Education After World War IL BY Tittles February 12, 2013. Education after WI After World War II, President Roosevelt signed the G. ‘ Bill on June 22, 1944. The aim was to provide federal aid to help veterans adjust to civilian life. The Bill helped provide hospitalizing benefits, purchase of homes and businesses, education was also a highly demented benefit from the GIG Bill. Enrollment in university campuses soared in United States after the G. ‘ Bill was passed in the United States.
It was also a time when women and minority students became a much larger presence on most campuses across the United States. Due to the G. Bill, there was a rapid increase in student enrollment in university campuses. One of the major components in the campus growth was a need for more dormitories. By 1955, higher education expanded to accommodate nearly 2. 5 million students annually (p 94 of Mod. Arch. And US Campus Movement). This made most Universities aware of the need for additional facilities on the main campus.
The Higher Education Facilities Act of 1963 provided the funding needed for the construction of educational facilities and major general College building programs in which more than a 300 percent increase of federal contribution to postsecondary education occurred (p 96 of Mod. Arch and US Campus Movement). Traditional values of campus planning and design were replaced by the expediencies of construction speed, affordability and functional efficiencies (p 27 of Tectonics, Tolerances and Time).
Most universities timidly embraced the Modern architecture style that dominated construction during the period. Eventually, they embraced it as a fitting symbol of their commitment to contemporary educational values. Many of these new campus structures expressed a simple and restrained Modern architectural style. Some examples of how modern architecture style was organized to symbolize a Iberia institutional mission include Error Sardine’s and Miss Van Deer Rose’s Buildings at Drake University.
In constructing the Women’s Dormitory at Drake University, Sardine reduced the building to its basic compositional elements-brick panels, steel-framed fenestration panels, floor slabs and balconies (p 31 of Tectonics, Tolerances and Time). In many instances, modernist dormitories introduced a distinctly communitarian ordering of space into the otherwise hierarchical framework of the American college and university campus. Mime’s creation of Meredith Hall also at Drake University was highly organized and simple.
His buildings clearly expressed the separation between the structure and the curtain walls (p 34 of tectonics, Tolerances and Time). After World War II, expansion of academic units began, among them multiple variations of scientific and laboratory buildings. Laboratory space is limited. The main goals were to enclose utilities, services such as elevators, and ventilation in areas which would still leave maximum open space within the structure, permanent until extensive renovation An increasing number of research institutions are creating “open” labs to support team-based work.
The open lab concept is significantly different from that of the “closed” lab of the past, which was based on accommodating the individual principle investigator. In open labs, researchers share not only the space itself but also equipment, bench space, and support staff. The open lab format facilitates communication between scientists and makes the lab more easily adaptable for future needs. A wide variety of labs?from wet biology and chemistry labs, to engineering labs, to dry computer science facilities?are now being designed as open labs. Most laboratory facilities built or designed since the mid-sass in the U.
S. Possess some type of open lab. Technological advances allow for more research procedures to be automated. In the past equipment was often squeezed into an existing lab setup; today’s labs must be designed to accept the needed equipment easily. There are several types of movable casework to consider. Storage cabinets that are 7 Ft. Tall allow a large volume of space for storage and can be very affordable, compared to the cost of multiple base cabinets. Mobile write-up stations can be moved into the lab whenever sit-down space is required for data collection.
The main goals were to encase utilities, services ouch as elevators, and ventilation in areas which would still leave maximum open space within (while also not being frozen within) the structure, permanent until extensive renovation (see also, McKinney and Screech article, 1967, for utilities, safety, etc. ). This was part of a greater goal of full space-optimizing flexibility, which included the ability to change the walls and partitions of a given lab to create larger or smaller rooms as needed. Repetitions of modules meant each space could be expanded by that many feet in increments until needed space was acquired. 51