Abstraction: National Parkss have assorted ecotourism attractive forces. One of the ecotourism installations is canopy paseo which is a popular activity being established in several Parkss including at Penang National Park. This survey investigates the economic value of the canopy paseo experience at Penang National Park. For the intent of this survey, a entire 132 respondents were interviewed utilizing the Contingent Valuation Method and Travel Cost Method ( TCM ) . The CVM determination of this survey provides a lower average estimation of the willingness to pay for canopy paseo than the average consumer excess estimated utilizing the TCM. Consequences from the consumer excess estimated by the TCM and the willingness to pay by CVM are regressed with the visitants ‘ socioeconomic and demographic features to obtain the best fitted maps.
Keywords: willingness to pay, consumer excess, travel cost method and Contingent Valuation Method.
* Respectively research helpers and professor at INTROP and Faculty of Economics and Management, UPM.
# Correspondent Author Tel: 03-89467744 Electronic mail: mohdshahwahid @ gmail.com
Tourism is one of the of import sectors in some of the states include Malaysia. Harmonizing Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific ( UNESCAP ) , in 1980s touristry became an of import industry in worldwide. The causes of this fast growing rate in touristry sector are increased in personal income and leisure clip, betterment in international transit systems and greater public consciousness of other parts of the universe due to improved communications ( UNESCAP ) .
The major tourer attractive forces in Malaysia are diverse in their natural attractive force such as forest, mountains, national park, coastlines and island. Canopy paseo is one of the activities that offered in National Park. Mohd Shahwahid ( 2009 ) stated that forest canopy touristry has the possible to be an ecotourism attractive force while at the same time advancing forest preservation. There are many activities that provide in National park presents, and as we can see the figure of visitant has increased. So this survey was to find whether the canopy paseo is of import to pull the tourers. Furthermore, it is fascinating to cognize what motives visitants to mount up the canopy paseo and the features of the canopy paseo in Penang National Park itself. Besides, are the current ticket monetary values for the canopy paseo in recreational countries such as national Parkss are relevant? In connexion with, this survey is really relevant to measure the extent to which willingness to pay is in every tourer who visits the canopy paseo in Penang National Park Because there were many surveies already on WTP of recreational country in Malaysia. In add-on, this survey should be done to supply economic value in the Penang National Park in Malaysia.
The general aim of this survey is to understand forest canopy touristry and to measure the economic value of canopy paseo in Parkss and forest recreational country. The specific aims of this survey are: ( 1 ) To find the features of canopy touristry in Penang National Park ; ( 2 ) to gauge the visitant ‘s economic value of canopy touristry in Penang National Park.
MATERIALS AND METHOD
Travel Cost Method: TCM is one of the methods used to valuing environmental goods such as recreational countries or sing wildlife or endangered species. The TCM normally used to gauge the recreational usage benefit for a diversion site by associating Marshallian demand curve. Normally demand is through empirical observation estimated by regressing figure of visits by an person I to a recreational site J ( Vij ) against the monetary value of visit say an admittance fee. But this is non executable because the fee does non alter with the figure of visits. Hence we rely on the TCM theoretical account to deduce a demand map for recreational site. Travel cost for single I to the recreational site J ( TCij ) is taken as a placeholder for the monetary value of a visit to the site. This travel cost is an sum of four constituents ; distance cost to the site ( DCij ) , chance cost of clip spent to and from the site ( TIij ) and at the site ( T2ij ) , and an admittance fee to the site ( Fij ) ( Freeman 1992 ) . A simple TCM theoretical account can be defined as:
TCij = DCij + T1ij + T2ij + Fij
DCij is a map of distance and cost per stat mi which would change depending on the type of vehicle used and sum of gasoline.
T1ij is a related to the clip used going to and from site, and that exhausted site, and income of the single visitant.
T2ij is a related to the clip used going to and from site, and that exhausted site, and income of the single visitant.
Fij is usually non variable but its add-on does raise the entire travel cost incurred by an person.
The functional signifier which been used in this survey is the dual log signifier which subsequently been regress to cognize the consequence of consumer excess.
Double Log Form
logV = ? + ? log TC + ? log Ten
V the figure of trip
TC travel cost
? , ? and ? parametric quantities estimated from the arrested development.
The demand curve produced by this theoretical account relates the figure of trip to the travel cost, income and parametric quantities estimated from the arrested development. The estimation of consumer excess is so obtained by use the semi-log expression.
CS = – 1 / ?TC
CS Consumer excess per trip
?TC Coefficient of the variable travel cost
Contingent rating method: CVM is usage to mensurate the consumer ‘s willingness to pay in wellness economic sciences, cultural economic, and environmental economic sciences. Ciriacy-Wantrup is individual that responsible to was proposed CVM in 1947, while Davis is a first individual implement this method around 1960 ‘s. A simple theoretical account follows the undermentioned signifier:
WTP = ? + ?0A + ?1E + ?2M
WTP willingness to pay of canopy paseo in PNP
?0?1?2 the coefficients of the mugwumps variables
E instruction degree
THE CASE STUDY
Researcher country: Penang National Park ( PNP ) is located in Pulau Pinang and covers a land country around 1200 hour angle which includes 72 hour angle of virgin jungle wood. Penang national park is merely new urban park in Malaysia which is offers a assortment of ecotourism activities include jungle trekking, canopy walk manner, encampment, bird observation and yachting. The most popular activities are jungle trekking. While canopy walk are besides attract visitant in this national park. The PNP canopy paseo was added in 2009 the length of the paseo is 250 metres and the tallness 15 metres above the land.
Methodology involved qualitative surveies utilizing personal interview study to derive information and cognition on WTP and TCM in this survey. A sum of 132 questionnaires were collected which is divided into three subdivisions: site visit to eco-tourism, perceptual experience about canopy paseo and background of respondents.
Visitor Profiles: As seen in Table 1, most of the tourers whose visits the PNP are in the age group 20 – 29 old ages old about 78.03 % . While the group age of 30 – 39 old ages old are the 2nd highest who visit the PNP ( 15.15 % ) and the lowest are the age group of the 50 – 59 old ages old and age group of 60 – 69 shared the same per centum where merely 1.51 % merely who came to see the PNP. Most of the visitants are male around 56.06 % , while 43.93 % is female. A big per centum of the grade holders ( 51.30 % ) are the tourer who came to see the PNPP followed by STPM/Certificate/Diploma ( 24.24 % ) , high school ( 15.15 % ) and Master Degree ( 4.54 % ) . Most of them are student ( 31.82 % ) .
Table 1 Profile of Visitors to Penang National Park
Master Degree and Above
Features of visit: Table 2 shows the features of visit. Most of the tourers ( 95.45 % ) who are visit the PNPP want to bask the nature rain forest in PNPP. While 85.60 % chose to see the canopy paseo and merely 6.06 % of the tourers chose to travel fishing, bivouacing and loosen uping in the PNPP.
Majority tourer knows TNPP from the relations or the local people ( 28.78 % ) . While the information provided by travel bureaus is merely 5.3 % and travel usher per centum is 15.63 % . On the other manus, the least beginnings of information about PNP provided are by hotels and cyberspace ( 5.3 % ) . The PNP was launched on 4th April 2003 so this park is still considered as a new national park in Malaysia.
Table 2 Characteristics of Visit
Reasons for sing
To see nature rain forest
To bask the rivers and waterfalls
Others ( fishing, bivouacing and loosen uping )
Beginning of information
Others ( relatives/local )
The public presentation of Canopy Walkway: Harmonizing to the Table 3, the determination shows that from all the tourers who visit the PNP, merely 15.90 % did non come in the canopy paseo. This happened possibly because of several ground such as fright of tallness, did non hold adequate clip or possibly because of they did non hold involvement at all for canopy paseo. Most of the tourers ( 84.09 % ) are sing the canopy paseo in PNP. Most of the tourers visit the PNP because this is the lone urban national park in Malaysia.
The tabular array below shows the degree of satisfaction of the tourer in sing the canopy paseo in PNPP. Harmonizing to the Table 3, from the 84.09 % tourers who came to sing the canopy paseo, 56.81 % are slightly satisfied. While merely 3.78 % are really disgruntled and 14.39 % are recorded to be really satisfied.
Around 53.03 % were derive the grasp when they sing the canopy paseo in PNPP. They were more witting about conserving the environment. On the other manus, 17.42 % were gain cognition from experience the canopy paseo. Some tourer can larn about the trees while basking themselves through the paseo. While some of them wanted to dispute to get the better of the fright of height 4.5 % .
Table 3: The public presentation of Canopy Walkway
The public presentation of Canopy Walkway
Number of visitants
Experiencing canopy paseo
Did non sing canopy paseo
Degree of satisfaction on canopy experience
Knowledge Gain on the Rainforest on Canopy Walkway
Experience for larning
Appreciation of nature
Challenge to get the better of fright
Estimating mean willingness to pay: This survey found that the average WTP for admittance on the paseo was RM 3.46 per paseo trip with a median of RM3 per paseo trip. This WTP founded to be lower than the bing admittance fee charged of RM5/trip.
Table 4: Willingness to pay ( WTP )
Mean ( RM )
Median ( RM )
Travel cost method application: In this survey the travel cost was regress by utilizing the dual log functional signifier. Below is the consequence of the arrested development as shown in Table 5.
Double Log Form
logV = ? + ? log TC + ? log M
logV = -2.048382 – 0.318841 log TC + 0.580053 log M
Table 5: The consequence of Regression Analysis
Dependent Variable: LNV
Method: Least Squares
Date: 11/06/10 Time: 18:24
Sample: 1 132
Included observations: 132
Average dependant volt-ampere
S.D. dependant volt-ampere
S.E. of arrested development
Akaike info standard
Sum squared resid
Prob ( F-statistic )
From the tabular array above shows that the income, there is positive relationship between the Numberss of visit. Travel cost has a negative relationship between the Numberss of visits. It means that tourers like to see frequently when the travel cost is low. All the explanatory variables are statistically important at the 95 % degree of significance. While the R2 is 0.854738, that is acceptable for cross-sectional informations analysis.
Calculation of consumer excess: consumer excess per trip will be calculated for finding the entire one-year consumer excess. The expression to cipher consumer excess is
Consumer excess per trip = – 1
The entire visit per twelvemonth is 70785 since January until October 2010, so the entire value of consumer ‘s excess is RM62727.20 per twelvemonth.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The findings of this survey indicate that the PNPP is an urban national park so many tourers who come to alleviate emphasis and have fun basking the beauty of tropical rain forest. There are besides among those who visited the PNP for bivouacing and boating experience, jungle trailing and research a tropical rain forest, from high degree through the canopy paseo. However canopy paseo is acquiring some unfavorable judgment from respondents who stated that the way is deserving less because there is no wildlife or insects or birds to be seen but if get lucky they will look. But this can be excused because the canopy is still new and have more clip to mend the failings. This was evidenced by the low willingness to pay by the tourers which is lower than the monetary value they pay to come in the canopy merely RM3.46, while the entry fee is RM5.
There is considerable involvement in the enlargement of canopy touristry and it is believed to offer future potency as a major touristry attractive force. The Ministry of Tourism must offer the canopy touristry to be the portion of the thought of sing Malaysia in order to do tourers bask the state ‘s forest and other natural assets. Nevertheless, Malaysia must be the first state among the Asia part to be the most state which have the good quality of canopy touristry. The Forestry Department besides must hold the regulations and ordinances related to the canopy touristry so that there will be the administration which can supervise the development of canopy touristry. The cooperation between NGO ‘s, Gos, academic establishments and canopy touristry undertakings should guarantee the feasibleness and quality of steps and guidelines for sustainable canopy touristry.
Besides, the development of the canopy touristry must non bury to hold the engagement with the local communities. The national park direction should take into history the positions and the engagement of the communities nearby. Besides, the direction should be originative in advancing the activities in the park particularly the canopy paseo.