Engineering Project Scheduling Essay, Research Paper

ABSTRACT In this undertaking we used the primavera plan to demo the relationship between the activities in a chart signifier. We have besides applied the primavera to level the undertaking resources, which include labour and machines. An end product for the information of the undertaking before and after grading is included in the study. Introduction In this undertaking we chose to imitate the production of a cast that produces fictile lavatory flush armored combat vehicles. Our information was obtained from El Ameen for Plastics Company. In order to obtain the necessary information we went to the mill in Al-Gabbal Al-Assfar in Kalyubeya. There we met with the applied scientist in charge who did his portion in explicating to us in item the different maps of the assorted cast parts. All the activities, their continuance s and precedency dealingss are described below. Besides a elaborate description of the workstations and the squad members are listed below. We intended to utilize the PERT theoretical account for our computation but since the primavera can merely read one continuance for each activity we have calculated the expected clip and inserted it as the continuance of each activity. Procedure of Manufacturing an Injection Mold for Flush-Tanks To bring forth a fictile flush-tank we need to fabricate an injection cast that will subsequently be fixed on a fictile injection machine. This cast can be up to 1,500,000 LE harmonizing to its quality. A high quality cast can bring forth up to 2,000,000 shootings ( flush-tanks ) , which means that every flush-tank will hold a fixed cost sing the cost of the cast of less than one lb. Manufacturing such a mold requires skilled applied scientists and technicians who can successfully work in a group atmosphere. In contrast to mass production methods a cast is produced merely one time. Every portion of its constituents needs cosmopolitan cognition of technology techniques to be produced. So it is non amazing to cognize that fabricating such a cast can take up to two and a half old ages of which half of them are spent in manual surface coating. The mold stuff is tool steel. It consists of a pit, holders for the parts incorporating the pit, a chilling system, an expulsion system and holders for arrested development on the machine. This mold consists of approximately 80 different parts including bolts, washers, and different types of ushers. However we can split the cast into 8 major parts which are:1 ) – Part one is a locating rim used to put the cast in the right place on the machine in order to let the injection caput to carry through its undertaking, shooting the liquefied plastic into the cast, correctly.2 ) – Part two has a dual map which is a mean of arrested development on the machine and holder for portion three.3 ) – Part three is the female portion of the pit. It is the most of import portion because of its high degree of preciseness in order to give the definitions of the outer surface. It is besides the most expensive one because of its complex design, the high surface hardness required and the really long period of clip required fabrication it. 4 ) – Part four is the male portion of the pit, it is the 2nd most of import portion of the cast because of its complex designs and the trouble in fabricating it. However its surface coating is lower than portion 3 because it gives the inner inside informations of the merchandise which are non seen by the customer.5 ) – Part five is a multifunctional one it serves as a holder of parts four and six, it includes the chilling system from portion four and it besides includes the expulsion holds. It is one of the largest parts of the cast. 6 ) – Part six is the expulsion home base, which is used for chuck outing the flush-tank right after hardening. It has to be smooth to minimise clash with parts four and five. This portion needs to be replaced several times during the life rhythm of the cast due to its knowing lower hardness to forestall damaging parts three, four and five which are more expensive and harder to replace.7 ) – Part seven is the holder of the expulsion pins which are fixed with portion six, it moves on the linking ushers of parts five and eight to force portion six and therefore chuck out the produced flush-tanks 8 ) – Part eight serves as a mean of arrested development on the machine. Description of the Workshop I & # 8211 ; The workshop is divided into nine different workstations. 1- The first workstation is a cosmopolitan milling machine, which has a capacity of cutting metal bars up to 750 Kg. The operator is a extremely skilled technician who should be experienced plenty in stuff film editing processes. Mathematical cognition is non needfully required to run such a machine.2- The 2nd workstation is a cosmopolitan CNC milling machine. CNC stands for Computer Numerically Controlled. Such a machine makes the procedure of cutting required forms much easier than the normal operating 1s. Precision up to 0.001 millimeters can be usually achieved. Particular film editing tools which, are usually composed of tungsten carbide metals are used in order to keep dimensional truth as long possible. However the operator on such a machine must be a extremely sophisticated applied scientist. He must see that the work piece is stiffly fixed on the machine to forestall any sorts of quivers and distortions of the supports. He must hold a high mathematical cognition in order to plan the needed CNC plans, which will depict every way of the tool on the surface of the work piece.3- The 3rd workstation consists of three lathe machines. These machines are used to fabricate cylindrical parts. These machines require the least skilled technicians.4- The 4th workstation consists of a furnace, which makes the heat interventions required for fabricating the several parts. This workstation besides contains the basin required for surfacing the parts electrostatically with chrome. The operator of such a workstation must be an applied scientist who has a good cognition about metals and metals and their different stages. 5- The 5th workstation is specialized in welding. A skilled technician who has a good cognition in the several sorts of welding methods is the operator of this workstation.6- The 6th workstation is a sawing machine, which is used to cut long natural stuffs ( particularly rods ) which are so manufactured on the lathe machine.7- The 7th workstation is the subdivision concerned with the manual surface coating of the parts and the manual collection and disassembling of the different parts. The workers of this workstation are more likely to acquire paid more than any other worker or technician though they seem to be less of import than others. They must hold over than 20 old ages of experience as they provide us with the concluding dimension with their bare custodies. For illustration the concluding surface coating of the female portion of the pit may take up to 60 yearss of uninterrupted attempt of two workers in order to acquire the concluding dimensions and the mirror like surface finishing.8- The 8th workstation is a basic boring machine, which is operated by a normal worker in order to do inaccurate holes like the 1s required for the holders.9- The 9th workstation is a grinding machine, which is used to come up finish level objects like the scenes ( described by the activities ) . This crunching machine can be operated by a moderate skilled technician. II & # 8211 ; The members of the workshop are: 1- A material applied scientist who takes attention of runing the CNC machine every bit good as the heat intervention workstation and doing the designs for the cast in general. He is besides responsible for planing the plans for the CNC machine.2- Two extremely skilled technicians, who take attention of helping the applied scientist in runing the CNC machine, runing the cosmopolitan milling machine, taking attention of the welding required, runing the lathe machines and runing the grinding machine. They must be experienced and have some technology capablenesss like understanding complex drawings.3- Two workers for the manual surface coating and the manual collection and disassembling of casts ( see demands in workstation 7 ) 4- Normal workers who are responsible for helping all the members of the workshop. They are able to run the sawing and the basic boring machines. These workers are available in big Numberss and therefore do non stand for a restriction in resources. Note: There is besides a board of managers and salesmen who are merely involved in the first twosome of activities and are hence non included in the resources. Description of the Activities 10 ) Market study: In order to see that the merchandise is traveling to be successful, a market study should be done. This will let us to cognize our production planning. Three salesmen will be sent to the market ( Cairo, Giza, and Alexandria ) . It will take them from 15 to 25 yearss to hold a good perceptual experience of the demand of the market and to run into with of import traders and clients of the product.20 ) Discussion of consequences: Directors from different sections have to run into with the three salesmen to discourse their consequences. They will hold to do a feasibleness survey, production and selling scheme. These surveies will take from 30 to 50 yearss, because in order to make a concluding determination, Bankss and confer withing bureaus must be deliberated. Besides there will hold to be a batch of meetings before making the concluding decision.30 ) Draft design of merchandise: After taking the determination of bring forthing the flush-tank, an applied scientist must plan the first bill of exchange of the merchandise. It would take from 4 to 10 yearss in order to finish the specified design. 40 ) Fabrication of a theoretical account: A theoretical account of the first bill of exchange design will be manufactured out of wood on the CNC machine. It will take from 15 to 40 yearss to bring forth this theoretical account. The fluctuation of clip is due to the surface finish quality required by the director. If a unsmooth bill of exchange is desired, merely 15 yearss will be plenty to accomplish that. If on the other manus, an exact theoretical account is required, it could take up to 40 yearss for obtaining a good surface coating which will necessitate a longer period of clip on the CNC milling machine and extended manual coating. This activity will necessitate an applied scientist and a technician. 35 ) & # 8211 ; Fixing a simple CNC Program to bring forth the theoretical account: After finishing the design an applied scientist who has a good cognition of math will compose a CNC plan to bring forth the theoretical account. It will take from 20-30 yearss, as it needs a batch of computations. A expression has to be obtained for every surface. The clip discrepancy depends upon the mathematical cognition of the applied scientist. This activity is done on workstation 2. 50 ) & # 8211 ; Investigating the form of the theoretical account: The director, design applied scientist and a representative from the selling section will hold to run into to look into the produced form and gather remarks and suggestions to better the design. It will take from 2-4 yearss depending on the sum of accommodations required.60 ) Second market study on theoretical account: The three salesmen will take the theoretical account and do another study, which will take from 5-10 yearss to be completed.70 ) Making last accommodations to the design of the merchandise: The design applied scientist will acquire feedback from the salesmen and the directors in order to do the last accommodations to the design of the merchandise. It will take from him from 2-5 yearss harmonizing to the accommodations he will hold to do. 80 ) Planing the injection cast: The cast will be designed after making the concluding design of the merchandise. Two applied scientists will hold to pull the 40 different parts of the cast on AutoCAD. The different subdivisions of each portion must besides be drawn, so it will take them from 20-30 yearss to finish these drawings depending on the complexness of the mold.90 ) Buying of natural stuffs: As the natural stuff has to be purchased from abroad an applied scientist will hold to reach the provider and demand the needed metal bars, which are made of tool steel. First, a missive of recognition must be opened and so the metal bars will be shipped ; hold can happen due to complications in the LC or in the transportation procedure or in imposts. Therefore, the activity will take from 45-70 yearss. The metal bars will be purchased harmonizing to the design.99 ) – Planing particular CNC machining tools: Due to the utmost deepnesss of the pit and the complexness of the form required, the tools needed in fabricating the cast can non be found in the standard series of companies. So the tools must be specially ordered from specialised companies abroad. After planing the cast the applied scientist will besides plan these particular tools. If these designs can non be manufactured by the company adjustments to the design must be made to run into the company s ability. It will take from 20 to 26 yearss to carry through these designs by the engineers.100 ) Buying of particular CNC machining tools: After planing the particular CNC machining tools, the order has been sent. Problems in the LC and bringing can take to some holds. That is why this activity will take a clip span from 80 120 yearss. This activity does non necessitate any human resources from the company.110 ) Programs for CNC milling machines: Programs must be written for every scene of every portion that will be manufactured on the CNC machine. These plans are really sophisticated due to the complexness of the design, the fabricating procedure of tool steel and the mathematics involved in depicting the forms. The clip may change from 80 100 yearss harmonizing to the accomplishments of the applied scientist. This scheduling has to be done after the design of the cast is completed. It is done on workstation two.120 ) Fixing metal bar of portion three for fabrication: After the reaching of the natural stuffs and finishing the plans of the CNC machine, a technician will transport the metal bar of portion 3 to workshop. The packaging will be removed and the metal bar will be prepared for fabrication. It will take about half a twenty-four hours, and holds can happen because it is really hard to manage an metal bar without holders. So, it can take up to one whole day.130 ) Drilling holes for holders in portion # 3: The prepared metal bar will be drilled on work-station 8 by a technician. Then holders will be introduced to the metal bar. This procedure will take about half a twenty-four hours. As this procedure is non complicated no hold is expected.140 ) & # 8211 ; Rough film editing of extra stuff of portion # 3: After presenting the holders the metal bar will travel to workstation # 1 where two technicians will hold to take the extra stuff in order to accomplish an approximative contour of the design. This can take from 9-20 yearss depending on the quality of the tools available in the workshop and arrested development jobs. This procedure is really of import to ease the work on the CNC milling machine. 150 ) Manufacturing top plane-setting of portion # 3 for the CNC machine: In order to work exactly on the CNC machine a scene has to be manufactured on workstation # 1. This scene must be designed after doing the plans for the CNC milling machine, because the applied scientist who designed the plan is the 1 who must take into history the scenes required to suit his plan. Besides natural stuffs have to be available. Two technicians will take from 10 20 yearss in order to finish this scene, which will work as a support and a mean of arrested development on the CNC machine. Due to thee complexness of the design ( rigidness, really big and smooth surface country, and a really accurate tallness ) several loops have to be made to accomplish the demands. The surface country must be grinded on workstation # 9 and the scene must be heat-treated in workstation # 4.155 ) Assembling the top scene with portion # 3: After fabricating the scene and after taking the extra stuff of portion # 3 two technicians will take from 2 & # 8211 ; 4 yearss to assemble portion # 3 to the scene by agencies of bolts and nuts and welding on workstations 5 & A ; 7. The fluctuation in the clip is due to the fact that the complexness of the occupation can merely be known through test and mistake until the assembly is rigid.160 ) Arrested development of the assembly on the CNC machine: The same two technicians will transport the assembly to workstation # 2 in order to repair the assembly on the machine tabular array utilizing bolts. This activity may take from half a twenty-four hours up to one whole twenty-four hours depending on the figure of tests that have to be done in order to make the needed rigidness at which the assembly is fixed to the machine. This activity depends upon the reaching of the particular tools required for the machining process.170 ) Rough milling of the coveted form of top of portion # 3: An applied scientist and a technician have to trip the plan and study the automatic milling procedure to guarantee that the milling operation is running swimmingly. The film editing tools have to be replaced after certain clip intervals. This activity will take from 30 60 yearss due to the complexness of portion # 3. Harmonizing to the life span of the tools and the jobs that may be faced in the procedure of milling a big discrepancy of clip has to be accounted for.180 ) Final milling of top of portion # 3: After the unsmooth milling of portion # 3 a concluding milling operation has to be done to make an acceptable surface coating and a pre-final truth. This activity may take from 30 60 yearss due to immense figure of loops that have to be done to accomplish the needed specifications. As the applied scientist has to do tests in order to make optimal velocity and provender that consequence in the coveted surface coating, he can non pre find a deterministic clip span in which the activity can be completed.185 ) Inspection of dimensions of the top plane of portion # 3: After the concluding milling operation the applied scientist has to look into the dimensions achieved by this operation. Normally this will take one twenty-four hours, but practically the coveted dimensions can non be obtained as planed in the plan. So by and large this review is followed by one or two loops on the CNC milling machine harmonizing to the discrepancy of dimensions the applied scientist has found. So it can take up to 10 days.190 ) Removal of portion # 3 from the CNC milling machine: After guaranting that we achieved the needed dimensions 2 technicians have to take portion # 3 with its puting from the CNC machine. This is followed up by cleaning the machine and fixing it for following operations. This deterministic activity takes half a twenty-four hours. 200 ) Manufacturing bottom plane-setting of portion 3 for the CNC machine: In order to exactly on the CNC machine a scene has to be manufactured on workstation # 1. This scene must be designed after doing the plans for the CNC milling machine, because the applied scientist who designed the plan is the 1 who must take into history the scenes required to suit his plan. Besides natural stuffs have to be available. Two technicians will take from 10 20 yearss in order to finish this scene, which will work as a support and a mean of arrested development on the CNC machine. Due to the complexness of the design ( rigidness, really big and smooth surface country, and a really accurate tallness ) several loops have to be made to accomplish the demands. The surface country must be grinded on work-station # 9 and the scene must be heat-treated in work-station # 4.205 ) Assembling the bottom scene with portion # 3: After fabricating the scene, and taking portion # 3 after finishing the top plane milling, two technicians will take from 2 & # 8211 ; 4 yearss to assemble portion # 3 to the scene by agencies of bolts and nuts and welding on workstations 5 & A ; 7. The fluctuation in the clip is due to the fact that the complexness of the occupation can merely be known through test and mistake until the assembly is rigid.210 ) Arrested development of the assembly on the CNC machine: The same two technicians will transport the assembly to workstation # 2 in order to repair the assembly on the machine tabular array utilizing bolts. This activity may take from half a twenty-four hours up to one whole twenty-four hours depending on the figure of tests that have to be done in order to make the needed rigidness at which the assembly is fixed to the machine.220 ) & # 8211 ; Rough milling of underside of portion # 3:

An applied scientist and a technician have to trip the plan and study the automatic milling procedure to guarantee that the milling operation is running swimmingly. The film editing tools have to be replaced after certain clip interval

s. This activity will take from 5 10 days as the bottom part of part # 3 is less complex than the top part, also there is less work to be done as there less material to be removed. According to the life span of the tools and the problems that may be faced in the process of milling a large variance of time has to be accounted for.230) – Final milling of bottom of part # 3: After the rough milling of bottom of part # 3 a final milling operation has to be done to reach an acceptable surface finish and a pre-final accuracy. This activity may take from 3 5 days due to huge number of iterations that have to be done to achieve the required specifications. This operation takes less time than the top surface because there is less work involved in this surface. As the engineer has to make trials in order to reach optimum speed and feed that result in the desired surface finish, he cannot pre determine a deterministic time span in which the activity can be completed.240) – Inspection of dimensions of the bottom plane of part # 3: After the final milling operation the engineer has to check the dimensions achieved by this operation. Normally this will take one day, but practically the desired dimensions can not be obtained as planed in the program. So generally this inspection is followed by one or two iterations on the CNC milling machine according to the variance of dimensions the engineer has found. So it can take up to 3 days.250) Removal of part # 3 from the CNC milling machine: After ensuring that we achieved the required dimensions 2 technicians have to remove part # 3 with its setting from the CNC machine. This is followed up by cleaning the machine and preparing it for following operations. This deterministic activity takes half a day.260) – Manufacturing left plane-setting of part 3 for the CNC machine: In order to work precisely on the CNC machine a setting has to be manufactured on workstation # 1. This setting must be designed after making the programs for the CNC milling machine, because the engineer who designed the program is the one who must take into account the settings required to fit his program. Also raw materials have to be available. Two technicians will take from 10 20 days in order to complete this setting, which will function as a support and a mean of fixation on the CNC machine. Due to the complexity of the design (rigidity, very large and smooth surface area, and a very accurate height) several iterations have to be made to achieve the requirements. The surface area must be grinded on work-station # 9 and the setting must be heat-treated in work-station #4.265) Assembling the left setting with part # 3: After manufacturing the setting, and removing part # 3 after completing the bottom plane milling, two technicians will take from 2 – 4 days to assemble part # 3 to the setting by means of bolts and nuts and welding on workstations 5 & 7. The variation in the time is due to the fact that the complexity of the job can only be known through trial and error until the assembly is rigid.270) – Fixation of the assembly on the CNC machine:The same two technicians will transport the assembly to workstation # 2 in order to fix the assembly on the machine table using bolts. This activity may take from half a day up to one whole day depending on the number of trials that have to be done in order to reach the required rigidity at which the assembly is fixed to the machine.280) – Rough milling of left plane of part # 3: An engineer and a technician have to activate the program and survey the automatic milling process to ensure that the milling operation is running smoothly. The cutting tools have to be replaced after certain time intervals. This activity will take from 3 4 days because the left part of part # 3 is the least complex part. According to the life span of the tools and the problems that may be faced in the process of milling a variance of time has to be accounted for.290) – Final milling of left part of part # 3: After the rough milling of the left part of part # 3 a final milling operation has to be done to reach an acceptable surface finish and a pre-final accuracy. This activity may take from 1 2 days. This operation takes less time than the bottom surface because there is less work involved in this surface. As the engineer has to make trials in order to reach optimum speed and feed that result in the desired surface finish, he cannot pre determine a deterministic time span in which the activity can be completed.300) – Inspection of dimensions of the left plane of part # 3: After the final milling operation the engineer has to check the dimensions achieved by this operation. Normally this will take one day, but practically the desired dimensions can not be obtained as planed in the program. So generally this inspection is followed by one or two iterations on the CNC milling machine according to the variance of dimensions the engineer has found. So it can take up to 2 days.310) – Removal of part # 3 from the CNC milling machine: After ensuring that we achieved the required dimensions 2 technicians have to remove part # 3 with its setting from the CNC machine. This is followed up by cleaning the machine and preparing it for following operations. This deterministic activity takes half a day.320) – Manufacturing right plane-setting of part 3 for the CNC machine: In order to work precisely on the CNC machine a setting has to be manufactured on workstation # 1. This setting must be designed after making the programs for the CNC milling machine, because the engineer who designed the program is the one who must take into account the settings required to fit his program. Also raw materials have to be available. Two technicians will take from 10 20 days in order to complete this setting, which will function as a support and a mean of fixation on the CNC machine. Due to the complexity of the design (rigidity, very large and smooth surface area, and a very accurate height) several iterations have to be made to achieve the requirements. The surface area must be grinded on work-station # 9 and the setting must be heat-treated in work-station #4.325) Assembling the right setting with part # 3: After manufacturing the setting, and part # 3 after completing the left plane milling, two technicians will take from 2 – 4 days to assemble part # 3 to the setting by means of bolts and nuts and welding on workstations 5 & 7. The variation in the time is due to the fact that the complexity of the job can only be known through trial and error until the assembly is rigid.330) – Fixation of the assembly on the CNC machine:The same two technicians will transport the assembly to workstation # 2 in order to fix the assembly on the machine table using bolts. This activity may take from half a day up to one whole day depending on the number of trials that have to be done in order to reach the required rigidity at which the assembly is fixed to the machine. 340) – Rough milling of right plane of part # 3: An engineer and a technician have to activate the program and survey the automatic milling process to ensure that the milling operation is running smoothly. The cutting tools have to be replaced after certain time intervals. This activity will take from 3 4 days because the right part of part # 3 is the least complex part. According to the life span of the tools and the problems that may be faced in the process of milling a variance of time has to be accounted for.350) – Final milling of right part of part # 3: After the rough milling of the left part of part # 3 a final milling operation has to be done to reach an acceptable surface finish and a pre-final accuracy. This activity may take from 1 2 days. This operation takes less time than the bottom surface because there is less work involved in this surface. As the engineer has to make trials in order to reach optimum speed and feed that result in the desired surface finish, he cannot pre determine a deterministic time span in which the activity can be completed. 360) – Inspection of dimensions of the right plane of part # 3: After the final milling operation the engineer has to check the dimensions achieved by this operation. Normally this will take one day, but practically the desired dimensions can not be obtained as planed in the program. So generally this inspection is followed by one or two iterations on the CNC milling machine according to the variance of dimensions the engineer has found. So it can take up to 2 days.370) – Removal of part # 3 from the CNC milling machine: After ensuring that we achieved the required dimensions 2 technicians have to remove part # 3 with its setting from the CNC machine. This is followed up by cleaning the machine and preparing it for following operations. This deterministic activity takes half a day.380) First part of manual finishing of part # 3: This activity can be started after completing the milling operations of the four different sections of part # 3. Then part # 3 is transported to work station # 7 where two highly skilled workers will have to manually smoothen the surface of the part using sand paper, grinding stones and powdered towels to achieve a mirror like surface finish. This operation will only reach an accuracy of + 0.05 mm to allow minor deformations during the heat treatment process. This activity will take from 25- 45 days because it is impossible to exactly determine how many times the workers have to go over the surface to achieve required accuracy and surface finish. 390) First part of heat treatment of part # 3: After the first part of manual finishing a technician puts part # 3 in a furnace (work station # 4) where it remains for one day (deterministic time). 400) – Preparing ingot of part # 5 for manufacturing: After the arrival of the raw materials and completing the programs of the CNC machine, a technician will transport the ingot of part 5 to workshop. The packaging will be removed and the ingot will be prepared for manufacturing. It will take about half a day, and delays can occur because it is very difficult to handle an ingot without holders. So, it can take up to one whole day.410) Drilling holes for holders in part 5: The prepared ingot will be drilled on work-station 8 by a technician. Then holders will be introduced to the ingot. This process will take about half a day. As this process is not complicated no delay is expected.420) – Rough cutting of excess material of part 5: After introducing the holders the ingot will go to workstation # 1 where two technicians will have to remove the excess material in order to achieve an approximate contour of the design. This can take from 8-12 days depending on the quality of the tools available in the workshop and fixation problems. This process is very important to facilitate the work on the CNC milling machine. Note that the rough milling of this part takes less time than part # 3. This is due to the fact that this part is less complex and there is less material to be removed.430) Manufacturing top plane-setting of part 5 for the CNC machine: In order to work precisely on the CNC machine a setting has to be manufactured on workstation # 1. This setting must be designed after making the programs for the CNC milling machine, because the engineer who designed the program is the one who must take into account the settings required to fit his program. Also raw materials have to be available. Two technicians will take from 10 20 days in order to complete this setting, which will function as a support and a mean of fixation on the CNC machine. Due to the complexity of the design (rigidity, very large and smooth surface area, and a very accurate height) several iterations have to be made to achieve the requirements. The surface area must be grinded on work-station # 9 and the setting must be heat-treated in work-station #4.435) Assembling the top setting with part # 5: After manufacturing the setting and after removing the excess material of part # 5 two technicians will take from 2 – 4 days to assemble part # 5 to the setting by means of bolts and nuts and welding on workstations 5 & 7. The variation in the time is due to the fact that the complexity of the job can only be known through trial and error until the assembly is rigid.440) Fixation of the assembly on the CNC machine: The same two technicians will transport the assembly to workstation # 2 in order to fix the assembly on the machine table using bolts. This activity may take from half a day up to one whole day depending on the number of trials that have to be done in order to reach the required rigidity at which the assembly is fixed to the machine. This activity depends upon the arrival of the special tools required for the machining process. 450) Rough milling of groove (in part # 5) where part # 4 is fixed: An engineer and a technician will supervise this process on workstation # 2. In this process we achieve an accuracy of +0.1 mm. According to the quality of the cutting tools, the surface finish required and the rigidity of the assembly on the machine, this activity may take from 3 6 days. 460) Rough milling (in part # 5) of contact surface with part # 6: An engineer and a technician will supervise this process on workstation # 2. In this process we achieve an accuracy of +0.1 mm. According to the quality of the cutting tools, the surface finish required and the rigidity of the assembly on the machine, this activity may take from 3 6 days. Note that this activity has no relation with the previous one. But, as the two activities are performed on the same part and cannot be made in parallel one has to proceed the other. It was our choice to choose this sequence.470) – Rough milling (in part # 5) of contact surface with part # 3: An engineer and a technician will supervise this process on workstation # 2. In this process we achieve an accuracy of +0.1 mm. According to the quality of the cutting tools, the surface finish required and the rigidity of the assembly on the machine, this activity may take from 3 6 days. Same note as in the previous activity applies to this activity.490) – Preparing ingot of part # 4 for manufacturing: After the arrival of the raw materials and completing the programs of the CNC machine, a technician will transport the ingoof part # 4 to the workshop. The packaging will be removed and the ingot will be prepared for manufacturing. It will take about half a day, and delays can occur because it is very difficult to handle an ingot without holders. So, it can take up to one whole day.500) Drilling holes for holders in part # 4: The prepared ingot will be drilled on workstation # 8 by a technician. Then holders will be introduced to the ingot. This process will take about half a day. As this process is not complicated no delay is expected.510) Manufacturing of setting of part # 4 for the CNC machine: In order to work precisely on the CNC machine a setting has to be manufactured on workstation # 1. This setting must be designed after making the programs for the CNC milling machine, because the engineer who designed the program is the one who must take into account the settings required to fit his program. Also raw materials have to be available. Two technicians will take from 10 20 days in order to complete this setting, which will function as a support and a mean of fixation on the CNC machine. Due to the complexity of the design (rigidity, very large and smooth surface area, and a very accurate height) several iterations have to be made to achieve the requirements. The surface area must be grinded on work-station # 9 and the setting must be heat-treated in work-station #4.515) Assembling the setting with part # 4: After manufacturing the setting and after drilling the holes of the holders of part # 4 two technicians will take from 2 – 4 days to assemble part # 4 to the setting by means of bolts and nuts and welding on workstations 5 & 7. The variation in the time is due to the fact that the complexity of the job can only be known through trial and error until the assembly is rigid.520) Fixation of the assembly on the CNC machine: The same two technicians will transport the assembly to workstation # 2 in order to fix the assembly on the machine table using bolts. This activity may take from half a day up to one whole day depending on the number of trials that have to be done in order to reach the required rigidity at which the assembly is fixed to the machine. This activity depends upon the arrival of the special tools required for the machining process. 530) First machining in the section (of part # 4) matching with part # 5: An engineer and a technician will supervise this operation which will take place after fixation of part # 4 on the CNC machine. It will take about 2 – 4 days to achieve an accuracy of +0.1 mm. This variance in time is due to unknown number of iterations to be done.540) Drilling the cooling holes in part # 4: The same team will do this activity after the first machining is completed. Due to the large depth of the cooling holes the drilling tool may wear out, so this process may take 1 3 days on work station # 2.550) Drilling the fixation holes of part # 4 with part # 5: Also the same team is responsible for this deterministic activity which will take 1 day on workstation # 2. Note that this activity has no relation with the previous one. But, as the two activities are performed on the same part and cannot be made in parallel one has to proceed the other. It was our choice to choose this sequence. 560) Final finishing of section (part # 4) matching with part # 5: The same team will finish milling this section up to the desired dimensions. No iterations are required here because the matching section in part # 5 is the one to be adjusted to fit this part, so it will take about 1 day in workstation # 2. Same note as in the previous activity applies to this activity.570) – Removal of part # 4 from the CNC milling machine: After ensuring that we achieved the required dimensions 2 technicians have to remove part # 4 with its setting from the CNC machine. This is followed by cleaning the machine and preparing it for following operations. This deterministic activity takes half a day.580) Manual finishing of the section in part # 4 matching with part # 5: Two highly skilled workers will have to manually smoothen the matching surface. Due to the unknown number of iterations this activity will take from 1 2 days in workstation # 7. This short time is due to the fact that the surface is not as large as the surface of part # 3 which took a much longer time.600) Finish milling of the groove (part # 5) in which # 4 will be fit: This activity will be done by an engineer and a technician on workstation #2. It will take from 1 4 days. This variation in time is due to the fact that the number of iterations needed to correctly fit part # 4 is unknown. Of course this activity can start after the manual finishing of the section (part # 4) matching in the groove of part # 5 is done. 610) Drill holes (part # 5) for fixation with part # 4: The same team as in the previous activity will take a deterministic of half a day to finish this job on workstation #2.620) – Removal of part # 5 from the CNC milling machine: After ensuring that we achieved the required dimensions 2 technicians have to remove part # 5 with its setting from the CNC machine. This is followed by cleaning the machine and preparing it for following operations. This deterministic activity takes half a day.630) Assembling of parts 4 & 5: Two technicians will assemble parts 4 & 5 on workstation # 7. This activity will take from 2 4 days because the process of fitting the two is a rather complex one as they have to exactly and rigidly fixed. 640) Fixation of the assembly on the CNC machine: The same two technicians will transport the assembly to workstation # 2 in order to fix the assembly on the machine table using bolts. This activity may take from half a day up to one whole

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