Silica Fume Concrete ( SFC ) produced with intercrossed Fibers is a comparatively new and advanced stuff of building. A typical SFC with Hybrid Fibres mixture consist of absence of harsh sum replaced by all right sand in conventional concrete. The Portland cement plays the function of all right sum and the silicon oxide fume that of the cement. SFC has no big sum and contains little steel Fibers that provides extra strength and in some instances can replace traditional support.

The strength and ductileness features of SFC may be improved by utilizing intercrossed Fibers. The different combinations of intercrossed Fibers like ( Steel + galvanized Fe ) ( Steel + polypropene ) ( Steel + Waste coiled steel Fibers ) ( Steel + HDPEF ) can better the feature belongingss of SFC.

In this paper, the experimental probe has been made to measure strength belongingss of SFC utilizing Hybrid Fibers like Compressive Strength, Tensile Strength, Flexural Strength and Impact Strength. Consequences are compared with strength belongingss of SFC without Fibres and SFC with Mono Fibres.

Keywords – SFC, Steel Fibres ( SF ) , Galvanized Iron Fibres ( GIF ) , Waste Coiled Steel Fibres ( WCSF ) High Density Polyethelene Fibres ( HDPEF ) , Polypropylene Fibres ( PPF ) , Mono Fibres, Hybrid Fibres, Compressive Strength, Tensile Strength, Flexural Strength, Impact Strength.

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Introduction

Concrete is a critical stuff for the building of substructure installations throughout the universe. One can non conceive of any building without the usage of concrete. The production and use of concrete has about become an index of development. Traditional concrete has some of the restrictions like low tensile strength, low flexural strength and low impact strength. Basically concrete is brickle stuff. It has been shown that the debut of steel support can well better the tensile strength and this composite stuff, popularly known as strengthened cement concrete is used in about all structural applications. Several research workers have besides shown that the add-on of Fibres better the tensile strength, flexural strength and impact opposition of apparent concrete. The upper bound of compressive strength for stuff that can be used in commercial applications continues to be pushed higher and higher. The modern sky combatants and the recent temblors demand high strength and high ductileness in the concrete construction. This high strength and high ductileness can be achieved by the recent invention called silica smoke concrete ( SFC ) utilizing Hybrid Fibers.

SFC with Hybrid Fibres is an extremist high strength and high ductileness composite stuff with advanced mechanical belongingss, developed in the 1990s by Bouygues research lab in France. It consists of particular concrete where its microstructure is optimized by precise step of all atoms in the mix to give maximal denseness. It uses extensively the pozzolnic belongingss of extremely refined silicon oxide smoke and optimisation of the Portland cement chemical science to bring forth the highest strength hydrates.

SFC with Hybrid Fibres represents a new category of Portland cement based stuff with compressive strength in surplus of 200 MPa scope by presenting all right steel Fibers. SFC can accomplish singular flexural strength upto 50 MPa. The stuff exhibits high ductileness with typical values for energy soaking up nearing those reserved for metals. SFC with Hybrid Fibers can make stuffs that extend from those with traditional heterogenous features usually associated with concrete to more homogenous stuff that have isotropic and energy soaking up capablenesss that approach the features of metals.

In a typical SFC with Hybrid Fibres mixture design the least dearly-won constituents of conventional concrete have been fundamentally eliminated by more expensive stuffs. The all right sand used in SFC becomes tantamount to the harsh sum of conventional concrete, the Portland cement plays the function of all right aggregate the silicon oxide fume that of the cement. SFC has no big sums and contains little steel Fibers that provides extra strength and in some instances, can replace traditional steel support.

SFC with Hybrid Fibres is a better option to high public presentation concrete and has the possible to structurally vie with steel. SFC provides improved seismal public presentation by cut downing inertia tonss with lighter member, leting big warps with decreased cross subdivisions and supplying higher energy soaking up.

Research PROBLEM

SFC with Hybrid Fibres is an extremist high strength and high ductileness composite stuff with advanced mechanical belongingss. SFC uses Fibers in its production. Besides it utilizes an industrial waste viz. silicon oxide smoke in its production. The usage of intercrossed Fibers may better the strength and ductileness features of SFC. The different combinations of intercrossed Fibers like ( Steel + Polypropylene ) , ( Steel + GI ) etc. can better upon the characteristic belongingss of SFC. The available literature is soundless about the belongingss of SFC produced with Fibres. Thus there is a demand to look into in item about the add-on of intercrossed Fibers into SFC.

SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH WORK

Silica fume concrete may go the most wanted building stuff of tomorrow. The recent temblors in India and elsewhere in other parts of the universe are coercing the research workers to introduce high ductile building stuffs. Since SFC is more malleable, the survey of the same becomes of import. These research works propose the effectual usage of loanblend in the production of SFC for the sweetening of the strength and ductileness features.

1.0 Experimental Programme

Main purpose of this experimentation is to analyze the strength feature of reactive pulverization concrete produced from intercrossed Fibers. The consequences are compared with SFC produced from monoFibres. Different monoFibres used are steel Fibers ( SF ) Galvanized Fe Fibres ( GIF ) Waste Coiled Steel Fibres ( WCSF ) High denseness polythelene fibre ( HDPEF ) and polypropelyne Fibres ( PPF ) The intercrossed Fibers used in experimentation are ( SF + GIF ) , ( SF + WCSF ) , ( SF + HDPEF ) , and ( SF + PPF ) . The different strength features studied are compressive strength, tensile strength Flexural strength and impact Strength

2.0 Materials Used

In the experimentation 53 class ordinary Portland cement used. Locally available sand was used, whose specific gravitation was found to be 2.66. The sand belongs to zone-II. The silicon oxide smoke used in the experimentation was obtained from Elekem Laboratory, Navi Mumbai. The chemical composing of silicon oxide smoke is shown in tabular array.

Chemical composing of silicon oxide smoke

Chemical Composition

Percentage

Silica ( SiO2 )

89 %

Alumina ( Al2O3 )

0.5 %

Iron Oxide ( Fe2O3 )

2.5 %

Bases as ( Na20+K2O )

1.2 %

Calcium oxide ( CaO )

0.5 %

Magnesium oxide

0.6 %

The Steel Fibers used in the experimentation were obtained from Stelwols Company, 5, Industrial estate, Kamptea Road, Uppalwadi, Nagpur. These Steel Fibers were of corrugated form holding a length of 50 millimeter and an mean thickness of 1mm taking to a aspect ratio of 50. The Young ‘s modulus of Steel Fibres was found to be 2 ten 105 MPa. The denseness of steel fibre was found to be 78500 N/m3.

Polypropylene Fibers were obtained from Nina Industries, Mani Bhutan 54, Hughes route, Mumbai and obtained by Choourariiia ‘s chamber, B.V.K. lyenger route, Banglore, The polypropene Fibres were holding a length of 12 millimeters and their mean thickness was found to be 7.5 Micron taking to an aspect ratio of 1600. The Young ‘s modulus of PP Fibres was found to be 5 ten 103 MPa. The denseness of PP Fibres was found to be 9100N/m3.

The GI Fibres holding a length of 50 millimeters and diameter of 1 millimeter, which leads to an aspect ratio of 50 were used in the experimentation. The GI Fibres were cut from GI wires. The denseness of GI fibre was found to be 64000 N / M3.

The waste HDPE Fibres were obtained by cutting the waste HDPE pipes. The thickness of the fibre was 1.5mm, its breadth 5mm and its length 50mm taking to an aspect ratio of 35. The denseness of waste HDPE fibre was found to be 9870 N / M3.

The single Fibers were used at the rate of 1 % by volume fraction and the intercrossed Fibers were used at the rate of ( 0.5 % + 0.5 % ) by volume of fraction.

To impact the workability a ace plasticiser by trade name Conplast -430 was used. It was added at rate of 1.8 % ( by weight of cement ) . It is manufactured by Fosroc chemical India Ltd. Banglore, Conplast -430 is based on sulphonated naphthalene polmer. It has specific gravitation of 1.22 to 1.225 at 300C. its chloride content is nil. It is non-toxic and non-flammable. It has minimal shelf-life of 12 months when stored under normal temperature.

3.0 Casting and Testing Procedure

Cement, sand and silica smoke were weighed harmonizing to proportion 1:1:0.25 and dry mixed. To this dry mix the needed measure of Fibers were added and exhaustively assorted. The MonoFibres were used at the rate of 1 % . ( by volume fraction ) Hybrid Fibres were used at the rate of ( 0.5 % + 0.5 % ) ( by volume fraction ) . To this dry mix required measure of H2O ( W/C = 0.28 ) was added. Now ace plasticiser was added at the rate of 1.8 % ( by weight of cement ) . The full mass is homogenously assorted. This homogeneous mix was poured in to the mold, which were kept on the vibrating tabular array. Compaction was given to concrete by table quiver and manus compression. Compacted specimen was finished smooth and was kept under wet burlap bags. After 12 hours they were demoulded and H2O cured for 28 yearss.

For the compaction strength trial, specimens of size 150x150x150 millimeter were cast. They were tested on 2000 KN capacity CTM as per IS 516- 1959. For split tensile strength, cylindrical specimens of diameter 150mm and length 30mm were cast. Split tenseness trial was carried out to happen tensile strength of concrete on 2000 kN capacity CTM as per IS 5816-1999. For flexural strength, beam specimens of dimension 100x100x500mm were cast. Two point burden was adopted on an effectual span of 400mm as per IS 516-1959. For impact strength cylindrical specimens of dimension 150mm diameter and 60mm tallness were cast. For proving these specimens Schruders impact machine was used. Schruders impact machine is based on bead weight trial. The specimen was kept in the Schrudrs impact proving machine and a cock weighing 4.54 kilogram was dropped from a tallness of 457mm, Number of blows required to do first cleft and concluding failure were noted down. The concluding failure is defined as the gap of clefts in the specimen sufficiently so that pieces of concrete are touching at least out of the four positioned Lugs on the base home base. The impact energy is calculated as follows ;

Impact energy = m.g.h.n.

= ( w/g ) g.h.n.

= w.h. N.

Where,

w= weight of the ball= 4.54 kilogram = 45.4 N

h= tallness of autumn = 457 mm=0.457m

n= figure of blows required to do first cleft or concluding failure as the instance may be.

Table No. 1: Overall RESULTS OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

Description of SFC

Average Compressive Strength ( MPa )

Percentage addition of compressive strength w.r.t. mention mix

SFC with no fiber ( Ref Mix )

24.44

SFC with SF

48.00

96.36 %

SFC with GIF

45.63

86.67 %

SFC with WCSF

45.04

84.24 %

SFC with HDPEF

40.89

67.27 %

SFC with PPF

25.78

5.45 %

SFC with ( SF+GIF )

49.19

101.21 %

SFC with ( SF+WCSF )

48.89

100.00 %

SFC with ( SF+HDPEF )

48.44

98.18 %

SFC with ( SF+PPF )

48.00

96.36 %

The fluctuation in compressive strength of SFC can be depicted in the signifier of graph as shown in Fig.No.1

Fig No. 1. The fluctuation in compressive strength of SFC

Table No. 2: Overall RESULTS OF TENSILE STRENGTH

Description of SFC

Average Tensile Strength ( MPa )

Percentage addition of tensile strength w.r.t. mention mix

SFC with no fiber

( Ref Mix )

1.79

SFC with SF

4.34

142.11 %

SFC with GIF

4.01

123.68 %

SFC with WCSF

3.11

73.68 %

SFC with HDPEF

2.36

31.58 %

SFC with PPF

2.36

31.58 %

SFC with ( SF+GIF )

4.81

168.42 %

SFC with ( SF+WCSF )

4.62

157.89 %

SFC with ( SF+HDPEF )

4.43

147.37 %

SFC with ( SF+PPF )

4.39

144.74 %

The fluctuation in tensile strength of SFC can be depicted in the signifier of graph as shown in Fig. No. 2

Fig No. 2. Variation of Tensile Strength of SFC

Table No. 3: Overall RESULTS OF FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF SFC

Description of SFC

Average Flexural Strength ( MPa )

Percentage addition of flexural strength w.r.t. mention

mix

SFC with no fiber

( Ref Mix )

1.73

SFC with SF

3.68

112.31 %

SFC with GIF

2.99

72.31 %

SFC with WCSF

2.53

46.15 %

SFC with HDPEF

2.21

27.69 %

SFC with PPF

1.97

13.85 %

SFC with ( SF+GIF )

4.31

148.46 %

SFC with ( SF+WCSF )

4.16

140.00 %

SFC with ( SF+HDPEF )

3.79

118.46 %

SFC with ( SF+PPF )

3.76

116.92 %

The fluctuation in flexural strength of SFC can be depicted in the signifier of graph as shown in Fig. No. 3

Fig No. 3. Variation of Flexural Strength of SFC

Table No. 4: Overall RESULTS OF IMPACT STRENGTH OF SFC

Description of SFC

Impact strength of concrete to do ( N-m )

Percentage addition of impact strength w.r.t. mention mix

First cleft

Concluding failure

First cleft

Concluding failure

SFC with no fiber ( Ref Mix )

456.45

650.10

SFC with SF

1161.88

1514.59

154.55

132.98

SFC with GIF

1127.30

1459.26

146.97

124.47

SFC with WCSF

995.89

1293.28

118.18

98.94

SFC with HDPEF

816.08

1037.39

78.79

59.57

SFC with PPF

608.60

933.65

33.33

43.62

SFC with ( SF+GIF )

1327.86

1625.24

190.91

150.00

SFC with ( SF+WCSF )

1258.70

1569.92

175.76

141.49

SFC with ( SF+HDPEF )

1217.20

1542.25

166.67

137.23

SFC with ( SF+PPF )

1217.20

1514.59

166.67

132.98

The fluctuation in flexural strength of SFC can be depicted in the signifier of graph as shown in Fig. No. 3

Fig No. 4. Variation of Impact Strength of SFC

OBSERVATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS

Following observations were made with mention to the experimentation conducted on SFC produced from different monofiber and intercrossed fibre.

It is observed that the Compressive strength, Tensile strength, Flexural strength and Impact strength of SFC produced with different monofiber such as SF, GIF, WCSF, HDPEF, and PPF is higher as compared to SFC produced without any Fibres. Among the Mono Fibres the public presentation of SF, GIF, WCSF and HDPEF is better with regard to Compressive strength, Tensile strength, Flexural strength and Impact strength.

This may be due to fact that add-on of Fibres will move like sums which interlock themselves in the pulverization matrics therefore ensuing in higher strength belongingss. Thus it can be concluded that the usage of glandular fever Fibers will heighten the strength features of SFC

It is observed that the compressive strength of SFC produced with different intercrossed Fibers such as ( SF+GIF ) , ( SF+WCSF ) , ( SF+HDPEF ) , and ( SF+ PPF ) is higher as compared to SFC produced with several glandular fever Fibers and without any Fibers.

This may be due to fact of interactive response of different intercrossed fibers in SFC. The intercrossed fiber added will come into drama at different phases of burden by bridging the different clefts.

Therefore it can be concluded that the strength belongingss of SFC produced with different intercrossed fibers such as ( SF+GIF ) , ( SF+WCSF ) , ( SF+HDPEF ) and ( SF + PPF ) are higher as compared to SFC produced with several monofibres and without any fiber.

It is observed that strength feature of SFC with ( SF+GIF ) and ( SF+WCSF ) have yielded higher strength features as compared to ( SF+HDPEF ) , and ( SF+PPF ) .

This may be due to fact of higher faculties of snap for both the fibers.

It can be concluded that SFC produced with intercrossed fibers such as ( SF+GIF ) and ( SF+WCSF ) will give higher strength features.

It is observed that SFC produced with intercrossed fibers absorbed more energy as seen in flexural strength and impact strength consequences.

This may be due to the fact that intercrossed fibers used induces sufficient ductileness by which it can absorb more energy.

Therefore is can be concluded that SFC produced with intercrossed fibers can be used in temblor immune construction, which is characterized by more energy soaking up.

Decision

Based on the experimentation conducted, following decisions can be drawn

Use of glandular fever Fibers will heighten the strength features of SFC.

The Strength belongingss of SFC produced with different intercrossed Fibers such as ( SF+GIF ) , ( SF+WCSF ) , ( SF+HDPEF ) and ( SF+PPF ) are higher as compared to SFC produced with several glandular fever Fibers and without any fibre.

Strength features of SFC with ( SF+GIF ) and ( SF+WCSF ) have yielded higher strength features as comparison to ( SF+HDPEF ) and ( SF+PPF ) .

SFC produced with intercrossed Fibers can be used in temblor immune construction, which is characterized by more energy soaking up.

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