1. Describe some of the tradeoffs faced by each of the followers: 1. a household make up one’s minding whether to purchase a new auto 2. a member of Congress make up one’s minding how much to pass on national Parkss 3. a company president make up one’s minding whether to open a new mill 4. a professor make up one’s minding how much to fix for category
5. a recent college alumnus make up one’s minding whether to travel to graduate school 2. You are seeking to make up one’s mind whether to take a holiday. Most of the costs of the holiday ( airfare. hotel. and forgone rewards ) are measured in dollars. but the benefits of the holiday are psychological. How can you compare the benefits to the costs? 3. You were be aftering to pass Saturday working at your parttime occupation. but a friend asks you to travel skiing. What is the true cost of traveling skiing? Now suppose you had been be aftering to pass the twenty-four hours analyzing at the library. What is the cost of traveling skiing in this instance? Explain. 4. You win $ 100 in a hoops pool. You have a pick between passing the money now or seting it off for a twelvemonth in a bank history that pays 5 per centum involvement. What is the chance cost of passing the $ 100 now?
5. The company that you manage has invested $ 5 million in developing a new merchandise. but the development is non rather finished. At a recent meeting. your salespeople study that the debut of viing merchandises has reduced the expected gross revenues of your new merchandise to $ 3 million. If it would be $ 1 million to complete development and do the merchandise. should you travel in front and make so? What is the most that you should pay to finish development? 6. The Social Security system provides income for people over age 65. If a receiver of Social Security decides to work and gain some income. the sum he or she receives in Social Security benefits is typically cut down 6. How does the proviso of Social Security affect people’s inducement to salvage while working? 7. How does the decrease in benefits associated with higher net incomes affect people’s incentive to work past age 65? 7. A 1996 measure reforming the federal government’s antipoverty plans limited many public assistance receivers to merely two old ages of benefits.
8. How does this alteration affect the inducements for working? 9. How might this alteration stand for a tradeoff between equality and efficiency? 8. Your roomie is a better cook than you are. but you can clean more rapidly than your roomie can. If your roomie did all the cookery and you did all the cleansing. would your jobs take you more or less clip than if you divided each undertaking equally? Give a similar illustration of how specialisation and trade can do two states both better off. 9. Explain whether each of the undermentioned authorities activities is motivated by a concern about equality or a concern about efficiency. In the instance of efficiency. discourse the type of market failure involve 10. modulating overseas telegram Television monetary values
11. supplying some hapless people with verifiers that can be used to purchase nutrient 12. prohibiting smoke in public topographic points 13. interrupting up Standard Oil ( which one time owned 90 per centum of all oil refineries ) into several smaller companies 14. enforcing higher personal income revenue enhancement rates on people with higher incomes 15. establishing Torahs against driving while intoxicated 10. Discuss each of the undermentioned statements from the point of views of equality and efficiency. 16. “Everyone in society should be guaranteed the best health care possible. ” 17. “When workers are laid off. they should be able to roll up unemployment benefits until they find a new occupation. ” 11. In what ways is your criterion of populating different from that of your parents or grandparents when they were your age? Why have these alterations occurred? 12. Suppose Americans decide to salvage more of their incomes. If Bankss lend this excess salvaging to concerns. which use the financess to construct new mills. how might this lead to faster growing in productiveness? Who do you say benefits from the higher productiveness? Is society acquiring a free tiffin?
13. In 2010. President Barack Obama and Congress enacted a health care reform measure in the United States. Two ends of the measure were to supply more Americans with wellness insurance ( via subsidies for lower-income families financed by revenue enhancements on higher-income families ) and to cut down the cost of health care ( via assorted reforms in how health care is provided ) . 18. How make these ends relate to equality and efficiency? 19. How might healthcare reform addition productiveness in the United States? 2
0. How might healthcare reform lessening productiveness in the United States? 14. During the Revolutionary War. the American settlements could non raise adequate revenue enhancement gross to to the full fund the war attempt ; to do up this difference. the settlements decided to publish more money. Printing money to cover outgos is sometimes referred to as an “inflation revenue enhancement. ” Who do you believe is being “taxed” when more money is printed? Why? 15. Imagine that you are a policymaker seeking to make up one’s mind whether to cut down the rate of rising prices. To do an intelligent determination. what would you necessitate to cognize about rising prices. unemployment. and the tradeoff between them? 16. A policymaker is make up one’s minding how to finance the building of a new airdrome. He can either pay for it by increasing citizens’ revenue enhancements or by publishing more money. What are some of the short-term and long-term effects of each option?
1. Pull a circular-flow diagram. Identify the parts of the theoretical account that correspond to the flow of goods and services and the flow of dollars for each of the undermentioned activities. 1. Selena pays a storekeeper $ 1 for a quart of milk. 2. Stuart earns $ 4. 50 per hr working at a fastfood eating house. 3. Shanna spends $ 30 to acquire a haircut. 4. Sally earns $ 10. 000 from her 10 per centum ownership of Acme Industrial. 2. Imagine a society that produces military goods and consumer goods. which we’ll call “guns” and “butter. ” 5. Pull a production possibilities frontier for guns and butter. Using the construct of chance cost. explicate why it most probably has a bowed-out form.
6. Show a point that is impossible for the economic system to accomplish. Show a point that is executable but inefficient. 7. Imagine that the society has two political parties. called the Hawks ( who want a strong military ) and the Doves ( who want a smaller military ) . Show a point on your production possibilities frontier that the Hawks might take and a point the Doves might take. 8. Imagine that an aggressive neighboring state reduces the size of its military. As a consequence. both the Hawks and the Doves cut down their coveted production of guns by the same sum. Which party would acquire the bigger “peace dividend. ” measured by the addition in butter production? Explain.
3. The first rule of economic sciences discussed in Chapter 1 is that people face tradeoffs. Use a production possibilities frontier to exemplify society’s tradeoff between two “goods”—a clean environment and the measure of industrial end product. What do you say determines the form and place of the frontier? Show what happens to the frontier if applied scientists develop a new manner of bring forthing electricity that emits fewer pollutants. 4. An economic system consists of three workers: Larry. Moe. and Curly. Each works 10 hours a twenty-four hours and can bring forth two services: mowing lawns and rinsing autos. In an hr. Larry can either cut down one lawn or rinse one auto ; Moe can either cut down one lawn or wash two autos ; and Curly can either cut down two lawns or rinse one auto. 9. Calculate how much of each service is produced under the undermentioned fortunes. which we label A. B. C. and D: * • All three spend all their clip cut downing lawns. ( A )
* • All three spend all their clip rinsing autos. ( B ) * • All three spend half their clip on each activity. ( C ) * • Larry spends half his clip on each activity. while Moe merely washes autos and Curly merely mows lawns. ( D ) 10. Graph the production possibilities frontier for this economic system. Using your replies to portion ( a ) . place points A. B. C. and D on your graph. 11. Explain why the production possibilities frontier has the form it does. 12. Are any of the allotments calculated in portion ( a ) inefficient? Explain. 5. Classify the undermentioned subjects as associating to microeconomics or macroeconomics. 13. a family’s determination about how much income to salvage
14. the consequence of authorities ordinances on car emanations 15. the impact of higher national economy on economic growing 16. a firm’s determination about how many workers to engage 17. the relationship between the rising prices rate and alterations in the measure of money 6. Classify each of the undermentioned statements as positive or normative. Explain. 18. Society faces a short-term tradeoff between rising prices and unemployment. 19. A decrease in the rate of money growing will cut down the rate of rising prices. 20. The Federal Reserve should cut down the rate of money growing. 21. Society ought to necessitate public assistance receivers to look for occupations. 22. Lower revenue enhancement rates encourage more work and more economy. 7. If you were president. would you be more interested in your economic advisers’ positive positions or their normative positions? Why?