Pneumonia is an redness of the one or both lungs in the lower respiratory piece of land that involves lung parenchyma including air sacs and supportive construction. It is besides called pneumonitis.

Causes: it can be caused by a broad assortment of etiologic agents including bacteriums virus, aspiration, Fungis, mycobacteria manner of transmittal, clinical manifestation vary depending on the etiologic agents.

Pneumonia are classified harmonizing to causative being. They are:

Bacterial pneumonia: The most common cause of pneumonia in grownups is a bacteria called Streptococcus pneumonia. This signifier of pneumonia is sometimes called pneumococcal pneumonia. other types of bacteriums can do pneumonia, including: homosexuals influenza, staphylococcal aureus, Mycoplasma pneumonia, Chlamydophila pneumonia.

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Viral pneumonia: Viruss can besides do pneumonia, influenza ‘A ‘ most common with the patient of AIDS. Viruss are a common cause of pneumonia in immature kids.

Aspiration pneumonia: The object or substance inhaled causes annoyance in the lungs or amendss them. This is called aspiration pneumonia. Rarely, pneumonia can be caused by take a breathing in: puke, a foreign object, such as a peanut, a harmful substance, such as fume or a chemical.

Fungal pneumonia: It more frequently affects people whose immune systems are weakened. Fungal pneumonia includes histoplasmosis, coccidiomycosis and blastomycosis.

Sign and symptoms:

Sudden oncoming of high febrility.

Shaking icinesss and perspiration.

Coughing, sneezing, rhinal congestion.

Shortness of breath

Rapid Shallow external respiration


Muscle hurting



Weakness, unease


Nausea and emesis


Crisp knifing thorax strivings during coughing or deep breath.

Cough bring forthing unpleasant phlegm, which may be green, rusty or blood stained.


History of the patient.

Physical scrutiny ( auscultation )

Chest X ray

Sputum trial for civilization


Blood civilization

Liver map trial

C T scan


Bacterial pneumonia treated by antibiotic ( Penicillin, Ampicillin ) .

Anti -Inflammatory drugs ( isobutylphenyl propionic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, and paracetamol ) .

Anti-viral drugs, steroids.

Chest physical therapy

Bed remainder until infection shows mark of glade.

Given O to better airing.

High degree of unstable consumption.

Deep external respiration and coughing

Prevention step:

Avoiding smoke, intoxicant and cold, inoculation ( vaccinum against grippe ) , good hygiene.


Asthma is a respiratory status marked by wheezing. Asthma affects the air passages of the lungs. The airways become narrow and erstwhile green goods more mucous secretion than usual.

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Exact cause is unknown

Asthma is caused by redness in the air passage. The redness irritates the musculuss around the air passages, and causes them to squash ( constrict ) . This causes narrowing of the air passages. It is so more hard for air to acquire in and out of the lungs. This leads to wheezing and shortness of breath. The redness besides causes the liner of the air passages to do excess mucous secretion which causes cough and farther obstructor to airflow.

Sign and symptoms:

experiencing breathless ( you may pant for breath )

a tight thorax, like a set fastening around it

wheezing, which makes a whistling sound when you breathe

coughing peculiarly at dark and early forenoon

onslaughts triggered by exercising, exposure to allergens and other triggers

Sweating, restless


History pickings, physical scrutiny, mark and symptoms, spirometry trial, peak spirometry flow rate trial, airway responsiveness trials, trial of air passage redness, trial of allergic reaction


asthma can non be remedy but some interventions are for rapid alleviation of symptoms. Such as inhaled steroids, inhalator ( blowfish ) , Bronchodilator ( salbutamol, atomizer ) , give Na cromoglycate to forestall onslaughts,


The common cold- avoid unmasking to cold environment, the effects of a cold can last for a long clip unless you are given increased intervention. Asthma onslaughts are frequently set off by allergic reactions. Common things which people with asthma are allergic to are grass pollen, house dust and animate being pelts ( including your ain pets ) .

Exercise- running, peculiarly in cold conditions, can do an asthma onslaught. However, exercise-induced asthma can be controlled. Peoples with asthma should non avoid athletics and exercising – they contribute to overall good wellness.

Irritants -like baccy fume, exhausts and a dusty ambiance will frequently take to asthma onslaughts.

Emotion – choler, anxiousness or happiness – can convey on an onslaught of wheezing in some people with asthma. But it is non true that ‘nerves ‘ are the implicit in cause of asthma.

Pollution- particularly from traffic, is progressively recognized as doing asthma worse.

Diseases of Digestive System:

Peptic ulcer:

A peptic ulcer is an country of harm to the liner of either the tummy or the wall of the little intestine. Peptic ulcer named consequently to their esophageal ulcer, duodenal ulcer, stomachic ulcer. Most common in duodenal ulcer.


Infection from helicobacter pylori.

Take non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs a long period. E.g. isobutylphenyl propionic acid, acetylsalicylic acid.

Changeless tenseness and emphasis is another lending factor.

Excessive secernment of HCL acid in the tummy can besides take to peptic ulcer. Such as caffeine, smoke, intoxicant addition HCL secernment.

Sign and symptoms:

Symptoms may last a few yearss, hebdomads, or months.

Sometimes symptoms can vanish but reappear months, afterwards, frequently with no identifiable cause.

Sometimes, the patient may even be symptom-less.

Other symptoms include: pyrosis, a acrimonious gustatory sensation in your oral cavity, experiencing sick or emesis, regurgitating nutrient, gnawing hurting in mid epigastrum or back,

Weight lost, shed blooding, perforation


History taking

Physical scrutiny

H. pylori trial


MRI, CT scan,

Urea breath trial

Barium contrast x- beam

Blood trial

Treatment and bar:

Self-help: like, avoid spicy nutrient, intoxicant, caffeine, inordinate meat, milk and pick ingestion. This will cut down hurting. Reduce emphasis, halt smoke, eating regular repasts and non losing repasts will besides neutralize sourness. Avoid steroid drugs and analgesic.

Medicine: proton pump inhibitor, such as omeprazol and lansoprazol. H2 blockers, illustration, Zantac and cemetidine.

Treating H. pylori infection. This is normally a combination of a proton pump inhibitor and two antibiotics.

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Gallstones normally form in the saddle sore vesica from the solid components of gall. They can be made of pigment or cholesterin. They vary greatly in size, form and composing. Gallstones are uncommon in kids, but become progressively prevailing after 40 old ages age.


Sexual activity: adult females are twice every bit likely as work forces develop bilestone due to extra green goods estrogen in gestation, endocrine replacing therapy to increase cholesterin degree and cut down gall bladder motion

Family history

Weight: corpulence increased cholesterin reduces gallbladder emptying. Particularly in adult female.

Diet: diet in a fat and cholesterin and low fibre addition the hazard of bilestone.

Age: Peoples older than age 60 are more likely to develop bilestones than younger people. As people age, the organic structure tends to release more cholesterin into gall.

Diabetess: Peoples with diabetes by and large have high degrees of fatty acids called triglycerides. These fatty acids may increase the hazard of bilestones.

Cholesterol-lowering drugs: Drugs that lower cholesterin degrees in the blood really increase the sum of cholesterin secreted into gall. In bend, the hazard of bilestones additions.

Sign and symptoms:

steady hurting in the right upper venters that increases quickly and lasts from 30 proceedingss to several hours

hurting in the dorsum between the shoulder blades

hurting under the right shoulder

sickness and emesis


Abdominal bloating, intolerance of fatty nutrients, burping, gas and dyspepsia.


Computerized imaging


Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography ( ERCP )

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography ( MRCP )

Blood trials



Surgical: Cholicystectomy

Medical: lithotripsy


Anyone can hold bilestones, but middle aged, fleshy adult females are peculiarly likely to develop the job.

Diseases of hormone system


Goiter is an expansion of the thyroid secretory organ. There are many signifiers:

Simple goitre: is most normally due to the deficiency of I. The secretory organ is hyperactive and is enlarged and frequently seeable.

Hyperthyroidism: is a disease in which the tetraiodothyronine degree is excessively high.

Hypothyroidism: is caused due to the deficiency of tetraiodothyronine in blood.


non acquiring adequate I in the diet, over production, unproduction of endocrines, household history, age, sex.

Sign and symptoms:

Neck mass, failing, take a breathing troubles, weight loss, tachycardia, get downing troubles, gruffness, cough, giddiness, palpitation, hyperactivity


Sign and symptoms, history pickings, physical scrutiny, ultrasound of thyroid, x- beam, thyroid scan, thyroid exciting endocrine ( THS ) trial, free tetraiodothyronine ( T4 ) , biopsy

Treatment and Prevention:

Simple goitre can be treated with thyroid endocrine in the signifier of pill, antithyroid drugs ( propylthiouracil, methimazole ) , suppressive therapy ( levothyroxine ) , thyredectomy, acquiring adequate I in the diet.

Cushing ‘s syndrome:

Cushing ‘s syndrome is a status in which the suprarenal glands secrete surplus of Cortone Acetate. Cushing ‘s syndrome is comparatively and most commonly affects adult aged 20 to 40. Peoples who are corpulent, type two diabetes, high blood force per unit area have an increased hazard of developing the upset.


organic structure is exposed to an surplus of glucocorticoid endocrines over a long period of clip. The most common cause of this surplus is the pickings of unwritten steroid intervention for medical conditions such as arthritic arthritis and other inflammatory conditions.

Sign and symptoms:

Weight derive around the thorax and venters

Red and rounded face ( moon face )

Look like American bison bulge

Thin and weak musculuss in the leg and weaponries

Fluid keeping in the leg

Excessive seventh cranial nerve and organic structure hair

Euphoria, sterility

High blood force per unit area

Purple or tap stretch Markss appear on the venters, thighs, natess, weaponries and chests

Skin becomes delicate and thin, contusions easy


History pickings, physical scrutiny, Blood trial, urine trial, x-ray, CT scan, MRI


Cortisol -inhibiting drugs




Mentions on-line beginnings:

BBC ( 2009 ) , Pneumonia. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: // ( accessed by 09/11/2010 ) .

Hormone and Metabolic Disease Home ( 2010 ) , Cushing ‘s syndrome, National Endocrine and Metabolic Disease Information Service. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: // ( Accessed by 11/11/2010 ) .

BBC ( 2008 ) , Cushing ‘s syndrome. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: // # what_are_the_symptoms ( accessed by 11/11/2010 ) .

Wikipedia ( 2010 ) , Cushing ‘s syndrome. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //’s_syndrome ( Accessed by 11/11/2010 ) .

NHS Choices ( 2010 ) , Pneumonia. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: // ( Accessed by 10/11/2010 ) .

Wikipedia ( 2010 ) , Pneumonia. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: // ( Accessed by 10/11/2010 ) .

BBC ( 2009 ) , Understanding Asthma. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: // # environmental_factors ( accessed by 10/11/2010 ) .

NHS Choices ( 2010 ) , Asthma. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: // ( Accessed by 10/11/2010 ) .

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hypertext transfer protocol: // # what_are_the_symptoms

hypertext transfer protocol: //’s_syndrome


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