Chapter 1:


Concrete and steel are stuffs normally used in edifice building. Concrete is formed by mixture of sums which are sand and rock, and bonded together by H2O and cement with the proper ratio of 1:2:4 or 1:3:6 which is normally used. Steel is a stuff that is manufactured under carefully controlled status by which its belongingss are determined in a research lab. Combining concrete and steel gives increased strength to defy heavy tonss to increase the life-time of the construction. Even though concrete and steel give many advantages on edifice, they can besides do failure to the construction thru the impropriate process work, and deficiencies of efficient control and monitoring mechanism ( A.M. Neville, 2002 ) , which has happened before where the Public Works Department in Petaling Jaya collapsed due to the construction failure ( StarBiz, 2009 ) and Highland Tower in Ulu Klang due to stacking failure ( New Straits Times, 2000 ) .

The list of old thesis subjects by constructing appraising pupils shows that there has ne’er been a survey or research done on concrete failure in the Industrial Zone. Due to the importance of consciousness and apprehension of concrete failure, the thesis subject on “ The Causes & A ; Effectss of Concrete Failure on Residential Building Surrounding Industrial Zone ” is chosen for research and instance survey. The thought on this subject besides came when carry oning status study on the Shah Alam Commercial edifice where it is of import to understand the effects of the emanations produced from industrial country to the concrete constructions in order to forestall concrete failure. The purpose of thesis is to give an penetration on the causes of the defects, portion what measures are taken by the edifice authorization to forestall it and to happen the consequence on the bulk causes of the failure and its consequence in existent instance survey.

The aims of thesiss are:

To analyze the causes and effects of concrete failure to the edifice construction

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To look into and analyze the causes and effects of concrete failure of the existent life instances i.e edifices in the industrial countries

To come up with recommendations to forestall or understate the concrete failure

The Scopess of the thesis are:

Literature reappraisal on concrete, type of cement and causes of the concrete failure.

Case survey on the affected residential edifices environing industrial zone at subdivision 25 Shah Alam, Klang Valley, and Petaling Jaya.

Produce questionnaire and behavior interviews with the contractors, clients, adviser or edifice care forces.

Analysis of the consequences based on site observations, studies and interviews

To give recommendation based on the consequence to forestall or understate the concrete failure on construction.

The tabular array below shows the processs to make the end for my thesis.





RESULT ( Goal )


The thesis consists of 6 chapters. The thesis starts with the debut of the undertaking which includes Scopess, nonsubjective, and the purposes of the undertaking which are stated as chapter 1.

Chapter 2 is a literature reappraisal on concrete. This includes description on the history of concrete and cement, different types of cement, comparings between Ordinary Portland Cement ( OPC ) Sulphate Resistant Portland Cement ( SRPC ) , types of concrete failure, beginnings and causes of concrete failure and the chief theories of the concrete failure.

Chapter 3 discusses the analysis and consequences of the interviews and questionnaires on concrete failure. The experiences of the relevant people interviewed will be shared in this chapter.

Chapter 4 gives the elaborate study of the instance survey including the site status appraising consequences which consists of the survey of constructing status. The probe and site observation on the causes and beginnings of defects and the redresss will be discussed.

The analysis of the findings and the consequences of the instance survey will be captured in chapter 5 which include graphs and treatments. Based on the consequences, the effectivity of the redresss will be evaluated in this chapter.

The last chapter will reason the instance survey and gives recommendations which includes the processs on readying and planing a edifice.

Chapter 2:

Litrerature Reappraisals

2.1 Introduction

This Chapter is a literature reappraisal on concrete which started with the description on the history of concrete and cement. The aims of this chapter is to carry oning a research based on the different types of cement, comparings between Ordinary Portland Cement ( OPC ) Sulphate Resistant Portland Cement ( SRPC ) , types of concrete failure, beginnings and causes of concrete failure and the chief theories of the concrete failure.

2.2 History of Concrete and Cement.

In about 2,500 BC, Pyramids was the first recorded construction to used cement. The ancient Egyptian constructed Pyramid by blending clay with straw to adhere dried bricks and by adding gypsum cement and lime.Then, the Greek and the Roman found that by adding calcium hydroxide and H2O, sand and crushed rock or brick and broken tiles, its produce compressional strength and created the first structural stuff known as concrete. The Pantheon in Rome, was recorded the first construction used concrete mixture and proven of the success of Roman innovation which still standing until today. In 1756, concrete was modernise by the British applied scientist, John Smeaton by blending powered brick into the cement and adding pebbles as a harsh sum. In 1824, Portland Cement was invented by the English discoverer, Joseph Aspdin by firing land limestone and clay together which change the chemical belongingss of the stuffs and produce high quality of cement. It became the first true unreal cement of all time produce and remained its production until today. 20 old ages subsequently, the Parisian discoverer, Joseph Monier invented reinforce concrete, which are the combination of concrete and steel which produce the tensile or pliable strength of metal and the compressional strength of concrete to defy heavy tonss ( C.L. Page And M.M. Page, 2007 ) .

2.3 Different Types of Cement.

Portland Cement are the major stuffs to bring forth another types of cement either by altering or cut downing or increasing the chemical belongingss of the stuff. Below stated some of the different types of cement and its characteristic ( V.S. Ramachandran, 1984 ) .

Ordinary Portland Cement

Ordinary Portland cement ( OPC ) is the most of import type of cement.

The OPC was classified into three classs, viz. 33 class, 43 class and53 class depending upon the strength of the cement at 28 yearss when tested as per IS 4031-1988. But the existent strength obtained by these cements at the mill are much higher than the specifications.

Rapid Hardening Cement

This cement is similar to ordinary Portland cement. As the name indicates it develops strength quickly and as such it may be more appropriate to name it every bit high early strength cement.

Rapid indurating cement which develops higher rate of development of strength should non be confused with quick-setting cement which merely sets rapidly.

Rapid indurating cement develops at the age of three yearss, the same strength as that is expected of ordinary Portland cement at seven yearss.

Therefore, rapid indurating cement should non be used in mass concrete building.


In pre-fabricated concrete building.

Where formwork is required to be removed early for reuse.

Road fix plants.

In cold conditions concrete where the rapid rate of development of strength reduces the exposure of concrete to the hoar harm

Extra Rapid Hardening Cement

It is necessary that the concrete made by utilizing excess rapid indurating cement should be transported, placed and compacted and finished within about 20 proceedingss.

It is besides necessary that this cement should non be stored for more than a month.

Extra rapid indurating cement accelerates the scene and indurating procedure.

A big measure of heat is evolved in a really short clip after puting.

The acceleration of puting, indurating and development of this big measure of heat in the early period of hydration makes the cement really suited for concreting in cold conditions.

Sulphate Resisting Cement

Ordinary Portland cement is susceptible to the onslaught of sulfates, in peculiar to the action.

Their enlargement within the frame work of hard-boiled cement paste consequences in clefts and subsequent break.

Sulphate onslaught is greatly accelerated if accompanied by surrogate wetting and drying which usually takes topographic point in marine constructions in the zone of tidal fluctuations.


Concrete to be used in marine status ;

Concrete to be used in foundation and cellar, where dirt is infested with sulfates ;

Concrete used for fiction of pipes which are likely to be buried in boggy part or sulfate bearing dirts ;

Concrete to be used in the building of sewerage intervention plants

Quick Setting Cement

This cement as the name indicates sets really early.

The early scene belongings is brought out by cut downing the gypsum content at the clip of cinder grinding.

This cement is required to be assorted, placed and compacted really early.

It is used largely in under H2O building where pumping is involved.

Use of speedy puting cement in such conditions reduces the pumping clip and makes it economical. Quick puting cement may besides happen its usage in some typical grouting operations.

Super Sulphated Cement

This cement is instead more sensitive to impairment during storage than Portland cement.

This cement has high sulfate opposition. Because of this belongings this cement is peculiarly recommended for usage in foundation, where chemically aggressive conditions exist.

As super-sulphated cement has more opposition than Portland blast furnace scoria cement to assail by sea H2O, it is besides used in the Marine plants. Other countries where super-sulphated cement is recommended include the fiction of strengthened concrete pipes which are likely to be buried in sulfate bearing dirts. The permutation of granulated scoria is responsible for better opposition to sulphate onslaught.

When we use ace sulphated cement the water/ cement ratio should non be less than

0.5. A mix leaner than about 1:6 is besides non recommended

Low Heat Cement

It is good known that hydration of cement is anexothermic action which produces big measure of heat during hydration.

Formation of clefts in big organic structure of concrete due to heat of hydration has focussed the attending of the concrete engineers to bring forth a sort of cement which produces less heat or the same sum of heat, at a low rate during the hydration procedure.

Cement holding this belongings was developed in U.S.A. during 1930 for usage in mass concrete building, such as dikes, where temperature rise by the heat of hydration can go overly big.

A decrease of temperature will retard the chemical action of hardening and so farther curtail the rate of development of heat. The rate of development of heat will, hence, be less and development of heat will widen over a longer period.

Portland Pozzolana Cement

The history of pozzolanic stuff goes back to Roman ‘s clip. The descriptions and inside informations of pozzolanic stuff will be dealt individually under the chapter ‘Admixtures ‘ .

A pozzolanic stuff is basically a siliceous or aluminous stuff which while in itself possessing no cementitious belongingss, which will, in finely divided signifier and in the presence of H2O, react with Ca hydrated oxide, liberated in the hydration procedure, at ordinary temperature, to organize compounds possessing cementitious belongingss.

The pozzolanic stuffs by and large used for industry of PPC are calcined clay or wing ash.

Portland pozzolana cement produces less heat of hydration and offers greater opposition to the onslaught of aggressive Waterss than ordinary Portland cement. Furthermore, it reduces the leaching of Ca hydrated oxide when used in hydraulic constructions. It is peculiarly utile in Marine and hydraulic building and other mass concrete buildings.


For hydraulic constructions ;

For mass concrete constructions like dike, span wharfs and thick foundation ;

For marine constructions ;

For cloacas and sewerage disposal works.

Coloured Cement

For fabricating assorted coloured cements, either white cement or Grey Portland cement is used as a base.

The usage of white cement as a base is dearly-won. With the usage of gray cement, merely red or brown cement can be produced.

Coloured cement consists of Portland cement with 5-10 % of pigment.

The pigment can non be satisfactorily distributed throughout the cement by blending, and therefore, it is usual to crunch the cement & A ; pigment together.

Masonry Cement

Ordinary cement howitzer, though good when compared to lime howitzer with regard to strength and scene belongingss, is inferior to lime howitzer with regard to workability, H2O memory, shrinking belongings and extensibility.

Masonry cement is a type of cement which is peculiarly made with such combination of stuffs, which when used for doing howitzer, incorporates all the good belongingss of lime howitzer and discards all the non so ideal belongingss of cement howitzer.

This sort of cement is largely used, as the name indicates, for masonry building.

It contains certain sum of air-entraining agent and mineral alloies to better the malleability and H2O memory.

Expansive Cement

Concrete made with ordinary Portland cement psychiatrists while puting due to loss of free H2O. Concrete besides shrinks continuously for long clip. This is known as drying shrinking.

Cement used for grouting ground tackle bolts or grouting machine foundations or the cement used in grouting the prestress concrete canals, if psychiatrists, the intent for which the grout is used will be to some extent defeated. There has been a hunt for such type of cement which will non shrivel while indurating and thenceforth. As a affair of fact, a little enlargement with clip will turn out to be advantageous for grouting intent. This type of cement which suffers no overall alteration in volume on drying is known as expansive cement.

Cement of this type has been developed by utilizing an spread outing agent and a stabilizer really carefully. Proper stuff and controlled proportioning are necessary in order to obtain the coveted enlargement.

One type of expansive cement is known as shrinking counterbalancing cement. This cement when used in concrete, with reticent enlargement, induces compressive emphasiss which about offset the tensile emphasis induced by shrinking.

IRS-T 40 Particular Grade Cement

IRS-T-40 particular class cement is manufactured as per specification laid down by ministry of Railways under IRST40:1985.

This cement can be used with advantage for other applications where high early strength concrete is required. This cement can be used for prestressed concrete elements, high rise edifices, high strength concrete

High Early Strength Cement

Development of high early strength becomes an of import factor, sometimes, for fix and exigency work.


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