DISCUSS DIFFICULTIES IN DEFINING TERRORISM. Terrorism has no universal global accredited definition as at today. It is dynamic, changing faces and presentation just like crime. The terrorism of yesterday is not the terrorism of today and may not be the terrorism of tomorrow. According to the British, it is the use or threats for the purpose of advancing in political, religious ideological causes which involve serious violence against persons and property. In 1992, United Nations defined terrorism as an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by semi-clandestine individual, group or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminalor political reasons, whereby in contrast to assassination, the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. According to the Germans, enduringly conducted struggle for political goals which are intended to be achieved by means of assaults on life and property by means of severe crimes is considered terrorism. The British Government definition of terrorism from 1974 as the use of violence for political ends, and includes any use of violence for the purpose of putting the public, or any section of the public, in fear.According to Hoffman, terrorism is ineluctably political in aims and motives, violence designed to have far-reaching psychological repercussions beyond the immediate victim or target conducted by an organization with an identifiable chain of command or conspiratorial structure whose members wear no insignia and are perpetrated by non-state entities or sub national group. History shows that terrorism has been in existence for long, what has changed in human nature with time is the degree and nature of the threat diversified by technology and information transfer. Crusification during the Antiquity are in History is considered terrorism, Guillotine during the Roman Empire regime is considered terrorism, Regicide during the French revolution was terrorism.Schmid (1983) compiled 109 academic definitions of terrorism, suggesting that there are many available definitions and versions in the field. There has been so far, no consensus given the heterogeneity of terroristic behaviours and the declared or assumed motivations. What is published is normally as a result of statements by the terror group leaders when they claim responsibility. However, it is important to note that two common elements usually find their way in to the contemporary definitions. Terrorism involves aggression against non-combatants, the terrorist action in not only expected by its perpetrator to accomplish a political goal but to also influence a target audience and change that audience’s behaviour in a way that will serve the interests of the terrorist. A humble definition for terrorism then may pass for, the use of violence or threats of violence to coarse or achieve ideological, religious, or political change. Whereas acts of terror are perpetuated to causing fear, criminal acts are for gains and power. Social disorganization theory explains both terrorism and criminal acts by stating how surroundings affect behaviour more than individual characteristics. Terrorism has been described variously as a tactic and strategy, a crime and a holy duty, a justified reaction to oppression and an inexcusable abomination. It all depends on whose point ofview is under interrogation. Terrorism has often been an effective tactic for the weaker side in a conflict because they least expect an attack and as they say ambush takes even the strongest.As an assumed form of conflict, it confers coercive power with many of the advantages of military force at a fraction of the cost. Due to the secretive nature and small size of terrorist organizations, they often offer opponents no clear organization and mechanism self-defense or to deter. Research has shown the typology of terrorism as very complex and controversial at the same time since the involved actors are characterized by multiple variables. Schultz (1980) proposes the seven variables which easily explain this.He examines the causes of terrorism, environment contusive for terrorism goals, strategies, means, organization and participation. Terrorists admit that they have adopted ruthless methods and tactics, but they consider themselves freedom fighters. As we discuss and define terrorism we can’t forget to include the psychology of terrorism. Robert Matron’s Strain theory explains the same. One question for us then is if terrorism is a crime like any other? One old phrase one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter. For terrorism to qualify as criminal, men’s rea, that is intent, actus reus and harm must be proved. Terrorism has a criminal intent thou not classified and coded for punishment. For example, in Kenya, it passes for capital offence with a bill still pending in parliament. Prevention of terror acts (POTA) holds here because prior to the action, there is intent and pre-planning. Tools of war are sourced in advance. Terrorism can be classified in five categories, State terrorism, Dissident terrorism, Religious terrorism,


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