburbs ) . The complex shelters some of import edifices such as National Stock Exchange, Asian Heart Institute, Citibank, etc. which add to the prestigiousness of the country. Therefore, the motivation of decongesting the commercial concentration in south Mumbai was efficaciously served. A similar commercial composite ( popularly known as SEEPZ ) was developed in the western suburb of Andheri. It is one of the largest Information technology composite in Mumbai. After Andheri, Malad is the 2nd largest IT hub in Mumbai. Thus, commercial Centres were added at regular nodes in the western suburbs.
Sanjay Gandhi National Park and Aarey Colony form the lungs of the metropolis and are located in the western suburbs of Borivali and Goregaon severally. They are the lone unfastened infinites left in the metropolis of Mumbai. Sanjay Gandhi National Park is a wildlife sanctuary spreads over 104A km2 of land, being one of the biggest urban Parkss in the universe. Aarey Colony located in the suburb of Goregaon forms the 2nd largest recreational country of Mumbai. It spreads over 16 km2 of land and is known for its scenic landscape and beguiling milieus. It besides houses a well-equipped movie metropolis which includes theaters, entering studios, gardens, lakes and outdoor and indoor shot installations.
Western suburbs have a well developed transit system. It houses both the domestic and international airdromes of Mumbai. Some of the recent substructure and existent estate undertakings have wholly changed the suburban skyline. Due to the decentralization policy, western suburbs have become the most sought after finish for belongings purchasers.
Geography and Climate
Western suburbs are located along the west seashore of India. Mumbai city, along its length is divided in two distinguishable parts ; the southern country ( Mumbai metropolis District ) , which consists of seven islands and Northern country ( Mumbai Suburban District ) , which includes the suburban part. Northern Suburbs are once more divided in two parts, Western Suburbs and Eastern Suburbs. The country of western suburbs is about 370 sq.km. which it constitutes about 85 % of the entire country of the metropolis.
Climate is one more facet which has been influenced by the metropolis ‘s geographical location. Arabian Sea has major part towards tropical clime which the metropolis experiences. It experiences dry tropical clime for eight months and a heavy monsoon over the staying four months.
Water Supply, Electricity and Sewerage
Mumbai, for its H2O supply is dependent on pools and lakes. The metropolis still uses a 100 twelvemonth old H2O supply system. Water is chiefly supplied to the metropolis by lakes viz. Bhatsa, Tansa, Upper Vaitarna, Lower Vaitarna, Vihar and Tulsi. Many of the lakes are situated on an elevated land than the metropolis hence electricity used for pumping is relatively less. Water brought from the lakes is foremost treated and so stored in little reservoirs. There are 23 such reservoirs largely located on hills. Western suburbs receive H2O from reservoirs located at Pali hill, Malad and Powai. Reliance Energy and Tata Power are the lone major providers of electricity to the western suburbs. In the beginning, channelized drains used to merely dispatch the waste in the sea. In the twelvemonth 1880, foremost marine outfall was planned. Mumbai is divided into seven parts for aggregation and disposal of the waste H2O and sewerage. Malad is the chief aggregation point for the western suburbs.
The eccentric history of Mumbai has major part towards the planning, development and growing of the metropolis. Most effectual metropolis development and planning was experienced during the British epoch.
Post independency epoch ( the twelvemonth 1947 ) was important in footings of development of the metropolis. The first development program for Mumbai was prepared in the twelvemonth 1971, which farther got developed in 1991. Though the planning was done for full metropolis bounds, this subdivision will chiefly talk about suburban country.
For land usage categorization, the metropolis is divided in four distinguishable zones as follows,
Due to the inordinate population, the suburban country is preponderantly covered by ‘inhabitable ‘ infinite, which is 75 % of the entire country. Around 5 % & A ; 11.69 % of the entire country is reserved for agribusiness and Industrial zones severally. On the other manus, merely 7 % of the land comes under Forests.
Bandra renewal and Bandra Kurla Complex are two of the major rescued countries of the suburbs whereas Aarey Colony and Sanjay Gandhi national park country the lone recreational countries left in suburbs.
Demographics, City Planning and Population Explosion
Mumbai is one of the top 10 thickly settled metropoliss in the universe. As per projections, by the twelvemonth 2020, Mumbai is expected to replace Tokyo in footings of population. Entire Population of Mumbai is 13.5 million with the denseness every bit high as 24,812 individuals per square kilometers.
Demographics of Suburban Mumbai
Suburbs occupy approx 8.5 million of the entire population of Mumbai of which 2/3rd of the population is occupied by Western Suburbs itself. The most populated western suburbs have an mean denseness of 20,885 persons/sq.km. Bandra, Andheri and Malad are the most populated countries of western suburbs.
Population detonations & A ; its effects
After southern Mumbai, the suburban country, particularly the western suburbs were developed to hold some of the indispensable commercial hubs. Development of commercial zones as mentioned earlier generated ample occupation chances which in bend resulted in population inflow non merely from eastern suburbs and metropolis territory of Mumbai but many other provinces across India. Even though the suburbs were planned to decongest south Mumbai, development of such zones invited undue rabble towards it doing it more populated than what it was planned for. Due to this unplanned migration, shortly there was a demand of increased substructure and life installations. This sudden rise in population led to haphazard planning of the metropolis. Traces of the same can be seen in countries like Bandra, Andheri, Malad and Borivali which have grown organically.
Overpopulation and haphazard growing adversely impact the resources and ecological balance of the metropolis. Environment pollution, epidemics, home ground and resource devastation, planetary heating are some of the jeopardies caused by population roar. Manifestation of these jeopardies is deforestation, decay unfastened infinites, H2O deficit and spread of epidemic in instance of Mumbai. Reasons behind birth of the slums are strongly rooted in population detonation which is far beyond the capacity of current lodging commissariats. Migrants have major part towards development of slums.
As stated before, transit and other accessory countries were planned to congratulate the geometry of the metropolis. Due to metropolis ‘s additive form, railroads became primary manner of transit. Apart from railroads, western suburbs besides have a well developed route web. Two chief main roads, ‘Eastern Express Highway ‘ and ‘Western Express Highway ‘ running along eastern and western seashores of Mumbai are spanned north/south over the metropolis. Western Express Highway ( WEH ) is designed to function western suburbs of the metropolis. S.V.Road and Link Road are the other major roads which run parallel to the WEH. Along with good developed route web, suburbs have efficient coach system, Taxis and Auto Rickshaws are some more options available for transit.
More than 5 million people travel by route everyday still rail is the most used manner of transit. The Western railroad and WEH main road tally parallel to each other from Dahisar in the North to Bandra in the South and the rail path farther continues up to south Mumbai.
The latest discovery in suburbs in footings of substructure undertakings is the Bandra – Worli Sea nexus. The undertaking was designed to cut down the travel distance between Bandra and Worli through a sea nexus. The stage – I of Metro Project is the other substructure undertaking in Mumbai which is presently under building. It is expected to be completed by 2011. It is planned to originate from Versova ( a western suburb ) and terminate at Ghatkopar ( an eastern suburb ) moving as East-West nexus.
Transportation system Problems
Inaccessibility of east-west links was the major cringle hole in Mumbai ‘s transit system. Ringing paths would hold reduced the mean distance that a individual has to go but it ‘s non possible in additive metropolis like Mumbai.
Due to the increased strain on public conveyance and overcrowding, the common adult male prefers to hold private vehicles which add to the route congestion. Roads and Rail paths have already been developed to suit howling demands but still neglect to defy the increasing strain. Many fly-overs and Bridgess have been constructed to ease the flow of traffic in this country. The failure of north-south transit system made it indispensable to hold east-west connectivity which would link the western suburbs to eastern suburbs and other satellite metropoliss of Mumbai. Hence, four such suburban links were developed i.e. Santacruz-Chembur, Andheri- Kurla, Jogeshwari -Vikroli and Goregaon-Mulund. The Goregaon- Mulund is the narrowest ( 9m broad ) east-west connexion. The range of widening the path becomes really hard as it passes through the no development zone of Aarey settlement. It is now proposed to hold a monorail over this stretch which would be an eco-friendly agencies of conveyance.
Western Suburbs, which were planned to house turning demands of south Mumbai, served the intent for a considerable period. When it was developed in footings of substructure and home ground, it attracted migrators from the countries around it. In last few decennaries suburban population has grown uncontrollably, which has resulted in depletion of natural resorts, H2O pollution, slum development, deforestation and congested traffic paths.
Population rush has well influenced planning of the metropolis, Mumbai, which antecedently had batch of green belts and recreational countries is now left with merely 10-15 % of it. Increased demand of habitable country has led to deforestation, increased land monetary values and impetus of industrial and agribusiness zones towards the outskirts of the metropolis. Excessive development has greatly reduced the sum of unfastened infinites in the metropolis. Rise in population agencies increased demands. Merely after this population roar, suburbs started confronting jobs like burden sloughing, H2O deficit, crowded trains etc. Last twelvemonth suburbs experience up to 30 % cut down in H2O supply and the fact is natural resources available to the suburbs are now on the brink of being consumed to its capacity. Overcrowding of transit motivated people to go by private vehicles in order to salvage clip, this resulted in engorged metropolis paths and air pollution. Increased population and belongings monetary values are two of the grounds why some of the premier suburban countries have slums today. Insufficient hygiene & A ; energy services inspire some inhabitants for illegal and anti societal activities. Inaccessibility of planned drainage system is doing dispersion of waste H2O in unfastened metropolis countries. This is the major ground behind pollution of H2O reservoirs and air.
Analysis of selected site
Sing the escalated land monetary values and howling demands, it is necessary to hold a compact metropolis planning. Horizontal spread of the reinforced signifier is non the solution that can provide to the rate at which population is turning. In fact, in western suburbs, there is no range for horizontal development due to miss of infinite. A perpendicular, self sufficient entity which holds lodging, offices, comfortss and leisure will non merely run into the turning demands but aid work out the issue of traffic congestion and deficiency of diversion by doing more of land country available for it.
The country shortlisted for the design proposal is Bandra ( besides known as the queen of Mumbai ‘s suburbs ) . The ground for taking this country is its varied construction in footings of its widely distributed civilization, history and demographics. On one manus there are lavish eating houses, saloons and shopping countries of the metropolis and on the other are dumbly populated slums. This clearly exemplifies the diverse construction of Bandra. The site shortlisted is abutted by the Western Express Highway on the South and the S.V. Road on the West, which are the major arterial roads. It is located around the Bandra railroad station, a heritage construction and one of the busiest railroad Stationss on the Western and Harbour webs. The country is dumbly populated and randomly planned. It includes residential edifices, administrative offices, markets, slums, a flop terminal, a cab base, a lake and a mosque.
The site admeasures 800m ten 1000m. The population denseness in this country is about 32000 per sq. kilometer. There are jobs aplenty in this heavy country. Most of the edifices here are low-life edifices and are in a bedraggled province while many others are under fixs. The unfastened infinites between two residential edifices are really less and make non supply optimal visible radiation and airing. The country around the mosque is extremely congested. There is scarceness of infinite for the believers and this leads to traffic congestions during supplications as the believers are forced to pray on the streets. Markets have sprung up randomly and have added to the congestion outside the railroad station on either side of the railroad line. The cab and car jinrikisha base is situated on the route bordering the railroad station which makes affairs hard for the commuters.
The engorged country and the crumbling substructure are the major jobs of the occupants of this vicinity. The breadth of arterial roads is non unvarying throughout and is the chief ground for making constrictions. This is a major hinderance to the smooth flow of traffic in the country. It is even more important sing the fact that this country links the metropolis to the suburbs and can take to holds during peak hours. Pedestrian traffic in the country is non organised as pathwaies are non clearly demarcated. Open infinites for diversion are much less when compared to planetary criterions. Green spots in the country are negligible and trees are cut downing by the twenty-four hours. There is no parking batch in the locality. As a consequence, vehicles are parked on the roads which add to the traffic sufferings.
First, the two major roads are widened and unvarying breadth is maintained throughout its stretch. This will guarantee the smooth flow of traffic. For prosaic traffic, pathwaies are clearly demarcated with an mean breadth of 2.40m. The bing foot-over span at the northern terminal of the railroad station is retained and an extra metro is proposed at the southern terminal. Thus, prosaic traffic traveling out of the station will be every bit distributed at both the terminals. The foot-over span and the prosaic metro act as east-west connexions of the country. The coach terminal is proposed approximately 120m to the West of the railroad station. The cab and car jinrikisha base is shifted and has been allocated a 15,000 sq.mt. infinite merely outside the station.
A 20m broad green belt is maintained along the railroad line on either side. This will non merely move as a buffer between the railroad line and edifice but besides make a proviso for future enlargement of the railroads ( which is presently proposed by the Western Railway authorization ) . This will automatically increase the sum of flora in the country and will protect the neighbouring countries from the noise of the passing trains. The bing lake is proposed to be beautified with a promenade and yachting installations. Recreational countries are every bit distributed so as to function all the occupants and represent 15 % of the entire country. The big ball of commercial zone in the south-east of the site constitutes 16 % of the entire country of the site which is wholly justified sing the location.
Second, the country is divided into zones for efficient planning. The south-east corner is identified as an country with good connectivity and has been converted into a commercial zone. The planning is done symmetrically with four sky scrapers which would house all the offices of the country. The commercial zone has four degrees of parking ( a 2 degree dais + 2 degrees of cellar ) . It is in close propinquity to both, the railroad station and the Western Express Highway. Therefore, it is good connected by rail every bit good as route. A parking batch for around 800 autos is located bordering the railroad line on the South and has been connected to the commercial zone via a metro. The mosque has been retained and has been allocated unfastened infinite on the E, maintaining in head that the believers have to confront the West during supplications. Municipal market and a promenade are located right in the bosom of the township.
The belt to the West of S.V. route is a residential zone. A school edifice with a resort area is used to interrupt the humdrum in the profile of residential edifices on this stretch. Residential edifices to the North and E of the lake are planned with the lake as a focal point. A individual standing at the promenade, near the lake, will see the edifice in an ascending position. The edifices of assorted usage are planned in between commercial and residential zones for a smoother passage of land usage.
The substructure of the country is equipped to back up a population of about 34500 and the country of the site is 0.8 sq.km. Hence, the proposal can prolong a population denseness of 43,125/sq.km as against the bing population denseness of 32,000/sq.km. Furthermore, the site selected lies in a extremely commercial country of Bandra and therefore a big ball of the site is dedicated for merely commercial services. If the same planning is implemented in a wholly residential country so it could even prolong a population denseness in the scope of 45,000/sq.km.
The massing of the edifices has been done so as to strike the right balance. The sky-scrapers in the commercial zone in the south-east are diagonally balanced by the residential towers in the north-west. The cardinal country is purposefully designed to hold more unfastened infinites and low-rise edifices. In Mumbai, winds by and large flow from west to east and hence a uninterrupted wall of high-rise constructions is avoided on the western side to ease air current flow. This design solution should ideally be a paradigm for renovation strategies across Western suburbs. Overall, the design solution is proposed, maintaining in head the public involvement and with a long term position.