Situational Crime Prevention and its Utilization as a Tool against Would Be Criminals. Within the Criminal Justice field, bookmans every bit good as enforcement continually strive to develop methods through which condemnable activity may be prevented. A theory that has been explored by bookmans is that of the Rational Choice Theory. Rational Choice Theory is based upon the belief that felons make a witting, rational, slightly informed determination to move supported by a risk-benefit analysis of the state of affairs. This theory has been explored by many bookmans on changing grades of condemnable activities including, but non limited to, consecutive sex wrongdoers, baccy gross revenues to youth, air hose highjacking, and on-line victimization of high school seniors. This manuscript will research how this theory may be exploited through the usage of Situational Crime Prevention ( SCP ) . Descriptions will be given of methods of situational offense bar every bit good as instance surveies and existent universe examples where it has been employed successfully.
Schmalleger ( 2006 ) is the writer of condemnable justness criminology text editions. He developed a on the job definition for SCP. His definition is focused upon the environmental factors of the offense scene instead than concentrating upon the wrongdoer themselves. Schmalegger argues that the effectivity in this attack lies in the fact that it is hard to place persons who are prone to go frequent wrongdoers.
Cohne ( 2009 ) is portion of the condemnable justness module at the Florida National University learning a class entitled Nature and Causes of Crime. Cohne instructs her category with aid from the Criminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, 5th edition text edition. It is through this she developed working definitions and illustrations for the Clark SCP techniques of Target Hardening and Strengthening Formal Surveillance.
Clarke ( 2004 ) developed a chart sketching 25 techniques that may be used during execution of SCP theory. In this chart he breaks the techniques down into five classs each focused upon a different facet of the condemnable act. Clarke besides provides illustrations of how each technique may be implemented decently.
Ratcliffe ( 2006 ) authored a manuscript through the U. S. Department of Justice for the Problem-Oriented Guides for Police Response Guides Series entitled Video Surveillance of Public Places. In this manuscript Ratcliffe provides a on the job definition for a closed circuit telecasting ( CCTV ) surveillance system. He besides explains the different types of systems in usage by different constitutions every bit good as provinces the ultimate end of possessing a CCTV system.
There are several surveies that have been performed that adequately provide illustrations of the employment of Clarke ‘s ( ) SCP techniques. The offenses incorporated in these surveies include aircraft highjacking ( ) and the incorporation of mark hardening, bike larceny ( ) using four schemes towards its bar, and library offenses using techniques from all five of Clarke ‘s SCP classs. Each survey provides accounts as to how SCP techniques may be used or are being used to efficaciously forestall the corresponding condemnable activity.
Situational Crime Prevention ( SCP ) is a offense bar theory that is basically based upon the Rational Choice Theory. SCP is more concerned with the different facets of an environment that make it more likely to see condemnable activity. Clarke ( 2004 ) developed a chart sketching 25 techniques of situational offense bar which provided illustrations of how each technique may be applied ( See Appendix ) . Clarke has each of his techniques divided into five groups including Increase the Effort, Increase the Risks, Reduce the Rewards, Reduce Provocations, and Remove the Excuses. For the intent of this manuscript, we will concentrate upon the techniques of Target Hardening and Strengthen Formal Surveillance which autumn under the classs of Increase the Effort and Increase the Risks severally.
The method of Target Hardening “ involves beef uping defences and blockading the wrongdoer with physical barriers. ” This SCP technique is conspicuously displayed all across the universe and has been throughout history. Examples of mark indurating methods include the hard-on of fence, maneuvering wheel locking devices, and Fe bars installed over the Windowss of constitutions and homes. These safeguards, when employed, do it highly hard to perpetrate the associated offense without necessitating a great sum of attempt.
An person who has flown out of any major airdrome since the 9/11 panic onslaughts has, no uncertainty, experienced the effects of mark hardening. As a direct consequence of the panic onslaughts, the Federal Aviation Administration reinforced their existing policies designed to do commandeering efforts more hard thereby hopefully forestalling attempts wholly. These policies include safeguards such as metal sensors, rider showing, increased jurisprudence enforcement presence, and random baggage reviews. A survey preformed by Dugan, Lafree, and Piquero on flight informations between the old ages of 1931 and 2003 indicated that the imposed safeguards have been successful in forestalling air hose highjackings. Since that clip other policies have been enacted doing it even more hard for manque highjackers.
Strengthen Formal Surveillance
Strengthening Formal Surveillance includes safeguards such as increasing bing constabulary patrols, adding traffic and surveillance cameras, and put ining security dismaies. The premiss of this method involves the thought that an person is less likely to perpetrate a condemnable act if they believe that they will be caught in the act. Surveies have shown that a important decrease in offense has followed when this peculiar method is decently utilised.
The safeguards taken when using the method of beef uping formal surveillance are readily identifiable during the daily activities of the mean single. One of the most often encountered safeguards would be that of closed-circuit telecasting ( CCTV ) . CCTV is a system of cameras on a closed circuit that transmits the image it receives to a recording device, a manned monitoring station, or both. It is good known that this technique is employed in constitutions where persons tend to congregate and there are limited forces available with which to detect all countries. Examples of constitutions where CCTV systems are employed include gas Stationss, Bankss, supermarkets, and residence halls. These cameras are placed in strategic locations at times leting the operator a position of a peculiar portion of an person or the vehicle they are driving. Several constitutions have even gone every bit far as puting marks in outstanding locations informing persons that their actions are being captured on camera. The primary purpose of CCTV is to increase the sensed hazard that an wrongdoer experiences towards acquiring caught which will, in bend, do the wrongdoer to believe twice about perpetrating the condemnable act.
Aside from the above SCP illustrations, there have been legion other surveies stand foring the effectivity of this theory of offense bar. One such survey was carried out by Fanno ( 1997 ) as a recommendation of what techniques to implement to forestall the larceny of bikes on a college campus. Fueling this survey included a study by the Federal Bureau of Investigation on the high figure of bike larcenies in 1992 ( ) every bit good as the a study conducted by the Home Office Research and Planning Unit that found 66.2 % of motorcycle proprietors had at some point had their motorcycle stolen ( ) .
Fanno discussed several techniques which were categorized under four different schemes. The first scheme, increasing the sensed hazards, includes utilizing different signifiers of surveillance including a manned motorcycle room and puting the motorcycle rack in apparent position. The 2nd scheme, increasing the sensed attempt, includes two comparatively common motorcycle larceny hindrances which are utilizing a motorcycle lock and taking the place off of the motorcycle when it is left unattended. Reducing the awaited wagess is the 3rd scheme and it includes safeguards such as hive awaying the motorcycle in a safe topographic point, registering the motorcycle with the campus constabulary force, and doing the motorcycle less appealing to would be stealers through customization or deficiency thereof. One would presume that, of the two, the latter method is non really popular for those with newer motorcycles. The concluding scheme is bring oning guilt or shame by puting regulations necessitating enrollment of motorcycles every bit good as declining to take action if a stolen motorcycle was unregistered.
Another survey carried out to find the effectivity of SCP techniques was by Cromwell, Alexander, and Dotson ( 2008 ) on the bar of library offenses. Previous research workers have reported increasing force against library staff ( ) every bit good as unwanted loss of library assets ( ) . The suggestions discussed in this manuscript include techniques from all five of Clarke ‘s ( ) SCP classs and include:
Installation of electronic book sensing systems on the issues. ( Target Hardening )
Closed-circuit cameras ( Increase Formal Surveillance )
Storing electronics and particular aggregations in secured countries. ( Reduce the Rewards )
Training employees in communicating accomplishments. ( Reduce Provocations )
Posting regulations and Regulations conspicuously around the constitution. ( Remove Excuses )
The research workers provided many more bar suggestions though non all were included in this manuscript.