Many literature pupils are expected to be familiar with the basic footings listed below ( and discussed in more deepness in your text ) . Keep this survey usher with your text. At the beginning of each reading assignment. compose the elements of literature refering to the peculiar type of literature at the beginning of the short narrative or verse form. After reading. specify them in your text for category treatment. quizzes. and test readying. To understand literature. it is necessary that you ask yourself certain inquiries. such as “what is the subject of this narrative? ” or “why does the writer usage this peculiar type of imagination?

” You are non needfully reading for pleasure–although it is unfeignedly hoped you will deduce pleasance from your assignments–but for the development of critical analysis accomplishments. so observe the author’s manner and purpose carefully. Short Stories/Novel Theme–The thought or point of a narrative formulated as a generalisation. In American literature. several subjects are apparent which reflect and specify our society. The dominant 1s might be innocence/experience. life/death. appearance/reality. free will/fate. madness/sanity. love/hate. society/individual. known/unknown.

Subjects may hold a individual. alternatively of a double nature every bit good. The subject of a narrative may be a mid-life crisis. or imaginativeness. or the dichotomy of world ( contradictions ) . Character–Imaginary people created by the author. Possibly the most of import component of literature. • Protagonist–Major character at the centre of the narrative. • Antagonist–A character or force that opposes the supporter. • Minor character–0ften provides support and illuminates the supporter. • Inactive character–A character who remains the same. • Dynamic character–A character who changes in some of import manner.

• Characterization–The agencies by which authors reveal character. • Explicit Judgment–Narrator gives facts and interpretative remark. • Implied Judgment–Narrator gives description ; reader do the judgement. Look for: Connections. links. and hints between and about characters. Ask yourself what the map and significance of each character is. Make this finding based upon the character’s history. what the reader is told ( and non told ) . and what other characters say about themselves and others. Plot–The agreement of thoughts and/or incidents that make up a narrative.

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Causality–One event occurs because of another event. • Foreshadowing–A suggestion of what is traveling to go on. • Suspense–A sense of concern established by the writer. • Conflict–Struggle between opposing forces. • Exposition–Background information sing the scene. characters. secret plan. • Complication or Rising Action–Intensification of struggle. • Crisis–Turning point ; minute of great tenseness that fixes the action. • Resolution/Denouement–The manner the narrative turns out. Structure–The design or signifier of the completed action. Often provides hints to character and action.

Can even philosophically mirror the author’s purposes. particularly if it is unusual. Look for: Perennial elements in action. gesture. duologue. description. every bit good as displacements in way. concentrate. clip. topographic point. etc. Setting–The topographic point or location of the action. the puting provides the historical and cultural context for characters. It frequently can typify the emotional province of characters. Point of View–Again. the point of position can sometimes indirectly set up the author’s purposes. Point of position pertains to who tells the narrative and how it is told. • Narrator–The individual stating the narrative.

• First-person–Narrator participates in action but sometimes has limited knowledge/vision. • Objective–Narrator is unnamed/unidentified ( a detached perceiver ) . Does non presume character’s position and is non a character in the narrative. The storyteller studies on events and lets the reader supply the significance. • Omniscient–All-knowing storyteller ( multiple positions ) . The storyteller takes us into the character and can measure a character for the reader ( editorial omniscience ) . When a storyteller allows the reader to do his or her ain judgements from the action of the characters themselves. it is called impersonal omniscience.

• Limited omniscient–All-knowing storyteller about one or two characters. but non all. Language and Style–Style is the verbal individuality of a author. oftentimes based on the author’s usage of enunciation ( word pick ) and sentence structure ( the order of words in a sentence ) . A writer’s usage of linguistic communication reveals his or her tone. or the attitude toward the capable affair. Irony–A contrast or disagreement between one thing and another. • Verbal irony–We understand the antonym of what the talker says. • Irony of Circumstance or Situational Irony–When one event is expected to happen but the opposite happens.

A disagreement between what seems to be and what is. • Dramatic Irony–Discrepancy between what characters know and what readers know. • Ironic Vision–An overall tone of sarcasm that pervades a work. proposing how the author views the characters. Poetry Allegory–A signifier of narration in which people. topographic points. and events seem to hold hidden significances. Often a retelling of an older narrative. Connotation–The implied significance of a word. Denotation–The dictionary definition of a word. Diction–Word pick and use ( for illustration. formal vs. informal ) . as determined by considerations of audience and intent.

Figurative Language–The usage of words to propose significances beyond the actual. There are a figure of figures of address. Some of the more common 1s are: • Metaphor–Making a comparing between unlike things without the usage of a verbal hint ( such as “like” or “as” ) . • Simile–Making a comparing between unlike things. utilizing “like” or “as” . • Hyperbole–Exaggeration • Personification–Endowing inanimate objects with human features Imagery–A concrete representation of a sense feeling. a feeling. or an thought which entreaties to one or more of our senses.

Expression for a form of imagination. • Tactile imagery–sense of touch. • Aural imagery–sense of hearing. • Olfactory imagery–sense of odor. • Ocular imagery–sense of sight. • Gustatory imagery–sense of gustatory sensation. Rhythm and Meter–Rhythm is the pulsation or round in a line of poesy. the regular return of an speech pattern or emphasis. Meter is the step or patterned count of a poesy line ( a count of the emphasiss we feel in a poem’s beat ) . The unit of poetic metre in English is called a “foot. ” a unit of step dwelling of stressed and unstressed syllables.

Ask yourself how the beat and metre affects the tone and significance. Sound–Do the words rime? Is there initial rhyme ( repeat of consonants ) or vowel rhyme ( repeat of vowels ) ? How does this impact the tone? Structure–The form of organisation of a verse form. For illustration. a sonnet is a 14-line verse form normally written in iambic pentameter. Because the sonnet is purely constrained. it is considered a closed or fixed signifier. An unfastened or free signifier is a verse form in which the writer uses a looser signifier. or possibly one of his or her ain innovation. It is non needfully formless.

Symbolism–When objects or actions mean more than themselves. Syntax–Sentence construction and word order. Voice: Speaker and Tone–The voice that conveys the poem’s tone ; its implied attitude toward its topic. Elementss of Literature Literature is a contemplation of the society. A author entreaties to our feelings. emotions through assorted elements of literature. such as secret plan. character. subject. etc. Read more to cognize about the elements of literature. We can sum up literature in the words of Ezra Pound that great literature is merely linguistic communication charged with intending to the uttermost possible grade.

Every race has its ain literature. for illustration. English literature. American literature. German literature. etc. Assorted types of literaturesuch as narrative. novel and play delight us through the elements of literature. In literature. subject is of import to uncover the narrative. An writer depicts the ups and downs of the supporter with the aid of word picture. The narrative progresses through assorted secret plans. There are prologues and epilogues in Shakespearian play. Facts on Elementss of Literature: Elementss of literature denote the things that are used to do up a work of literature.

There are different types and signifiers of literature. They are fresh. play. poesy. life. non-fictional prose. essay. heroic poem and short narrative. All these types of literature have some elements. To finish a piece of literature. a author. playwright or a novelist demand to utilize certain elements like secret plan. character. subject. etc. However. elements of fiction and elements of play differ from elements of poesy. These elements are discussed below: Elementss of Fiction and Drama: Literary types such as fiction ; play and short narrative have some elements.

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