enhanced by Cross-Layer design approach for Power Control.


S.Muthurajkumar  et
al 3 Two important aspects of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are Energy
consumption and security. Using trust management, key management, ?rewalls and
intrusion detection security is provided in MANET. It is essential to consider
the energy and security aspects in routing algorithms since energy and security
are important for communication. Energy consumption can be reduced
automatically by the prevention of security attacks on routing protocols and
cluster based routing. Trust score evaluation, routing and
threshold setting using the trust values are the phases in trust based secure routing
algorithm. In trust score evaluation process the trust score for individual
nodes are calculated based on constraints like nodes which are genuinely
sending their acknowledgement to neighbors when they received the packets are
treated as first group and  the nodes
which drop more packets are considered as and 
the nodes which drop more packets are considered as group two nodes.
Now, the initial trust score is computed using the Eq that represents the percentage
of  acknowledgements.


 TS1i = (ACK / RP )
* 100                                     

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ACK = No. of acknowledgements sent to the neighbors , TS1i = First trust
score in percentage for ith node, RP = No. of packets received from 
neighbors second trust score is computed using Eq (3) which calculates
the dropped packets


TS1i = 100-((DP
/ TDP) * 100)                             


DP = No. of packets dropped, TDP = Total number of packets
dropped in network. TS2i = Second trust score percentage
for ith node. The overall trust score of the particular node
is calculated using Eq. (4)


= (TSli + TS2i) / 2                                         (4)



TS1i = First trust score for node i, TS2i = -Second trust
score for node I, TSi = Overall trust score for node i.


 For developing a cluster based network a
clustering scheme is developed with clusters. A Cluster based Energy Ef?cient
Secure Routing Algorithm (CEESRA) is proposed for providing effective routing.
Malicious nodes can be avoided and detected using the trust score. A dynamic clustering
technique not only uses low mobility nodes, energy consumption, trust values
and distance parameters for providing the energy ef?cient secure routing
algorithm. The proposed algorithm provides better performance in terms of
packet drop ratio, residual energy, security and throughput when compared to
the existing techniques.


N.Magadevi et al 4 The wireless
nodes have limited power resource in Wireless Sensor Networks. To recharge the
batteries of the wireless nodes Wireless charging is an alternative. Using a
single mobile anchor a wireless recharging and also localization are proposed.
Localization provides the position information. Static node is located by the
mobile anchor first and then it receives the battery level. Later static nodes
are recharged if the static node battery is lesser than the threshold limit. Fundamental
unit of sensor network is sensor node. It comprises of   sensors, microprocessor, transceiver , memory
and power supply. An Adhoc network with a collection of number of sensor nodes
is Wireless Sensor Network. It is used in many ?elds like disaster rescue, intrusion
detection and in health care applications. Gateway between the WSN and the
other network is sink node. Noise Ratio (SNR), increased ef?ciency, improved
robustness and scalability are the advantages in WSN. In designing WSN there
are several challenges like software development, deployment, localization,
hardware design, routing protocol and coverage. For effective data
communication and computation sensor node must be accurate. In the advancement
of wireless sensor networks effective localization system must be developed.Range
free localization algorithms do not require distance or angle measurements.
Along with the wireless charging localization problem is addressed here. Sensor
senses the data and communicates with the base station through Multi hop
communication. In Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network an effective and
controllable energy harvesting scheme is to be adopted. Thus proposed method
improves the network’s lifetime.


Wen-KuangKuo et al 5 The energy
consumption of battery-powered mobile devices can be increased by measured in
bits per Joule for MANETs. By jointly considering routing multimedia
applications the energy ef?ciency (EE) is an essential aspect of mobile ad hoc
networks (MANETs). Based on the cross-layer design paradigm EE optimization is,
traf?c scheduling, and power control a non convex mixed integer nonlinear
programming is modeled as a problem. Branch and bound (BB) algorithm is devised
to ef?ciently solve this optimal problem.




A MANET comprised of one set of stationary nodes N connected by a set L of
links. We consider every

link l = nt ->
nr to be directional, where nt and nr are the
transmitter and receiver of l,



For every link l at every time slot t,
binary variable  as


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