The philosophy of education can be referred as the academic field of applied philosophy, or referred to one of the educational philosophies that promote a specific type or vision of education which examines the definition, goals, and the meaning of education. As an academic field, its central subject is education and its method is those of philosophy. Which is it is either the process of education, or the discipline of the education. Part of the discipline may be concerned with aims, forms, methods or results of the process of educating.
Or it may concerns with the concepts, aims, and methods of the discipline. Example, it might study what constitutes upbringing and education, the values and norms revealed through upbringing and educational practices, the limits and legitimization of education as an academic discipline, and the relation between educational theory and practice. An academic discipline, or field of study, is a branch of knowledge that is taught and researched at the college or university level.
Disciplines are defined and recognized by the academic journals in which research is published, and the learned societies and academic departments or faculties to which their practitioners belong. Philosophy of education is usually housed in departments or colleges of education. The multiple ways of conceiving education together with the multiple fields and approaches of philosophy make philosophy of education not only a very diverse field but also one that is not easily defined.
Philosophy education is the practice of teaching and learning philosophy as well as the research about it. However, no formal criteria for when educational programs and scholarly journals form an academic discipline. An educational philosophy is a normative (relating to an ideal standard or mode) theory of education that unifies pedagogy, curriculum, learning theory, and the purpose of education and is grounded in specific metaphysical, epistemological, and axiological assumptions. “Learning Theories” are elaborate hypotheses that describe how exactly the procedure occurs.
Learning theories have two chief values according to Hill (2002). One is in providing us with vocabulary and a conceptual framework for interpreting the examples of learning that we observe. The other is in suggesting where to look for solutions to practical problems. The theories do not give us solutions, but they do direct our attention to those variables that are crucial in finding solutions. Pedagogy here means by the study of being a teacher, or the process of teaching. It is also referred to as the correct use of instructive strategies.
Related with those instructive strategies, the instructor’s own philosophical beliefs of instruction are harbored and governed by the pupil’s background knowledge and experience, situation, and environment, as well as learning goals set by the student and teacher. Education means by the aims, and habits of a group of people lives on from one generation to the next. It occurs through any experiences that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts. Narrowing the meaning is the formal process by which society transmits its knowledge, skills, customs, and values from one generation to the other.
The system of educations, started with schooling phases from preschools, primary and secondary schools and continues to higher education such as university systems, liberal arts colleges, community colleges, and adult education depending on the cognitive value of every person. Towards the Formation of National Philosophy of Education During the British colonization, no clear policy on education was put. Found that there are Four types of vernacular schools – English-Medium, Malay-Medium, Chinese-Medium, and Tamil-Medium. The English-medium schools were run by missionaries and the British government.
The oldest school in Malaysia is the Penang Free School (1816). The schools are Mostly in the urban area. During the 2nd world war, Education was used as a tool for propaganda to inculcate loyalty to the Japanese emperor. The Japanese language, Nippon-Go, become the official medium of instruction for all subjects in schools, be they Malay, Chinese, or Tamil schools,The English and Mandarin languages were banned in schools Secondary schools were used as army operation centres and school hostels as detention camps It is compulsory for students to sing the Japanese national song every morning.
Before independence, there were a few educational system built. Such as, 1949-the Holgate report, 1951-the Barnes report, 1952-the Fenn- wu report, 1952-the Educational Ordinance, 1956-the Razak report, and the Education Act 1961. After the Education Act was passed, the National Education System was implemented. National Education System state that, “Education in Malaysia is an on-going efforts towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are ntellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonic, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving high level of personal well-being as well as being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the family, the society and the nation at large” “Education is a priority of the Federal Government of Malaysia and it is committed to provide quality education to all.
The 9th Malaysian Plan (9MP) from 2006 to 2010 has placed great importance on education, training and lifelong learning. In line with greater focus on human development under 9MP, a total of RM40. 3 billion (about 21% of the total budget allocation) has been allocated for the expenditure of education and training development. ” Analysis of our National Philosophy of Education (NPE) Under this topic, we would like to discuss in-depth and analyse our National Philosophy of Education.
Our analysis is based on two primary subject which are; factors that contribute to the development of NPE and the elements that are mention in it. First of all, we would like to share a bit of information regarding NPE. Its formulation was generated due to the Cabinet Committee Report review on human development in 1979. It was developed in 1988 and it was based on some of our policy documents, belief and principles related to education in this country. It combines the goals, policies, and educational practices to form a consistent, clear and logical entity. Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, in order to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically, balanced and harmoniously, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God.
Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level of personal well-being to contribute to the betterment of the nation, family and ociety. ” Based on our NPE, we can clearly say that our education mission is to develop a world-class quality education system which will realize the full potential of the individual and fulfil the aspiration of the Malaysian nation. Apart from that, there are four objectives to our NPE; to produce loyal and united Malaysian, to produce happy, well-mannered individuals who have faith, knowledge and vision, to prepare the nation?s human resource for development needs, and last but not least to provide educational opportunities for all Malaysians.
With the basic information given above regarding our NPE, we can say that our educational philosophy is well developed based on the branches of philosophy that we have discovered in chapter 1. As we all know, branches of philosophy consist of four branches; metaphysics, epistemology, axiology and logic. However, in our chapter we will not analyse NPE based on the branches as it is already mention in chapter 1. Moving on, as we mention earlier, there are several factors that contribute to the development of our educational philosophy.
To be exact, there are seven factors all together and the factors are; religious, social, political, economic, and not to forget the individual factor. In term of the religious factor, we found that it is undoubtedly mention in the expression; “to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonic, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God”. As we are all aware of, the individuals in our country are free to practice their own religious but Islam is the official religion in Malaysia.
What we can understand is that the human development element in our NPE revolves around religious belief and the devotion to God. Without it, we are not complete. The second factor is social factor. As mention in the expression; “to produce Malaysian citizens who are capable of achieving a high level of personal well-being to contribute to the betterment of the nation, family and society”, we can understand that this factor emphasize on the unity among our multi-racial citizens. Malays, Chinese, Indians and etc. should understand and respect each other so that the incident of 13 May will ot be repeating. As all unite under one roof, we can achieve higher goal together and help to improve our beloved country. Each and every one of us plays an important role in developing our country for a better living. Even though it is just a small role, it will help us achieve, betterment. Political element is the third factor that contributes to the development of our NPE. Generally it is known that NPE was made up according to the national ideology which can be reflected on the official documents such as Education Reports, Malaysia Plans and National Principe.
In this respect, the aim of achieving racial unity was one of the basic considerations when developing NPE. In fact this has been a very influential factor related to the social factor in the NPE as mention above. All racial in Malaysia are equal. Thus, without considering the political aspect, we may crumble as live in chaos. The expression; “to produce Malaysian citizens who are capable of achieving a high level of personal well-being to contribute to the betterment of the nation, family and society”, is also based on the economic factor that contribute to NPE. This factor refers to the productivity of our country.
Individuals with different set of skills and specialization in many different field or profession may contribute to the productivity of our country. We can become a strong economic country when we as the citizens keep on upgrading our skills and knowledge for the betterment of al and the nation. Thus we need to produce Malaysian that is knowledgeable, competent and responsible in order for us to achieve so. Last but not least, through the process of education we are able to develop the potential of individuals. These individual’s potentials cover all intellectual, spiritual, emotional and physical aspects.
As mention in the expression; “Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner,” Following this positive attitude is tried to be inculcate in individuals, enjoy spiritual peacefulness and ever ready to face challenges in life. The ambition to produce balanced and harmonious individuals was also one of the aspirations of NPE. Thus, this factor is known as the individual factor. With reference to the factors mention above we can clearly say that each element mention in our NPE is very important and meaningful.
It has its own reason and purpose as why it is mention in NPE. We shall now proceed to discuss NPE in detail by referring to its element and the implication for each element. And in order to do so, the table below will help us all understand the elements better. Elements of NPEImplication Education is an on-going effort•Education is a life-long learning process that includes acquiring and transferring of knowledge, skills and noble values. •Continuous education will assist the individual to adapt to various types of changes throughout the years. Development of individual potentials•Every individual have their own potential and abilities. Potential and abilities should be nurtured, developed and enhance. •Education should offer the individuals to develop their own potential and abilities. Holistic and integrated development of the individual•Talents, potentials and abilities do not develop separately
•Enhancement and development should encompass intellectual, spiritual, emotional and physical. Balanced and harmonic being•Importance of intellectual knowledge, good personality (emotional), belief in God and good character (spiritual) and good health (physical) •Balance of the four aspects will produce an individual who can live harmony with one another. Resilience to face all life’s challenges and problems. Intellectual element•Possesses the 3Rs’ skills •Possess creative, critical and reflective thinking skills •Always strives to acquire and develop true knowledge •Willing to share knowledge with others Spiritual element•Believe in God •Possess good character and upholds moral values Emotional element•A feeling of togetherness and unity •Possess and nurture love •Matured and stable emotions Physical element•Use physical fitness skills for the benefit of society •Be aware of importance of good health Develop technical, manipulative and social talent skills Belief in and obedience to God•Admit existence of God and accept Him as the Creator of mankind and the universe •Be aware that every individual is fully responsible for his deeds and actions
•Be aware that God determine nature’s laws and phenomena •Practice all teachings of faiths professed Knowledgeable Malaysian citizen•Strive to foster knowledge and reading culture •Broad and open minded •Love for knowledge Competent Malaysian citizen•Possess expertise and competencies •Able to execute tasks effectively and efficiently Far-sighted and has initiative •Foster good dispositions High moral standards Malaysian citizen•Be of good character •Uphold good moral and noble values as principles of life Responsible Malaysian citizen•Trustworthy •Aware that every task and responsibilities is a trust that has to be well executed •Carry out assigned tasks trustingly, sincerely and efficiently •Adhere to country’s laws •Strive towards development of self, family , society, race and country Capable of achieving personal well-being Malaysian citizen•Level-headed and calm •Possess strong resilience to face life’s challenges Possess physical and mental resilience •Capable of undergoing life’s challenges Contribute to harmony and betterment of family. Society and nation at large Malaysian citizen•Foster family understanding
•Conform to societal norm •Strive to foster national unity through tolerance, consideration, respect and etc •Strive for economic progress based on the country’s predetermined policies •Always maintain nation’s political stability and peace •Conform to country’s constitution and laws •Defend self-dignity, profession, religion, race and country •Make Rukunegara a practice daily living Love for the country As a conclusion, we as the future teacher should know about our educational philosophy which is National Philosophy of Education or commonly known as Falsafah Pendidikan Negara as we are considered as the agent in producing future generation Malaysian that holistic.
Before we end, we would like to suggest to that as future teacher we should also have our own educational philosophy. Because it is our statement on our teaching methods and decisions are based. In order to do so you can ask yourself question such as; what is the ultimate purpose of educating children? hat are your goals for your students? What are the qualities of a good teacher? What do you think is the best method to make learning easier for students? What is your responsibility to your students? , to help you create your own educational philosophy. Analyse these questions and reflect on your answers. You can create your philosophy by putting up together your answers from the questions given. Teachers have their own personality and beliefs. This is why each has his or her own way of teaching and manner of dealing with students.