From sauces to soups, thickness is frequently regarded as cardinal determiner in quality. For stocks, a thin texture is preferred so that it can be used more universally, while sauces must hold the necessary nappe in order to be acceptable to function without being considered excessively thin. This factor which determines the thickness of a sauce is classified as a product’s opposition to flux, besides known as viscousness ( Arana, 2012 ) .

A opposition comes from the chemical belongingss of the liquid being used. Park with about every nutrient point, H2O makes up the bulk of these liquids. By itself, H2O has a low viscousness, which can be seen as it moves freely along its way. However, if the H2O is the dissolver for a solution, a solute of some nature makes it harder for H2O to go rapidly on its way, as now it must travel around the new molecules busying the infinite, therefore traveling slower and looking as a thicker substance ( McGee, 2004 ) . Ingredients incorporating protein such as gelatin have a higher affinity for H2O than normal solutes ( Stevens, 2010 ) . This allows for intermolecular bonds to organize easier, every bit good as efficaciously pin downing H2O within the molecules. Proteins are so able to swell, making a more syrupy solution which besides has a higher thaw point than H2O and leting it to put above stop deading temperature ( McGee, 2004 ) .

Most liquids handled in the kitchen are non affected by external shear forces other than impulse or gravitation, giving them the name Newtonian fluids. The viscousness of Newtonian fluids besides can non alter due to these forces. If the viscousness alterations, those liquids are considered Non-Newtonian ( McWilliams, 2012 ) . More specifically, if the force causes a cutting of a merchandise like catsup, whereby flow is increased, the point is considered to be thixotropic, while those which become thicker, such as pure amylum slurries, they are called dilatant fluids.

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Previous research into viscousness utilizes a measuring similar to rush, ciphering the distance at which a fluid travels over a fit period of clip, or vice-versa ( Meloan, 1980 ) . This can be done utilizing little utensils such as Zhan cups—which let for liquids to flux from the underside to mensurate the rate at which the set sum of liquid moves out of a hole in the bottom—or utilizing larger equipment such as viscosimeters, or tools which impart a rotational shear force to mensurate the viscousness of the solution ( Arana, 2012 ) . From here, empirical informations can be collected to judge the opposition to flux and come to decisions as to what can do alterations in viscousness.

In two of the three tested experiments in this paper, the step of concentration and temperature are measured to find if they have an influence on the viscousness of liquids, conducted through proving different concentrations of sugar solutions every bit good as the effects of gelatin on stocks. The 3rd experiment speaks of an experimental analysis comparing Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids and how they behave under shear force.

Materials and Methods

Sugar Solutions: Three otherwise concentrated sugar solutions were created for the intent of this experiment, measured out to be 500g each of a 20 % , 40 % , and 60 % sugar in H2O ( w/w ) ( Escali Primo Scale Model # P115, Burnsville, MN ) The truth of the measuring was recorded with refractometers. ( ReichertRefractometer, Ranges 0 to 30, 0 to 50 and 50 to 90 Brix Model # 137531LO, Buffalo, NY ) These solutions were placed into little bain Maries. ( Vollrath Bain Maries Stainless Steel BAIN MARIE POT 1.25 QT Model # 78710, Sheboygan, WI ) When the solutions reached room temperature, 25°C, ( Traceable® Dual-Channel Thermometer Type-K SN # 130073099 ) the sum of clip for the solutions to flux through a set volume was measured utilizing a 3mm Zhan ladle ( Custom made Zahn ladle utilizing a Vollrath Stainless-Steel 3-oz Ladle Model # 58430 with a 3mm hole, Sheboygan, WI ) this procedure was repeated for the same sugar concentrations at 40°C, which was achieved utilizing an submergence circulator ( Sous Vide Professional™ CHEF Series SN # 2D1330856, Niles, IL ) controlled H2O bath.

Veal Stock Samples: Two separate containers of veal stock were used in this experiment, one being a control, while the 2nd contained 4.5 % gelatin ( w/w ) ( Escali Primo Scale Model # P115, Burnsville, MN ) . Both stocks were stored in little bain Maries in an submergence circulator controlled H2O bath set to 80°C until the stocks had achieved that temperature. Using a 3mm Zhan ladle, the sum of clip required for the stocks to flux was measured. This was repeated utilizing a 40°C submergence circulator controlled H2O bath.

Centripetal Analysis: Sensory recordings were besides taken from the two samples of veal stock, which were conducted while the liquids were at 40°C. Two home bases each were held at room temperature, in infrigidation, ( Traulsen 44 ” Single Door 9.8 Cu. Ft. Undercounter Refrigerator Model # TU044HT ) and in a C-Vap machine ( Cvap Pod Model # CPOD 200 NN.02, Louisville, KY ) set to 80°C. At each temperature, a little sum of the stock was placed in the centre of the home base to let for rating based on viscousness, visual aspect, mouthfeel and the overall spirit of each stock.

Non-Newtonian Fluids:Using a Bostwick Viscometer, ( CSC Bostwick Consistometer ; 30cm, Fairfax, VA ) an experimental analysis was conducted comparison molasses, which is a syrupy Newtonian fluid, to ketchup, which is thixotropic. An oobleck solution was besides analyzed, adding notes on the visual aspect and viscousness achieved as it was moved in a little Cambro. ( Cambro 2 Qt. Square Food Storage Container Model # 2SFSCW, Hungtington, CA ) Distances achieved by the molasses or the catsup within a 30 2nd clip frame were used to help in the analysis.

Statistical Analysis: For proving the sugar samples every bit good as the veau stocks, ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD station hoc trials were conducted at p=0.05 in order to find if the information in either experiment displayed a important difference between the other tried values.


Figure 1: A graph mensurating the concentration of sugar against the mean flow clip for the Zhan ladle trials. Each line designates a different temperature at which the trial was conducted. Each average value is an norm of 18 single tests of each sugar sample at each temperature.

Sugar Solutions: The consequences from the ANOVA proving displayed that there is non adequate assurance to find a difference between the 20°Brix and 40°Brix concentrations at either temperature. However, the trials showed that there was a significantly big difference between the values given for the lower two concentrations and the values given for the 60°Brix concentration at either of the tried temperatures.

Veal Stock Samples: The Tukey trials determined there is a mostly important difference between the rate of flow for the gelatin stock compared to the regular stock in the 40°C H2O bath, every bit good as between the two stocks in the 80°C bath. However, there is non adequate statistical grounds to turn out that the two gelatin added stock samples are significantly different in flow times between the two H2O bath temperatures.

Figure 2: Average flow times for two different stocks held at two separate temperatures. Average values were taken from 18 tests at each temperature scope per stock type.

Centripetal Analysis: Placing either stock on the room temperature plates causes the flow to decelerate down somewhat from being at 40°C. Both stocks besides have a similar visual aspect every bit good. When placed on the home bases that were held in the C-Vap machine set to 80°C, the regular, non-gelatin stock had a really thin consistence and had the visual aspect of H2O. The gelatin-added stock had a thicker visual aspect as it was moved along the home base, had a rich mouthfeel unlike the other trials and a stronger spirit than a basic veau stock. At the refrigerated temperatures both stocks appeared to be somewhat slower in motion, but merely the stock with gelatin had set up into a gel after a few seconds.

For the Non-Newtonain fluids experiment, the molasses travelled the full 24cm distance of the bostwick viscosimeter in less than the to the full tested 30 2nd timeframe, while the catsup hardly moved 3cm in the tried clip. The molasses besides had a slightly consistent velocity as it travelled down the incline, while the catsup had a spot of acceleration every bit shortly as the trial started. The oobleck solution appeared to be liquid from a ocular point of view, but every bit shortly as a shear force was encountered, be it by stirring or puting a manus on the surface, the oobleck had features of a solid, declining to travel and really deriving adequate opposition to let one to raise the container using upward force from a spoon. Dancing one’s fingers on the surface of the substance besides created a jello-like visual aspect, which prevented the fingers from going moisture, but when the gait of the dance slowed excessively much the fingers were able to fall in, the solution looking like a fluid once more.


While it can non be concluded that the mensural concentrations of sugar varied between 20 % and 40 % concentration, at both tried temperatures the 60 % concentration had much higher values associated with the clip taken for the Zhan ladle trials ( Figure 1 ) . The temperature besides played a function in the viscousness of the solutions. With the exclusion of the 20 % concentration, the values for the solutions that were tested at 40°C had achieved significantly faster times than those tested at room temperature ( Figure 1 ) . The times achieved by the 40°C trials were more consistent, demoing a scope significantly lower than the trials conducted at room temperature ( Figure 1 ) . This high spots that while heat plays a function on the rate of flow for a liquid, its influence is likely determined by the concentration of that liquid, whereby a higher concentration is effected more, while a lower concentration, which would look to move more similar H2O to get down with, would non hold the same room to weaken in inspissating power.

In respects to the veau stock, gelatin was shown to hold a significantly greater viscousness than the regular stock. As the temperature was increased in both samples, they both displayed marks of thinning, every bit good as diminishing the sum of clip in each test ( Figure 2 ) . Gelatin displayed the greater difference when the temperature changed, which could be comparative to how the higher concentration sugars had a greater overall loss due to temperature addition. This is once more likely due to the fact that the stock which did non hold the added gelatin was closer to a thin watery province and hence did non hold the same potency to inspissate. It brings up an of import note of holding a sauce be tested for its viscousness at the temperature it will be served, as if the temperature is excessively low when tested, the sauce will still look like H2O when plated, even if the consistence is right at the temperature you tested it. If the sauce is excessively hot, the merchandise will be reduced more than necessary to accomplish a viscousness which will be excessively thick as it cools.

The centripetal ratings for the stocks besides displayed similar connexions to some of the known inside informations about gelatin, specifically in its thaw point. When set on the refrigerated home base, the gelatin was able to put into a semisolid, even though it was non possible for the regular stock nor for the gelatin at room temperature. This would hence set the scene point for the gelatin someplace between 4°C ( the norm icebox temperature ) and 25°C ( the room temperature ) , which is higher than the freezing point for H2O. When placed on the home base that had been sitting in the C-Vap machine, the gelatin-added stock displayed the better coating, looking similar to how a sauce would look. This carried over into the coating mouthfeel and a stronger spirit release than the regular stock provided.

While most of the informations supported the antecedently known information about viscousness, some of the points remained inconclusive due to being variably near through mean values or standard divergences. Beginnings of mistake for the experiment were possible in the concentration of each solution, and potentially in the timing of the Zhan trials. Six squads contributed informations to the mean values, but were required to individually make their ain solutions. Therefore while we assume that the solutions match the needed concentrations for the experiments, the fluctuation could be great adequate to make a larger scope and non demo a important difference between values for that ground. By holding these six squads with six potentially different solutions, the timing of the Zhan trials would non reflect the same values, even if we are to presume that every individual who used a stop watch for the experiment has the same reaction timing and measured utilizing the same point of mention.

With the H2O being the focal point of most liquid-based formulas, concentration is a big factor of many of the nutrients consumed. Seasoning or heightening nutrient requires either something to be added through flavorer or H2O being removed through vaporization, which in both instances increases the concentration of the liquid. Oftentimes this is why an emulsion, irrespective of the stableness, will look thicker than a simple acetum mixture. Emulsions contain polar and non-polar molecules which are forced together through mechanical action to make a thicker merchandise. From what these experiments have shown, this is likely due to holding an addition in its concentration, incorporating more oil than H2O, which forces the H2O molecules to travel around the oil, which appears as a thicker merchandise at a macroscopic degree. If the thickening in inquiry is a protein, such as the tried gelatin, the inspissating power is much greater, necessitating a concentration of merely 4.5 % to accomplish a merchandise every bit syrupy as with a 40 % sugar solution. This shows that gelatin is a extremely effectual thickening, which besides provides great features indispensable to a sauce, such as mouthfeel and spirit release, which can let for a great tasting runny sauce to hold the desired consistence and texture without leaving excessively much excess spirit or over cut downing the sauce to lose output, which can salvage money while keeping spirit.

In the trial of Non-Newtonian fluids, the catsup displayed a thixotropic behaviour, going dilutant as the shear force of gravitation was applied, leting it to hold an acceleration as it traveled. This characteristic is similar to the coveted consequence of fluid gels thickened with hydrocolloids, whereby they are solid until moved with a spoon, while besides giving a radiance similar to syrupy liquids. For the oobleck, the ability to put into a solid from a liquid province reflects the ability of starches to act upon the thickness of the liquid they are combined with, such as in the procedure of doing roux. While Non-Newtonian fluids are non as common in the kitchen as Newtonian fluids, they still serve importance, as it is a belongings that defines many of the boughten compressible catsup, mustard or mayonnaise trade names.


While it can non be wholly concluded that the experiments matched the information from anterior known cognition on viscousness, it was shown through the trials that viscousness of Newtonian fluids can be affected by altering the concentration of the solution or altering the temperature. Temperature was besides shown to hold a greater consequence on the solutions which contained higher concentrations, which plays an of import function when finding how much of a deepening agent must be added in order to accomplish the coveted consistence. This is an of import construct in fostering the apprehension of how to efficaciously change the result of nutrient, as the viscousness of a liquid can wholly change the perceptual experience as it is consumed and can be altered in more than one manner. This allows for a versatility in the kitchen so that a sauce on a home base can be the coveted consistence and spirit for overall client satisfaction.

Literature Cited

Arana, I. ( 2012 ) .Physical belongingss of nutrients: Novel measuring techniques and applications. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & A ; Francis.

McGee, H. ( 2004 ) .On nutrient and cookery: The scientific discipline and traditional knowledge of the kitchen. New York: Scribner.

McWilliams, M. ( 2012 ) .Foods: Experimental positions. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Meloan, C.E. , Pomeranz, Y. , & A ; Pomeranz, Y. ( 1980 ) .Food analysis research lab experiments. Westport, CT: Avi.

Stevens, P. ( 2010 ) . Gelatin. In A. In Imeson ( Ed. ) , Food Stabilisers, Thickeners and Gelling Agents. Chichester: Blackwell Publishing.

Effectss on Viscosity for Newtonian Fluids

Arianna Goarin

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