Undeniably, events are important incentives of touristry and their impacts play a important portion for finish fight, particularly when holding to cover with alone planned events ( Getz, 2008 ) . It must be said that touristry is one of the most comfortable industries, which evolved particularly over the last 50 old ages. It can be defined as a human activity that includes human behavior, usage of resources, communicating with other people, economic systems and environments. It besides includes physical motion of tourers to locations, which are non their lasting life houses ( Bull, 1995 ) . There are a batch of constituents of the touristry industry that can add to a state ‘s value and mega events are one of them. An exact account of the term mega event does non be, nevertheless they can be defined as short-run touristry events of a big graduated table taking to make new or even regenerate investing in host metropoliss, therefore projecting a positive image of the metropolis ( Greene, 2003 ) .
Furthermore, mega events can be described as planetary events and the demand for a specific metropolis to host such an event is to offer to ‘win ‘ it ( Getz, 2008 ) . They are normally managed by national authoritiess and international non-governmental establishments and can be classified as important constituents in studies of cultural behavior ( Roche, 2000 ) . There are a batch of facets of impacts ensuing from mega events and some of them can be economic, societal, environmental, cultural and political. All these can emerge prior to the event, during the event or even after the event, and they can be either or both positive and negative impacts, runing both in the short-term and long-term, that will be good to a touristry finish or act as a menace to it. Additionally, they can convey comparatively positive economic effects every bit good as encouragement touristry from the clip that the command to host the event by a metropolis has been won, until long clip after the event ( Williams and Shaw, 1998 ) . The magnitude of these impacts depends chiefly on the host metropolis ‘s direction methods, particularly by the authorities, in its attempt to enforce successful schemes to beef up the positive impacts, while seeking to maintain the negative impacts to a lower limit. Hosts largely expect to make strong bequests that will last a life-time, and occupation creative activity, addition in touristry figures, betterments in substructure, rise in the degree of GDP and increased demand for trade goods are included in their chief outlooks. Investing in athleticss locales, assorted touristry services and bettering transit might trip economic growing, higher employment degrees and reclamation of the host metropolis ( Sakai, 2006 ) . They besides consider mega events as undertakings that give them the opportunity to construct up a superior repute, validated by mensurating the touchable benefits and subtracting the touchable costs from them ( Kearney, 2005 ) .
It must be highlighted that mega events play a important function in advancing a touristry finish and the Olympic Games are one of the best illustrations of such events. Their history day of the months back to 776 B.C. in ancient Olympia Greece and during that short clip of the event ‘sacred armistice ‘ was taking topographic point, wars were stopped, and roads were going toll free, representing their importance ( Holloway and Taylor, 2009 ) . I will be utilizing Olympic Games throughout my essay to show what such an event can convey to a finish and specifically analyze the economic impacts of the Olympics on touristry destinations.http: //www.twip.org/photo/europe/greece/photo-5255-08-03-06-14-31-05.jpghttp: //www.flutetunes.com/img/posts/olympic-truce-emblem.jpg
The Olympic Truce Emblem
The Panathenaic Stadium in Athens, Greece
A closer expression will be taken to the instance of Sydney Summer Olympic Games 2000, where the authorities used a alone until so scheme undertaken by a host with a free market economic system. All of these were done in its attempt to heighten the positive economic impacts and cut down the negative impacts. Its initial scheme was to pull every bit many as possible tourers to the event and bring on them to go in other topographic points in Australia, therefore heightening its touristry industry. The 2nd scheme was to bring forth strong bonds in order to increase its ability to make tourer concern and the 3rd scheme was to do Australia a more attractive finish where three types of visitants were of high importance. These were leisure tourers, concern visitants and MICE ( meetings, inducements, conventions and exhibitions ) visitants. It must be highlighted, that MICE visitants can convey the more money into a state while concern visitants set up new concern into the local economic system and leisure visitants contribute towards the local economic system by going about and utilizing the local trade goods. The returns from disbursement in concern benefits were more touchable and persuasive resulting to greater be aftering in favor and in support of economic effects by both federal and NSW authoritiess every bit good as the Australian Tourist Commission ( Cashman,2006 ) .
It is of import for each Olympic Games to make something new and leave a great bequest behind them. For the instance of Australia the chief bequest that governments wanted to make, was more tourers sing the state, non merely during the event but particularly after it ( Chalip, 2000 ) . A immense crowd is attracted by the Olympic Games which consist of groups of people such as witnesss, media representatives, members of the International Olympic Committee ( IOC ) , patrons and jocks. Through the extended media coverage, a host metropolis ‘s image may be reinforced or even altered impacting tourers ‘ image about the metropolis ( Hall, 1989 ) and an encouraging image of a host metropolis might be a ground to pull both national and international tourers ( McManus, 1999 ) . About 1.6 million people were estimated to see Australia between 1997-2004 by the Tourism Forecasting Council ( Chalip, 2000 ) and all these tourers were expected to shoot a immense sum of money for circulation into the host state ‘s economic system in both short-term and long-term, where most of the money would be coming from telecasting rights, ticket gross revenues and general usage of trade goods. It was besides predicted that 150,000 occupations would be created through the money spent by tourers and other visitants.
What is more is that people involved in the Olympics can subsequently utilize their accomplishments to come in the work force if there are occupations topographic points available to them, but all these depend upon the success of the event and if people ‘s accomplishments are in a certain mode that can be used in the hereafter without extra preparation cost needed to incur. There is grounds to turn out that during Sydney 2000 Olympics US $ 3billion was generated in the local concern sector ( Kearney, 2005 ) . It must be added that Australia was expected to derive AUS $ 6.5billion from the games during the period of 1994-2004.
The chance of pulling more tourers prior, during and post the event, like in the instance of Barcelona Olympic Games 1992, where tourer figures increased a batch particularly after hosting the Olympics and doing it an established tourer resort, enables circuit operators to make more and better vacation bundles that can be offered to national and particularly international possible visitants and therefore bettering their economic well-being, every bit good as conveying more money into the local economic system. Added to these, the metropolis authorities of Sydney in a combination with private investing invested a immense sum of money in their attempt to spread out the Sydney airdrome, better the metropolis ‘s roads and expand hotel room capacity by 25 % ( Chalip,2000 ) . It can be deduced that these investings were taking to pull more tourers, event visitants and concern visitants lending positively towards the local economy.http: //www.mapsofworld.com/olympic-trivia/images/olympic-emblem/sydney2000.gifhttp: //dvice.com/pics/sydney_stadium.jpg
Sydney 2000 Olympic Games Stadium
Sydney 2000 Olympic Games Logo
Furthermore, Sydney had won 202 commands MICE by the terminal of 1999 and they included 251,280 delegates lending AUS $ 919,649,010 to the Australian economic system and therefore increasing the degree of its GDP. Besides, patrons use the Olympics to advance their trade names therefore bettering their repute while shooting money into the local economic system. Most of the times the big sums of money injected to the host state ‘s economic system from foreign investing have impacts of 1000000s of dollars and authoritiess should utilize this money in the best manner possible to profit the economic system. For illustration Visa spend over AUS $ 30million to include Sydney and images from the state into its advertizement run.
Of class there are immense costs involved in order for a state to host Olympic Games and sometimes states plan in front earlier even winning the command to host such an event. The entire investing in Australia represented 0.6 % of its GDP, which was a big sum of money spent for a short-run event. Even though most disbursals are covered by the authorities and domestic every bit good as foreign establishments, it is inevitable that taxpayer money would be needed in order to host a dearly-won event like the Olympics and fulfilling the criterions required by the International Olympic Committee ( IOC ) ( Matheson, 2006 ) .Costs related to substructure, building bowls and transporting out athleticss events are the biggest and although they are classified as costs some argue that they contribute positively towards the local economic system such as by building bowls occupations are created, take downing the unemployment degrees, and bowls can be used after the Olympics to host other athleticss or leisure events triping some economic growing. In the instance of Barcelona 1992 Olympics important substructure betterments have taken topographic point in merely 8 old ages clip, in order to be ready at the clip of the event, whereas 50 old ages were usually needed for sea forepart, sewerage, telecommunication betterments and new airdrome building to take topographic point. These alterations have helped Barcelona to develop and look as a more attractive touristry finish. Besides, in the instance of Athens 2004 Games transit betterments to roads, tube and trains helped towards doing the metropolis more modern-day ( Kearney,2005 ) . This facet, substructure, add ups to the life criterions of locals every bit good as doing the metropolis more accessible to future tourers since they will hold the opportunity to utilize delighting transit methods. In Australia nevertheless, some locales had to travel through care in order to be able to host other types of events as good which required further costs than benefits to the Australian economic system and besides made the locales to free from their original individuality and history. An illustration of such an action is the Olympic Park 2000 which has been transformed in order to host athleticss events and several types of carnivals. Similarly, the Olympic Stadium of Beijing 2008 Olympics has been transformed in order to be more profitable.
Ex-post surveies have proven that there is non adequate grounds that economic benefits arise from athleticss events to neither athleticss squads, nor installations and harmonizing to Humphreys ( 2003, p.6 ) in US building new athleticss installations failed to increase income per capita or entire employment degree ( Owen, 2005 ) . Even though a $ 5.1billion addition in NSW ‘s GDP resulted from the Olympics, where two fifths would travel towards household income Sydney turned out to face disbursals.
Added to these, the herding out consequence can be considered as a negative facet of the Olympic Games that affects the local economic system, including its GDP figures. The Australian authorities was worried that people and concern would prefer other touristry and concern locations and therefore created the runs ‘Fun and Games ‘ , ‘meet Australia ‘ and the ‘open for concern ‘ run. Local people sometimes prefer to travel off from their metropoliss while events are taking topographic point since they think that excessively much traffic is traveling to be present and it would be better for them to be off at that clip therefore take downing disbursement figures and injections of local people in the economic system particularly if they go on vacations to another finish. What is more is that, Olympic Games can pull more visitants to the event, like witnesss of the games, people who want to research the host state, and people who want to do concern at the host metropolis during that clip but it can besides forestall tourers from sing the certain finish. This is due to the fact that a batch of people are traveling to be present at that period and they might prefer to see if after the Olympic Games have finished, since they will hold the opportunity to research and bask more topographic points when less people are traveling to be present. Sometimes these tourers ne’er go to the state, doing it loose money from the touristry industry. Additionally, hotel room monetary values during the Olympics tend to be higher than usual, with no major alterations in their visual aspect and installations that offer and reinforce the herding out consequence, this cut downing disbursement coming from touristry, since usual clients tend to avoid sing them during that clip and cut down the net disbursement in the host metropolis ( Owen, 2005 ) .
The procedure of planning and hosting the Olympics requires a high hazard and local governments should be careful since both short-term and long-term are of import. Examples such as Montreal, which hosted the 1976 Summer Olympic Games and 30 old ages subsequently the initial cost of US $ 1.5billion has non yet been recovered, demo how inauspicious can mega events turn out to be for a state ‘s economic system, since that debt has to be paid away and it cuts back from investing in other sectors of the economic system, such as instruction, health care and making new locales that would pull tourers, therefore making an chance cost. This debt in bend affects betterments that could be made, which affect negatively the touristry industry. Another illustration is Greece that was the host for 2004 Summer Olympic Games and is still confronting a 6 % budget shortage due to the games. Besides, Greece is confronting the job that athleticss installations can non be for good used and might hold to close down and take to no benefits towards the local community ( Kearney, 2005 ) . Greece can be an illustration to future host states to avoid building bowls and installations that will hold no lasting usage in the hereafter every bit good as can non retrieve their initial cost shortly or even in the long-term and therefore convey no fiscal benefits to the state.
An of import result of money injected and continuously being go arounding in economic systems is the multiplier consequence, which estimates the impact of touristry on an economic system through direct, indirect and induced disbursement but does n’t demo the income figures generated through touristry in each sector of the economic system. It can make jobs sometimes, since multipliers calculated utilizing incorrect methodological analysis are of a excessively big graduated table. This arises chiefly from the ignorance of chance costs and intervention of costs as benefits, as proven by ex-post surveies mentioned before.
We have gone through the emerging impacts from mega events that affect a touristry finish but what will be the impacts on London 2012 Olympic Games which have non taken topographic point yet? It must be noted that London is one of the most successful and established concern Centres and hosting the Olympics will convey even more concern to run in the UK economic system.
First, all the support of the Olympic Games is done by both private and public administrations taking the development of East London. The London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games ( LOCOG ) generates most of its & A ; lb ; 2billion budget from private sector and receives income from gross revenues, trade goods, patrons and the IOC whereas the Olympic Delivery Authority ( ODA ) generates its income from the populace sector. All the support will be lending positively towards edifice substructure and bowls in the Olympic Park that can be used in the long-run for the UK community ‘s benefit. What is more, is that the Greater London Authority ( GLA ) works at its best come-at-able degrees to convey benefits to the locals and gives & A ; lb ; 925million to the ODA.
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sightseeingtours.co.uk/london-tourist-uk/london-images/london-olympics-2012.jpghttp: //www.bbc.co.uk/london/content/images/2007/06/04/2012_logo_white_385x450.jpg
London 2012 Olympic Games Advertisement
Official London 2012 Olympic Games Logo
Furthermore, the London Development Agency ( LDA ) , controls the sustainable economic growing and makes certain that locals will profit every bit much as they can from the Olympics every bit good as it invests & A ; lb ; 250million towards covering the substructure costs and & A ; lb ; 220million towards cleaning the Park that is managed by the ODA. Another & A ; lb ; 2.2billion are generated by the National Lottery Funds that contribute towards the building of the Olympic installations, that add up to the state ‘s value and make strong bequests that people can profit from even in the long-run. The full substructure such as the energy Centre, new roads, new Bridgess and the pumping station will be trade name new and purpose to cover the demands of the locals even in the long-run once more.
Since the London Olympics follow a sustainable form they aim to build locales that will be used post the games every bit good as seeking to utilize bing locales to do a better usage of them and if locales are non traveling to be used after the Olympics they will be made impermanent so that no unneeded costs will incur like in old Olympics hosts like Barcelona and Greece. The Olympic Village will be turned into places after the Games and even more houses will be built every bit good as stores, coffeehouse, eating houses to supply more services to the locals and therefore making more occupations. London has another solution to the job of under qualified workers since it will offer occupation preparation to the locals ( London 2012, 2010 ) .
To reason, I have explained the economic impact of mega events on touristry utilizing chiefly the illustration of Sydney 2000 Games and showed that it is of high importance that authoritiess should take the most good schemes while hosting such events, holding in head non merely the short-run but the long-term effects of their policies. Sydney 2000 Games can move as a benchmark, since they were the first hosts to take that peculiar attack and emphasise on concern and economic benefits go forthing behind them strong bequests even though non all investing was done sagely.
Besides, the illustration of London shows that old forms are being corrected and followed and the bequest left behind investings in substructure can be judged upon their success. However, it is argued that no Olympics have shown adequate grounds that there are of import impacts such as additions in family impact ( Owen, 2005 ) . Furthermore, it would be just to advert that societal, cultural, political and environmental impacts play a important function on a touristry finish since by demoing to tourists the bequests and alone civilizations that mega events make every bit good as caring about the environment while transporting out such event attracts other classs of tourers every bit good as it creates a better topographic point for people to see.