1. Discuss a diagnostic pattern. Explain how to determine reading potential. There is no single correct method for teaching a student how to read. A teacher must try all methods until they find what works best for that child. Throughout this time, a teacher must use a diagnostic pattern to prevent difficulties in learning to read as well as how to improve a student’s reading so that they can reach their potential for reading. There are two parts to the diagnostic pattern. The first is identification. Here is where the teacher identifies the student’s present level of performance in word recognition and comprehension.
This is done by using a variety of reading assessments. The second part is appraisal. This is where the teacher evaluates what and how the student reads in relationship to their potential. Knowing a child’s potential can help a teacher cater their instruction to the student’s individual strengths. Early intervention of students with reading problems and frequent assessments are important factors in determining the reading potential of a child. Another factor is a good teacher that can teach lessons to all students regardless of their ability.
But how do we determine if a student is reading to their potential? We need to assess them using a reading comprehension measure. This measure helps us gage what the student is capable of understanding after a text is read aloud to them. It has it advantages in that it is easier to administer than an IQ test, and that this measure is directly related to reading comprehension. Reading comprehension can be determined by using an informal reading inventory (IRI). This is used to tell us useful information about the student’s performance and it can be used to inform and guide a teacher’s instruction.
An IRI is an individually administered informal test with a graded word lists, graded reading passages, and comprehension questions that assess how students interact with print when they are reading to themselves and aloud. The student will read passages that will increase in difficulty until they achieve a level that is right for them. The last passage that the student is able answer questions easily to would be the grade for the student’s potential. Once this potential has been determined, it will be compared to the score on a standardized achievement test.
If there is a discrepancy in the reading scores when the student reads to themselves and when they listen to someone else read aloud, then further testing should be done to rule out the possibility of an underlying problem. The sooner a teacher is able to determine student’s strengths and weaknesses, the sooner a teacher will be able to help a child to become a successful reader. 2. Discuss the differences among alternative, authentic, and performance assessment. Describe portfolios and explain how teachers use portfolios. Assessments are ways in which we collect data about a students learning so that we can teach.
Assessment allows us to see the results of our teaching and allows us to make valid judgments about student’s literacy. They can be divided into three main categories: (1) authentic, (2) performance, and (3) alternative assessments. Authentic assessments can be made by asking a student to perform tasks that demonstrate sufficient knowledge and understanding of a subject. An example of this would be to ask a student to take enough papers from the teacher’s desk so that each student in the classroom gets three. This is an authentic assessment because it will help the teacher determine if the student is able to count.
Performance assessment is similar to authentic assessments in that it requires students to create products or to perform, not simply to answer paper-and-pencil tests. The assessment may call for writing or problem solving, or the students learning may be measured from the oral presentations or projects they produce as a result of their studies. Although performance-based assessment is not new, in the past it has been pretty much reserved for art, music, and physical education teachers who have always evaluated their students on the basis of their products and performance and not on paper-and-pencil tests.
Alternative assessments are non-traditional approaches in judging a students performance in -life situations. Alternative assessments can include many ways to assess a child. In the population I teach, alternate assessment is used to collect data about the students learning. Short-answer questions, essays, performance assessment, oral presentations, demonstrations, and portfolios are some ways in which we test our students alternatively. One of the most popular forms of assessment for my students is the portfolio. A portfolio consists of a file or folder of selections of student work collected over a period of time.
This provides evidence of student learning, achievement, and progress in academic areas. Portfolios can provide a broad picture of individual performance assembled over time. Portfolios are most common in writing and language arts. Portfolios can contain many different works. They can be teacher centered where they serve in school accountability and grading or they can be student centered in which students collect most of the items and are involved in self-assessment. This enables students to take responsibility of their learning. Portfolios can contain written as well as artistic responses to reading.
They can contain works in progress and even a list of books read over time. We combine our student’s portfolios with traditional assessments such as tests, worksheets, and homework assignments so that multiple measures can be used to assess a student’s level of performance. Regardless of the assessments used, they should be made frequently to show a student’s achievements or determine if intervention is needed. Many forms of assessment are needed to enable students to demonstrate accurately their knowledge and ability so that we may align our instruction to fit the needs of our students.