Abstraction: Mangroves are countries of rich avian diverseness. It houses several bird species. Research workers have recorded about 135 species of birds in the Mahim brook Rhizophora mangles, an country near to my field of survey. Some of the species recorded consisted of distant migrators, resident bird species, local migrators and resident migrators.

Research Question: What are the effects of anthropogenetic activities and the addition of invasive species of birds on the native avian biodiversity of the Lokhandwala Mangroves?

Rationale: Lokhandwala-Versova Rhizophora mangles one of the oldest in Mumbai are under changeless menace of being wiped off. This is chiefly due to the anthropogenetic activities in the country particularly the theodolite point of the BMC waste land which is impacting the avian diverseness of the country adversely and besides the domestic activities carried out around the lake. Recently, the lake was besides used for submergence of Ganapathi Idols during the Ganesh festival. The Rhizophora mangles are life rescuers and should be protected. The Lokhandwala-Versova Rhizophora mangles played a major function in absorbing immense sums of H2O during the 2005 Mumbai inundations. This was why the Lokhandwala country was n’t affected every bit severely as the other bordering countries. However, late the Brihan Mumbai municipal corporation ( BMC ) , have now started dumping waste in the bosom of the Lokhandwala- Versova mangrove site. This seems to be impacting the avian diverseness adversely which lies in that country.

Introduction: Mangroves are trees and bushs that grow in saline coastal home grounds in the Torrid Zones and semitropicss. Mangroves form a characteristic saline forest or bush land home ground called Rhizophora mangle swamp or mangrove forest.[ 1 ]Mangroves are tropical and semitropical swampy woods consisting of many unrelated genera that portion the common ability to turn in saline, coastal home ground and interfaces where land and sea meet. ] These systems normally act as a buffer ecotonal zone between land and oceans and are capable of digesting violent seasonal air currents. They play a really of import function in keeping high productiveness and rich biotic diverseness of coastal Waterss and are of involvement from the economic, scientific every bit good as wildlife direction point of position.

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The evergreen, broadleaf trees of the Rhizophora mangle woods are extremely adapted to the emphasiss of implosion therapy and salt. The versions include specialised root-cell membranes which prevent or cut down the entry of salts ; lucubrate tube-like external respiration constructions called pneumatophores which grow vertically upwards from the roots and live-bearing seedlings that germinate on the parent tree and thereby diminish their mortality rates in the unfavourable environment.

Where do Mangroves happen?

Since Rhizophora mangles are distributed in the tropical and sub tropical parts where temperatures and humidness are high, these ecosystems are absent in ice chest countries like Europe, north-polar and Antarctic. Asia has recorded the maximal elaborate spots of rain forest, India and Bangladesh being a few of the most of import countries. The Sunderbans which are distributed here comprise of big biodiversity and besides covers a big country of the East seashore of Indian and Bangladesh.

7 % of the universe ‘s entire Rhizophora mangles are located in India which covers a entire country of about 6,740 sq. km. Out of this 80 % of the Rhizophora mangles are distributed along the East seashore comprising of the Sunderbans and Bhitarkanika and the islands of Andaman and Nicobar in the South of India.

The west seashore comprises of the staying 20 % of the Rhizophora mangles which are scattered between Kutch and Kerala. The ground for such a restricted Rhizophora mangle screen is the curious coastal construction and the nature of estuaries formed by the comparatively little and non-perennial rivers except Narmada and Tapi.


Zonation in Mangroves

Mangal along a tropical bay characteristically shows Zonation. In India this Zonation may be really typical ( east seashore of India ) or unifying ( west seashore of India ) . A really wide and general differentiation would be: –

1. Proximal Zone ( Front Rhizophora mangles )

This zone is towards H2O forepart, capable to regular tidal consequence where strength of dirt accretion and flood is a uninterrupted procedure. The Rhizophora mangle species in this zone are specially adapted with stilt roots, prop roots for stableness and anchorage.

2. Middle Zones ( Mid Rhizophora mangles )

Above the forepart mangroves the species develop a strong clasp fast in the signifier of knee roots or dead set roots as a particular acceptance for back uping the vertical bole.

3. Distal Zone ( Back mangroves )

Towards island country this species of Rhizophora mangles produce buttresses. By and large the salt is on lower side in this zone happening towards hill sides where run off of fresh H2O is for a drawn-out period. The continuance of tidal submergence is low in this zone compared to look Rhizophora mangles.

However, the Zonation in Rhizophora mangles is non so simple and varies from topographic point to topographic point. Every species has its ain degree of salt tolerance. Estuaries on east seashore show distinguishable Zonation. The high salt scope on the east seashore estuaries may be the chief ground for distinguishable Zonation at that place. The scope and force of tidal action besides play a deciding function in creative activity and care of zones as distribution of seeds or propagules is influenced by tidal action. Besides, tides do act upon the salt in an estuary.[ 2 ]

Distribution of Mangroves of the Mumbai Metropolitan part

Distribution of Rhizophora mangles as per Survey of India Topsheets ( 1968 ) : The country of about 350 sq. km i.e. 8 % of the entire mensural country of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region of 4236 sq. kilometer is mud-flat – which is coastal wet land. In these Topsheets the Rhizophora mangles are non individually identified.

Distribution of Rhizophora mangles in 1991: An country of about 95.43 sq. km i.e. 2.25 % of the country of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region was under Rhizophora mangles in 1991. Mangrove classs of sparse and dense were identified utilizing the readings of orbiter images.

Distribution of Rhizophora mangles in 1997: Deforestation was stopped and plans to protect the Rhizophora mangles and advance their growing were undertaken in the period between 1991 and 1997 taking to an addition in the country under Rhizophora mangles.

Distribution of Rhizophora mangles in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region:

Region Mangrove type Total country under Rhizophora mangles Sparse Dense In 1991 Brihan Mumbai 16.67 14.10 30.77 Island metropolis 0.17 0.25 0.42 Western suburbs 6.92 5.47 12.39 Eastern suburbs 9.58 8.38 17.96 Region Mangrove type Total country under Rhizophora mangles Sparse Dense Above 3m Below 3m Sum In 1997 Brihan Mumbai 11.25 20.77 20.25 41.02 52.27 Island metropolis 0.84 0.55 0.24 0.79 1.63 Western suburbs 5.89 5.61 14.11 20.72 26.61 Eastern suburbs 4.52 13.61 5.9 19.51 24.03

Methods of informations aggregation: The Lokhandwala Mangrove country has a fresh H2O organic structure called the Lokhandwala lake. There are several species of birds sited here. For understanding the biodiversity of the Lokhandwala Mangroves and its bordering lake, birds were straight identified utilizing field glassess. The mangrove country being a harsh ecosystem, numbering birds utilizing different bird study methods was non possible. Hence, with the aid of an bird watcher I was able to place species of birds that were seen in the Rhizophora mangles, the lake and the theodolite dumping land.


The 2005 rains in Mumbai and the flood that followed manifested the effect of fiddling with the ecology of delicate ecosystems like Rhizophora mangles. If merely Mumbai ‘s Mithi river and mahim brook Rhizophora mangles would n’t hold been destroyed by the builders. Had that been the instance a fewer figure of people would hold died and belongings harm would hold been well less as Rhizophora mangles do hold H2O recollective belongingss.

Builders, metropolis contrivers, even some of our best known designers in the race for development and hard currency have been engaging a quiet ( sometimes non so quiet ) war against Rhizophora mangles and wetlands, non merely in Mumbai but across the state. This conflict was fought and won by the builders who about closed out the oral cavity of the Mithi river and ended up repossessing 700 estates of Rhizophora mangles swamps in the mahim brook which is the lone mercantile establishment of the river which flows into the Arabian sea.

Millions of Mumbaikars pass these Rhizophora mangles some of them inquiring what these soiled muddy weeds turning pointlessly along the shoreline are and the others non trouble oneselfing to hold a expression at them. Mangroves are gutsy survivors-They represent the spirit of Mumbai. Very few people understand the importance of these Rhizophora mangles that they act as the buffer between land and sea.

Traveling by the stats mangrove diverseness in Mumbai has decreased well over the last decennary. Mumbai had over 37 sq. kilometer of mangrove country in the 90 ‘s. Areas of the Thane brook, mahim, Versova, gorai were covered with immense balls of Rhizophora mangles. The decennary merely gone ( 2000-2010 ) by has seen a terrible dip. Mumbai has lost possibly 40 per centum of what existed in the last decennary or so mostly due to renewal of lodging, slums, refuse mopess and sewerage intervention.

Lakhs of Mumbai occupants had to digest inundations during the recent rains mostly due to the builders obstinate war against the Rhizophora mangle swamps in Mumbai. Following the way of the boosters of bandra kurla composite, they ruthlessly replaced these Rhizophora mangles with edifices therefore gaining 1000000s worth through existent estate all under the safe roof of ‘development ‘ .

A huge spot of the Rhizophora mangle ecosystem is found in countries of Versova, Seven Bungalows, Yari Road and Lokhandwala Back Road.

Cases of CRZ ( Coastal Regulation Zone ) misdemeanors have been rampant in assorted countries like seven cottages, Janakidevi Public School near Versova brook and even Millat nagar. It was environmental militant Rishi Agarwal who anticipated that the Rhizophora mangles were under menace from refuse by who other than the BMC. It was cleat to any careful perceiver that refuse was sloping over into the Rhizophora mangles from the theodolite refuse shit for K/west ward due to the propinquity of the two.

Although the country is in changeless menace from land sharks and incidences of dust dumping are frequently reported, the topographic point is a good illustration of how active occupants ( like the Save Andheri Versova Environment – SAVE group ) can play an of import function in protecting the staying Rhizophora mangle woods.


The chief anthropogenetic factors that have lead to a alteration and impairment of the eco system is the presence of a BMC transitional refuse dividing site highly close to the Rhizophora mangles and the pollution of the H2O because of a sewerage pipe taking to the Rhizophora mangles.

Now, upon come ining the Rhizophora mangles more refuse was to be seen chiefly because of the human activities inside this unbarred zone and besides because birds like egrets and crows tend to pick up refuse, pilfer it for nutrient and so drop it when they fly over these countries. This sort of refuse inside the Rhizophora mangles disrupts the flow of H2O taking to a badly water-logged status that is damaging to the working of the ecosystem. The refuse merely does non look to halt! Even in the distant countries that are non really likely to hold any human intervention have dozenss of plastics and other refuse merely strewn approximately.

From inside the nucleus Rhizophora mangle zone a awful site is seeable – that of hemorrhoids of refuse!

There is a little mandir near the lake that is used by the people of the country. Because of this Garlands and other objects used in worship can be seen in the H2O. This leads to an addition in the metal contents of the H2O Ganpati submergences are besides carried out in the H2O. The graven images do non fade out for a figure of hebdomads and kill all the zoology in the H2O. The concentration of lead and other metals besides increased because of these submergences. There is besides the job of migratory workers that set up huts nearby to the H2O organic structure and so utilize it for rinsing and bathing intents. This leads to the accretion of nitrates and phosphates in the H2O organic structure taking to its eutrophication. All these factors have been lending to the diminution of the one time – booming ecosystem.

Rishi agarwal, an environmental militant and a few of his co-workers on February 1st went for a bird watching session at the Lokhandwala mangrove site. The species that they recorded were:

Renowned Bird Watcher Sunjoy Monga joined in the forenoon and the eventide proving to be a valuable resource at descrying and placing the birds.

Below is the list of the birds compiled by Sunjoy –

Here is a list of birds seen during the forenoon ( 7:20 – 9:10 am ) and flushing ( 4:45 – 6:20 autopsy ) Sessionss.



Spot-billed duck

Common Moorhen

Bronze-winged Jacana

Spotted Sandpiper

Green Sandpiper

Yellow Bittern

Cattle egret

At least six Spot-billed Duck

Small egret

Pond Heron

Small Cormorant

Purple Heron

Small Grebe

Brahminy Kite

Black Kite


Steppe Eagle – towards landfill site

White-throated Kingfisher

Common Kingfisher

Alexandrine Parakeet

Ring-necked Parakeet

Common Myna

House Sparrow

Large-billed Crow

House Crow

Red-whiskered Bulbul

Red-vented Bulbul

Blyth ‘s Reed Warbler

Green Warbler

Purple-rumped Sunbird

Greater Coucal ( Crow-pheasant )


Golden Oriole

White-throated Fantail ( naming )

Ashy Prinia

Long-tailed Shrike

Hence, a survey was made ( 13th November 2009 ) across a three twenty-four hours period to look at the birds which are found in and around the Lokhandwala mangrove site. However, the same figure of species could non be matched. This could be either due to the season or conditions conditions or merely loss of bio-diversity.

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

White breasted kingfisher

White breasted kingfisher

White breasted kingfisher

White eared bulbul

White eared bulbul

Cattle egret

Cattle egret

Indian pool Hero

Indian pool Hero

Indian pool Hero

Bar-headed goose

Purple-rumped sunbird

Purple-rumped sunbird

Purple-rumped sunbird


Small Phalacrocorax carbo

Small Phalacrocorax carbo




Area: Mangroves

Birds identified:

White breasted kingfisher: A superb turquoise-blue kingfisher with deep brownish caput, cervix and underparts, a conspicuous white ‘shirt forepart ‘ and long, heavy, pointed ruddy measure. A white wing-patch prominent in flight.

Distribution: Plains and lower hills throughout the Indian Union ; Bangladesh ; Pakistan ; sri Lanka ; Myanmar. Four races based on size and colour differences.

Habits: the most familiar of our kingfishers and besides the least dependent upon H2O. Seen at Ponds, puddles, rain filled ditches, inundated Paddy Fieldss and near the shore, but besides in light wood at considerable distances from H2O.

White eared bulbul – Pycnonotus leucotis

Field characters – An earth-brown bulbul with black caput, glittering white cheeks, and sulphur xanthous under root of tail.

Distribution – the Himalayas, Pakistan, western and cardinal India.

Habits -Tame and confiding. It will eat nutrient garbages. It besides eats insects and flower nectar.

Cattle egret – Bubulcus ibis ; Marathi name – gochandi khao

Field characters: in non-breeding pure white feather distinguished from the small egret by colour of measure which is xanthous non black.

Distribution: throughtout the Indian brotherhood ; Bangladesh ; Pakistan ; Sri Lanka ; Myanmar.

Food: chiefly grasshoppers, bluebottle flies, cicalas and other insects: besides toads, lizards, fish etc. Banyan capsules avidly gulped down in season. Roosts at dark in favourite trees and portions those with crows, minas and other birds.

Indian pool Hero – ardeola grayii ( sykes )

Field features – an egret-like fen bird chiefly crude brown when at remainder, but with glossy white wings, tail and hindquarters flashing into prominence instantly it flies.

Distribution – Found throughout the Indian brotherhood ; Bangladesh ; Pakistan ; Sri Lanka ; Myanmar ; fields and up to about 1000m lift.

Habits – Found wherever there is H2O, river, jheel, roadside ditch, kutcha good, or temple pool, frequently in the thick of thickly settled towns. Besides on the seashore in the Rhizophora mangle swamps, mudflats, etc.

Food – toads, fish, pediculosis pubis and insects. Flight typically heron – steady flying beats with cervix pulled in. Roosts in big leafy trees in assorted folds of crows and other birds

Bar-headed goose – Anser indicus

Field features – a gray chocolate-brown white goose with white caput and sides of cervix.

Distribution – in winter throughout north and north-east India ; rare in cardinal India ; Bangladesh ; Pakistan ; Myanmar.

Habits -Rather crepuscular and nocturnal.

Food – chiefly green shoots of winter such as wheat or gm.

Purple-rumped sunbird – nectarinia zeylonica – local name – shakarkhora

Field characters – upperparts and chest glittering metallic ruby viridity and purple ; lower parts yellow. Rump is metallic blue purple.

Shikra – Accipiter badius

Field characters: a lightly bulky hawk ash-grey bluish Grey above and white below, cross-barred with rusty brown.

Distribution – throughout India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Myanmar.

Habits – avoids heavy forest. From its sentinel in a leafy subdivision it swoops down and carries off its quarry before the victim is cognizant of any danger. Flight is fleet, several rapid flying shots followed by a semivowel.

Food – lizards, mice, squirrels, birds, etc.

Small cormorant – Phalacrocorax Niger

A glossy black duck like H2O bird with a longish stiff tail, and slender, compressed measure hooked at the tip.

Distribution – throughout India, Nepal Bangladesh, Pakistan, Myanmar, sri lanka

Habits – found on all the inland Waterss ; besides brackish lagunas and tidal brook. Lives entirely on fish which it chases and gaining controls under H2O. When satiated it perches on a stone or interest near H2O and prohibitionists itself with outstretched wings.

Crow – Crow splendens

Field characters – Grey cervix and amaller size to separate it from the all black jungle crow. Sexual activities are likewise.

Distribution – throughout India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Myanmar, sri lanka.

Habits – possibly the most familiar bird of Indian towns and small towns. Has no peculiar nutrient penchants. Will eat about anything – dead cloaca rat, offal, carrion, kitchen garbages and garbage, locusts, white ants, fruit grain and eggs.

A utile scavenger but besides a serious threat to defenseless cosmetic bird species in urban countries.


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