The Design and Build procurance procedure works on the footing that the Main Contractor is non merely responsible for building, but the design component of a undertaking as good. The degrees of duty and input from the position of the Contractor are far greater than that of the traditional signifier of procurement methods. From the Clients position, Design and Build is comparatively low hazard in footings of clip and cost, but if the Client does non pay peculiar attending to the readying of the papers known as the “ Employers Requirements ” , their outlook in regard of quality can be compromised.
Design and Build is non a new phenomenon, this type of procurance method has been with us since medieval times. Harmonizing to Jeffrey L. Beard et Al ( 2001 ) , when Ictinus and Callicrates built the Parthenon, the maestro builder and maestro Mason provided both a design and build service, to supply one without the other was unknown. Design and Build Contracts have been described as an agreement between a undertaking administration and a client, where the contractor takes full duty for the design and building of a undertaking.
The industrial revolution of the eighteenth Century in Europe and the nineteenth Century in the United States of America brought about the separation of these two key elements of a design and construct contract. This led to the debut of what we know today as the traditional design/bid so construct method of procurance. The design/bid so construct attack to building procurance is where the client engages an designer who in concurrence with a structural applied scientist prepares the design, drawings and specification for a undertaking.
The design complete with drawings and specification are so issued to several contractors for pricing. By and large the contractor with the lowest monetary value is so selected to construct the undertaking, but sometimes this is non ever the instance. Harmonizing to the Haskell Company ( no day of the month ) , “ Cost and clip factors initiated the revival of the maestro builder attack. Since the 1960 ‘s, the per centum of Design-Build undertakings has increased dramatically.
Today, non-residential Design-Build volume represents half of all building in the United States of America. The ground for this addition is simple ; the Design-Build procedure provides a alone set of client advantages non available in any other bringing system ” . Harmonizing to a study prepared by Handscomb ( 2004 ) ; “ Design and physique has shown a steady market incursion in some states. In the United States of America and the United Kingdom, it has grown from less than 10 per centum in the early 1980 ‘s to more than 30 per centum today ” .
Prior to coming to the Middle East part in 2007, I was extensively involved in Design and Build type building undertakings, albeit utilizing the assorted different signifiers of the Design and Build Contract that are in circulation today ; for illustration the Federation Internationale Des Ingenieurs-Conseils ( normally known as “ FIDIC ” ) and the Joint Council Tribunal ( UK ) ( normally known as “ JCT ” ) have published their ain editions of this type of Contract.
The general rule behind all of these contracts is that the Employer has a individual point of contact and that the Design and Build Contractor accepts entire duty for both the design and building of a undertaking. Since geting in the part and holding worked in Oman, Bahrain & A ; the United Arab Emirates, it is apparent that the traditional ( design, command so construct ) type of Construction procurance method is extensively used, with small grounds of the design and construct contract being utilised.
The part is synonymous for mega building undertakings, and could profit from other signifiers of procurance schemes such as design and physique. So why are we non utilizing this bringing method more? Similarly the employers in this part are ill-famed for puting ambitious clip graduated tables for the bringing of their undertakings. From my experience and initial research, it is by and large accepted that the design and construct procurement scheme would assist them salvage both clip and cost and full make full their demands for fast path undertakings.
If the industry and professionals within this part is to better understand the benefits of a design and construct procurement method ( either from a client and/or contractors perspective ) ; so they must acquire a better grasp of the different signifiers of design and construct contracts that are presently in being today, and where they are best used. Furthermore, both the contractor and client besides need to acquire a better grasp of the advantages and disadvantages of the different design and construct contracts if we are to utilize this procurance bringing method more within the Middle East.
Therefore, in this thesis, the author will try to reply some of the inquiries raised before in this debut, peculiarly for those in the Middle part that may be interested at looking for options. In add-on to this, the author will try to supply an penetration into the positions and perceptual experience of other building professional within the part sing the design and construct procurement method. At the terminal of the research it is expected to get at the undermentioned decision:
Design and Build Contracts are non needfully suited for every building undertaking ; each and every undertaking will hold a alone demand. However with instruction ; the industry as a whole in the part could potentially profit from this procurance method. Peoples in the building industry within the part do non like go forthing their comfort zones and are less likely to advance alteration and advanced thoughts which may include the usage of alternate methods of procurance for building undertakings such as design and physique.
There are two chief purposes for this research undertaking. First to place what the benefits of design and construct building procurance method is to us here in the Middle East. Second, to estimate what the overall consensus is on whether there is a hereafter for the design and physiques procurement method here in the Middle East. To compare and contrast the traditional design/bid and so construct type of bringing method with the design and construct method. To critically analyze the benefits of a design and construct building procurance method.
To place the assorted types of the design and construct building procurance methods and place where they are best used. To determine the feelings and attitudes of the building professionals in the Middle East part to the design and construct procurement method and to estimate whether there is a hereafter for this procurance method. The Concise Oxford Dictionary defines research as “ a careful hunt or enquiry ; endeavour to detect new or collate old facts etc. by scientific survey of a topic ; class of critical probe ”
Naoum ( 2007 ) has defined research scheme as “ the manner in which the research aim can be questioned ” . Research schemes can be loosely classified into two groups ; Quantitative research Qualitative research Naoum ( 2007 ) confirms that Quantitative research is “ nonsubjective ” in nature and is used to mensurate how people feel, think or act in a peculiar manner. This research focuses on garnering numerical informations across a group of people. Quantitative research can be used for the undermentioned fortunes.
To roll up factual grounds and analyze the relationship between these facts in order to prove a peculiar theory or hypothesis. To happen facts about a construct, a inquiry or an property. In the context of research, the aim is to prove or verify a theory instead than develop one. Naoum ( 2007 ) besides confirms that Qualitative research is “ subjective ” in nature and can be divided into two chief subcategories ; Exploratory Research – This research method is used when we have a limited sum of cognition about the selected subject.
The interview technique is normally selected as a method of informations aggregation. Attitudinal Research – This research method is used to measure the sentiment, position or the perceptual experience of a individual towards a peculiar topic. This research method seeks out the ‘why ‘ and non ‘how ‘ . This type of research does n’t merely trust on statistics or Numberss, which are the sphere of quantitative research. The research information for this thesis was collected from primary and secondary beginnings supplying both qualitative and quantitative informations.
The primary information was obtained through a questionnaire and the secondary informations through a literature reappraisal. Empirical information was collected in order to compare and contrast the traditional design/bid and so construct procurement methods with the design and build methods of procurance. In add-on to this, empirical information was collected in order to critically analyze the benefits of the design and construct procurement methods and to place where they are best used. The information for the literature reappraisal was obtained from diaries, industry web sites and academic text books.
Any other relevant and/or pertinent information was obtained through the cyberspace. Naoum ( 2007 ) confirms that for a successful literature reappraisal, consideration must be given to the followers: – Knowing the beginnings of information: Designation of the appropriate literature which possibly from primary beginnings ( academic research diaries, theses, studies, and authorities publications ) , and/or secondary beginnings ( text books, trade diaries, newspapers ) , and/or mention ushers ( lexicons, encyclopedia ) . Primary literature is acknowledged as being the most accurate beginning of information.
Understanding how the library plants: Bell ( 1996 ) listed three of import points that you need to bear in head while carry oning a literature research ( How to happen relevant published stuff rapidly, avoid acquiring bogged down, entering information derived from reading ) Note-taking: Dunleavy ( 1988 ) remarks that, when set abouting taking a literature reappraisal, one needs to acquire off from concentrating excessively single-mindedly on what the writer is seeking to state, and alternatively concentrate on what you are seeking to acquire out of a beginning.
Systematically administration of the literature: Align the literature gathered and to register harmonizing to the chapters of the thesis for easiness of future mention. Measuring and composing up the literature reappraisal: Upon reasoning the literature reappraisal, merely so will we be able to critically reexamine the parts of other people work to the capable country. Both primary and secondary literature was reviewed and the appropriate notes and information was consistently kept in a literature file.
Due to the geographical restraints of life in the Sultanate of Oman and the comparatively high cost of going to the United Kingdom which would hold been needed to set about a extended literature reappraisal, the bulk of the literature reappraisal was done via the cyberspace. Here a elaborate hunt of diaries, research studies, newspapers and magazines was carried out to turn up the established information needed to set about this portion of the thesis.
Harmonizing to Naoum ( 2007 ) , questionnaires are ideally suited to the assemblage of mass information and sentiments at a minimum cost. Questionnaires are besides considered to be an first-class method for roll uping both Qualitative and Quantitative informations from respondents. A bill of exchange questionnaire was piloted in order to look into that it worked successfully. The concluding questionnaire consisted of chiefly closed inquiries in order to obtain both qualitative and quantitative informations.
The questionnaire was targeted at the white collar building professionals with within the Middle East. To the maximal extent possible, the questionnaire was sent to a combination of Employers, Developers, Consultants and Main Contractors in order to obtain a wide and balanced position of the job topic. It was besides believed that the questionnaire would let the author to estimate the general perceptual experiences of the building professionals in the Middle East part as to the hereafter of the design and construct procurement method in this part.
The information provided by the respondents in the context of this thesis is considered to be dependable, because it is from a diverse array of building professionals and from different geographical countries within the Middle East. The response rate to the questionnaire was 62 % , hence there was no demand to implement the eventuality program for supplementing the informations collected from th questionnaire with interviews, albeit these interviews would hold been structured around the questionnaire.
As stated above, in position that the response rate to the questionnaire was comparatively high, there was no demand to supplement the informations gathered from the questionnaire with a series of face to confront interviews. Had the response been below 40 % , it was indented to carry on a series of interviews albeit structured around the questionnaire to assist supplement the informations gathered from the questionnaire.
A farther eventuality program for telephone interviews was besides consider in order to supplement the informations collected from the questionnaire. The Interviews were considered to be an first-class manner of supplementing any short autumn in informations had it been necessary. The informations received from the respondents were collated and analysed utilizing the descriptive statistic method. Bar charts and/or histograms have been used to show the informations gathered from the questionnaire.
Each inquiry and/or where necessary a group of inquiries are accompanied with the appropriate narrative and analysis. Walliman ( 2005 ) wrote that informations can be deceptive because it is elusive and passing, In other words, the informations collected from a respondent at any point in clip may merely be representative of a respondents head set on a peculiar twenty-four hours, and at a peculiar minute in clip. If the respondent is once more asked the same inquiry one month subsequently, you may happen their reply different to the reply obtained earlier.
To assist get the better of the pattern of “ selective prejudice ” ( Torgerson ; A ; Torgerson 2003 ) , the questionnaire was sent to a figure of nationalities ( Italian, Gallic, India, Sri Lankan, Bahraini, Omani, Filipino ) . To a big extent, this eradicated the potency for “ selective prejudice ” . Due to the comparatively little Numberss of respondents, the consequences of this thesis may non be a true and accurate contemplation of the building professionals in the Middle East part as a whole.
However, for the intent of reasoning this thesis, the consequences of this study are deemed to be a true representation of the ideas and perceptual experiences of the professionals who live in different geographical countries within the Middle East. In the covering electronic mail and/or missive that accompanied the questionnaire, each of the participants was advised of the nature and/or the intent of my research. Furthermore, the author asked each of participants to obtain the consent of their director to take part in the study if they have any uncertainness whatsoever.
The author besides confirmed in the covering electronic mail that the information provided by the respondents would stay confidential. For the intent of this thesis, “ confidentiality ” is taken to intend that the participant will non be identifiable in any manner by a reader of this thesis. Furthermore, it was made clear to the participants that they could retreat from the study ant any clip and their response would be destroyed consequently.
To understand the construct of a design and construct method of procurance method, this can be better explained by comparing it to a traditional building procurance method. Shapiro Hankinson ; A ; Knutson Law Corporation ( no day of the month ) describes a traditional procurance method as an agreement that involves three parties i. e. the client, the interior decorator and the contractor. The client appoints the interior decorator to fix drawings and specifications.
These contract paperss inclusive of the drawings and specification when complete are issued to assorted contractors for pricing. Normally the lowest priced contractor is appointed to build the undertaking harmonizing to the design programs and specifications. The client warrants the sufficiency of the programs and assumes any liability for defects for them to the contractor. The contractor is responsible for any faulty building and craft, but is non apt for design defects.
The interior decorator is responsible for any design defect, but the interior decorator is non apt for any defect in the building. A more in-depth expression at this type of building procurance method can be found latter in this chapter. In contrast to the traditional signifiers of building procurance, Shapiro Hankinson ; A ; Knutson Law Corporation ( no day of the month ) so describes a design and construct contract as an agreement where the client enters in to a individual understanding by which the design and construct contractor performs both the design and building of the undertaking.
The client sets out their demands in a papers called the employers demands. This papers must clearly put out any public presentation criterions, aesthetic and functional demands for the proposed undertaking. Furthermore, this papers must besides place any specific demands in relation to the undertaking. For a simple edifice with small consideration for aesthetic, the accent of the employer ‘s demands is on the contractor presenting the undertaking at a competitory monetary value and clip.
Where the client has already undertaken a significant sum of the design works, the client may wish to reassign the design duty to the contractor. In some cases, the employer ‘s demands may besides depict the procedure of presenting the undertaking. The employer ‘s demands will necessitate to be a elaborate and concise papers to avoid the possible for any misinterpretations. From clip to clip, the client may qualify in the employers demands that it is the contractors duty for geting land, and for financing the undertaking.
This agreement is frequently referred to as a “ prison guard ” contract. In either a design and physique or prison guard agreement, the contractor ‘s aim is to fulfill the client ‘s public presentation specifications instead than to adhere stiffly to the design professional ‘s programs and specifications. In add-on to this, the contractor remains responsible for any defective craft in building ; the contractor is besides apt for any lacks in design under this agreement.
Again, a more in-depth expression at this type of building procurance method can be found latter in this chapter. Normally there are three distinguishable stages in traditional procurance method which are by and large undertaken in a consecutive and systematic order. These stage are non alone to the traditional procurance method, and can be by and large found in all building procurance methods, albeit in the design and construct type of contract procurance, some of these stages are done at the same time to salvage clip.
Design stage – Here the Client retains the services of a figure of advisers and/or adviser to plan the undertaking and supply cost advise. The advisers will work with the Client to place their demands. These demands will so be developed into conceptual and conventional design and be to the full costed. If the Client so decides that the undertaking is low-cost, so the conceptual and conventional designs will be to the full developed into the concluding stamp paperss.
Offering stage – Here the preferable contractors obtain the stamp paperss and so transport out a broad assortment of undertaking that will enable them to monetary value the plants and these undertakings include inter alia: – determination to tender, undertaking grasp, pre stamp meetings, pretender site visit, obtaining citation from subcontractor and providers, fixing Pretender method statements, fixing the Pretender programme, analyzing the stamp and deliverables, fixing pre stamp wellness ; A ; safety program, fixing Pretender hazard appraisal, fixing pre stamp quality program, prepare estimation, appraisal of preliminaries, stamp adjudication.