This survey is aimed to promote the development of the Environmental Management System ( EMS ) and research the factors in EMS by indentifying the schemes to accomplish EMS-ISO 14001 in hotels of Hong Kong, particularly fiscal schemes. Single instance survey attacks were used to roll up informations from 3 hotels: Island Shangri-La Hong Kong, Hotel Nikko Hong Kong and Inter-Continental Grand Standford. The research worker collected primary informations by questioning staff and secondary information was collected by analyzing related paperss. Dr. Chan found that the examined hotels have similarities and differences in attacks to carry through EMS-ISO 14001. Furthermore, there are four recommend ways for hotels to use EMS-ISO 14001 expeditiously: with a focal point on resources, low cost environmental undertakings, utilizing strategic confederation with assorted green organisations and edifice squad work.
It is surely true that this paper is really utile for heightening a competitory advantage in the long tally of hotel enterprisers and related industries where the green tendency has grown quickly. Application of EMS-ISO 14001 provides assorted chances to take part in environmental preservation ; thereby easing Earth ‘s agony from the continual abuse by worlds. In add-on, the environmental issue has undergone a paradigm displacement of sustainability of touristry selling ( Jamrozy, 2007 ) . Therefore, if hotels apply EMS -ISO 14001, they can remarkably cut down operation costs in term of utilizing H2O, electricity and energy ( Meade & A ; Pringle, 2001 ) and besides increase client satisfaction, particularly in footings of green people. ( Weinstrin, 1998 ) studies that The Island Shangri-La in Hong Kong could salvage costs of about HK $ of 5 million per twelvemonth after using ISO 14001. This is achieved by cut downing paper, H2O and energy use in hotels. In term of client ‘s perceptual experiences, Lee et Al. ( 2010 ) states that a green hotel ‘s image straight affects a invitee ‘s willingness to urge the hotel to others, to pay a premium monetary value and besides re-purchase. However, there is some grounds demoing that engagement in green applications create a lessening in the desire to remain at green hotels ( 3.7 % ) ( Tsai, 2008 ) and the green issue is non the chief factor for doing determinations. Therefore, it is surely true that environmental tools provide more benefit for appliers.
In respects to the rubric, it seems like that it does non stand for the general population in that the paper focuses on merely one size of hotels. It should be indicated which evaluation each hotel has. The Research Department of the Caribbean Tourism Organization ( 2002 ) states that there are many categorization systems such as: Deluxe, Super Deluxe, Deluxe, Moderate, Deluxe First Class, Superior First Class, First Class, Limited Service First Class, Moderate First Class Tourist: Superior Tourist Class, Tourist Class, Moderate Tourist Class. Or one can mention to the AA evaluation system ( British System ) : one star, two star, three star, four star and five star hotels. In add-on, instance survey is conducted in the paper therefore it should be specified in the rubric besides.
The research workers aim to research the factors, schemes and to promote the development of EMS by advancing funding schemes to accomplish EMS system. These purposes are likely related to the inclusion of “ originative funding scheme, ” as the sub-title.
In respects to the sampled hotels, three points of position are explained as follows:
First, it is focused on large concatenation hotels merely. The assorted degrees of other hotels should hold informations collected to clear up that how different size hotels can accomplish ISO 14001 and funding to implement the EMS system. Alternatively, 5 star rated hotels should be addressed in the rubric.
Traveling to roll uping informations, it is of import to stipulate that what the degree or place of staff members and the figure of staff which were interviewed in each of the three hotels. Because of the different degrees one would anticipate to acquire different sorts of informations. For illustration, policy or scheme would be obtained from directors while execution would be provided by operational employees.
Second, the research should bespeak the type of interview which was used, i.e. : structured, semi-structured or an unstructured interview ( Finn, Elliott-White & A ; Walton, 2000, p 75. and Altinay, L. , & A ; Raraskevas, A.. 2008 p.112 ) . Personally, the semi-structured interview should be specified in the paper because each hotel would be interviewed with the same cardinal inquiries.
In term of obtained informations, it seems like that the research worker gets the huge bulk of informations from Nikko hotels. This may be a consequence of a close relationship of the hotels associated with Hong Kong Polytechnic University. It is likely that the paper should be focused the best practice-Nikko and dig into fiscal schemes such as how to obtain financess from each organisations or how to acquire more financess from a funded organisation. As Yin ( 1994 ) in Altinay & A ; Paraskevas ( 2008 ) reveals that one instance survey is suited when the instance good organized in which the context is studied. Furthermore, the dramatis personae survey research workers should intentionally choose the instances that show the extreme or alone manifestation of the studied subjects ( Ridder, Hoon & A ; McCandless, 2009, p. 167 ) and that instance should supply rich information and deepness inside the content. Similarly Nikko Hotel has done good in EMS and funding to back up EMS achievement compared to the two other hotels, and provides a big sum of information taking the research worker can interpret the best manner to accomplish EMS.
Traveling to the consequence, the three contentions will be presented as follows:
First, it seems to be somewhat ill-defined which manner is the best to carry through EMS-ISO 14001 and besides which manner provides the most efficiency in footings of cost, clocking and accomplishment. As a effect of qualitative research, the quantitative method should be applied to mensurate how efficient each is in their ain manner and compared with other assorted standards.
Furthermore, does every hotel achieve successful consequences due to execution of the EMS_iso plan? It might be. In footings of direction theory, there are several cardinal success factors ; such as the vision and policies of executives, green cognition, consciousness of employees and size of companies. Malmborg & A ; Mark-Herbert ( 2010 ) reveal that there are restricting factors for making an EMS-ISO 14001 such as: lacking of resources, authorities policies, costs to keep EMS, and besides employees. Furthermore, they find that stakeholders, clients, NGO groups, fiscal institutes and authorised organisations are impacted by the sustainablity of EMS in the long tally.
Many obstructions are still present in to using EMS in hotels, such as: deficiency of cognition and accomplishments, professional advice, hazard of results, certifiers, limited resources and cost for execution and keeping the plan ( Chan,2008 ) . Therefore, it seems to be impossible for little or average size hotels to use EMS.
Additionally, the inquiry has arisen: does EMS-14001 supply more advantages for hotels? It is due to the fact that some hotels believe that EMS-14001 is dearly-won for them. The cost for EMS-140001 consists of the cost of First enfranchisement ( 3500-7500 a‚¬ ) and Annual enfranchisement audits ( 1500-2500 a‚¬ ) while Eco-labels: European Eco-Label, Green Globe 21 cost for Application/certification ( 1500-3500 a‚¬ ) and Annual rank fee ( 60-1000 a‚¬ ) ( Ayuso, 2006, p 214 ) . Many empirical researches show that EMS can do a waste of clip, budget and employees. Are at that place other environmental tools which are suited for hotels with the recognized system in footings of a client ‘s position? Internationally, there are several environmental instruments using in hotels, such as: codifications of behavior, best environmental patterns, eco-labels, environmental direction systems ( EMSs ) and environmental public presentation indexs. Ayuso ( 2006 ) cites that hotel ‘s directors consider four factors in using an environmental instrument: the expression at which are the drivers, success and failure factors, and cost and benefits. Furthermore, there are three of import positions to see: hotel ‘s fight, stakeholders and clients. In footings of clients, clients and tour operators- demand, it is affectionate that Best patterns, Eco-labels and Environmental direction systems are mentioned by the clients. Therefore, hotelkeepers can see other environmental tools that are suited for them.
In decision, this research provides possible fiscal solutions for using EMS to hotel industry that are take parting in environment protection. However, there are some arguments in the article such as: the range of the rubric, the purposes, the samples, roll uping informations and consequences application.