Budget air hoses are particularly vulnerable to lifting fuel monetary values. Here many low budget air hose companies were non able to go through these excess fuel surcharges on to clients, as it went against their low-fares policy. This placed excess force per unit areas on budget air hoses and they had to happen alternate ways to salvage cost in other countries of the concern. Many budget air hoses could neither command nor predict the cost of fuel. This led to some budget air hose companies to travel bust and out of concern due to competition from rival houses.

Rival rivals such as Lufthansa, Air-France-KLM and Iberia overcame the lifting fuel job, by bulk purchasing the fuel. This allowed them to buy the fuel for $ 50 to $ 60 a barrel. At this point Ryanair had non taken advantage of this doing their operating cost to be higher.

Another deduction for budget air hoses is compensations to riders. In February 2005 a new EU ordinances came into consequence, this allowed riders to be compensated, if they were affected by cancellations.

Budget air hoses were besides obligated to supply riders with repasts, refreshment and hotel adjustment or a full refund which added further cost.

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Due to the new EU ordinances it is expected that compensation cost would number to 200 Euro yearly which adds further to the operating costs of budget air hose companies.

Due to the hazard of terrorist act many air hose companies were affected. In August 2006, they were terrible and increased degree of security at airdromes, and riders were restricted on what they could transport on flights. Here the deductions was that they were a existent hazard that many riders would utilize alternate ways to go such as autos, ferries and even trains due to the holds and limitations, as hunts would be clip consuming, which would hold an inauspicious affect on the air hose companies.

Research carried out at Oxford University stated that budget air hoses companies are lending to the harm of the ozone bed. This wedged budget air hoses as they were under addition force per unit area that air power fuel should be taxed and non be exempted. Observers stated that by 2010 air power fuel should be taxed within the EU country and they should be a 9 Euros charge for a return ticket within Europe.

It has besides been suggested that air hose companies may necessitate to buy more efficient aircrafts that use less fuel and bring forth less C emanations.

Safety issues

Many low budget air hoses had to guarantee that their safety criterions are up to day of the month, it is of import that staff run into the appropriate safety preparation and protocols which are set by air hose safety commissions. This adds farther cost on low budget air hoses as they need to guarantee that all air hose staff would be adequately trained.

Here the deduction would be that a serious accident would hold a knock on consequence on budget air hose bearers, every bit good as oppugning the repute of the air hose company.

It is important that budget air hose companies tackle these jobs and guarantee they can run expeditiously, so that they can still supply low costs menus to their clients. It is really of import that budget air hose companies understand these environment analysis and trade with them suitably in order to remain competitory ; otherwise they can travel out of concern and loose clients that are a critical plus to a concern.

Q2. Fix a Porter Five Forces analysis of the budget air hose industry. Express Ryanair ‘s position of these forces. ( 30 Markss )

Porter ‘s Five Forces Analysis






Exhibit 2.2 The five forces model

Beginning: Adapted with the permission of The Free Press, a Division of Simon & A ; Schuster Adult Publishing Group, from Competitive Scheme: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Rivals by Michael E. Porter. Copyright A© 1980, 1998 by The Free Press. All rights reserved

Ryanair would utilize the Porters five force theoretical account so that they can set up where power and hazards could be found in the air hose industry. Furthermore it will let them to detect and develop chances and protect themselves from other budget air hose companies that are seen as menaces.

Menace of New Entrants ( Medium )

Ryanair besides faces the menace of new entrants, who want to vie within the same industry. Some of the new budget air hose companies come ining the industry and viing with Ryanair include ;

Air Baltic

Fly Me


Monarch Schedule

These air hose companies offer clients low budget flights to popular European finishs. However many new air hose companies are confronting major troubles in populating up to Ryanair ‘s trade name image and experience, they would necessitate to hold significant sum of capital to come in the air hose industry.

Ryanair and Easy jet air hoses make up for 65.2 million riders, this makes up over half the industry, this besides shows the trust and trueness that clients have towards them.

To vie with the major air hose companies, a new budget air hose company would necessitate to hold a significant sum of airdrome bases. This involves immense sum of capital.

Menace of Substitutes ( Medium )

The different types of menaces that Ryanair may confront include roads, ferries and train services. The biggest menace for Ryanair would be train services such as Euro star and ferries from Dublin to Birmingham, as it provides the most convenient and comfy manner to go.

Besides they is less distribution, holds, less security cheques and clients are non restricted on what they can and can non take in their baggage.

However the major advantage that Ryanair has over trains, it is a much cheaper, faster, and more favorable manner of going which besides outweighs the other types of replacements.

Buyers ( Low )

Ryanair ensures that it stays competitory in the industry through the power of bargaining, it caters for 34.9 million riders and it is the taking budget air hose company that has this capacity. Here clients are monetary value sensitive and it would non take much for them to exchange from one low budget air hose company to another, as they tend to supply the same services and similar monetary values. Here Ryanair ensures that they monetary values are ever competitory and they are leaders in the market of low menu tickets. Ryanair besides offers its clients online booking and look into in services this avoids clients waiting in waiting lines, and this service makes it more efficient, quicker and easier for clients to look into in.

Suppliers ( Low )

Ryanair has two chief types of providers, the aircraft industries are the chief providers of Ryanair they supply the aircrafts which are indispensable for the concern. Ryanair maintains a good relationship with their providers, the company has ordered a farther 138 new Boeing aircrafts over the following six old ages.

By obtaining these new aircrafts Ryanair would be able to farther increase their clients to 80 million riders from 2012 per annum.

The 2nd provider are the air power fuel, one of the jobs of Ryanair is it can non foretell the fuel monetary values ; they could get the better of this job by seeking to purchase in majority. By making this they could buy the fuel more cheaply and aid cut down the overall fuel cost.

Ryanair Competitive Rivalry ( High )

At the current minute the competitory competition that Ryanair is confronting is limited, they are non many air hose companies who fly on the same path. Their nearest rivals are Easy jet. They were one peculiar company called MyTravelLite which flew from Dublin to Birmingham. But they were faced with ferocious competition from Ryanair and had to call off this path, due to the unbeatable low menus Ryanair offered.

Q3. Evaluate Ryanair ‘s peculiar strengths and failings and explain, with grounds, what Ryanair must make to retain a sustainable competitory advantage. ( 40 Markss )


Recognised Brand image

In the air hose industry Ryanair has become a good recognised trade name image in Europe, as a low budget air hose company. Following the construct of the USA ‘s Southwest Airline, Ryanair has become Europe ‘s taking low menu air hose company and is presently taking the market. Ryanair needs to guarantee that they trade name image is maintained and corsets good recognised.

Low Operating Costs & amp ; Low Menus

Due to Ryanair being Europe ‘s taking low menu air hose company, Ryanair has ensured that they operate on a low operating cost and budget, so that they can go through these nest eggs on to their clients and slash menu monetary values. By supplying basic and minimal operating services and basic air hose demands this is easy achieved.

Another manner that Ryanair has reduced their cost, is by utilizing the procedure of on-line cheque in services, this reduces the figure of staff employed which saves salary costs.

High rider volume

The success of the concern is to supply clients a low budget manner to go from one finish to another. To guarantee this Ryanair understands that they need to be a high volume of riders.

We can see that Ryanair has increased their rider volume and has a strong per centum of the air hose market which is of all time increasing. This is due to client ‘s demands and wants of going cheaply and rapidly with minimal attempt, which Ryanair can supply.

Internet Engagements

Internet engagements is one of Ryanair ‘s forefront success as much of air hose engagement are carried out over the cyberspace. This lowers the cost as Ryanair does non necessitate to employee staff to reply phones as this would be expensive and add excess cost. Here Ryanair introduced a new system in 2000 called fanlight which allows clients to book over the cyberspace and gives them the necessary engagement information. In add-on Ryanair demand to come up with new and taking engineering to supply better services to its clients.

First and taking budget air hose in Europe

Ryanair is the first and prima budget air hose in Europe. This shows the company has been established and runing within the industry for a long clip and understand client ‘s demands, every bit good as surpassing other rivals.

To retain this Ryanair needs to guarantee that they still have the same place in the industry and go on to offer low menus and competitory monetary values.

Growth and enlargement

Over the old ages Ryanair has grown and expanded, in 2006 the company had increased its cyberspace net income by 12 % despite a 74 % increased in fuel cost.

In order to retain this Ryanair needs to maintain on spread outing and turning. Furthermore Ryanair needs to be cognizant of the addition traffic. They have to do realistic hereafter anticipations as it has predicted it would be transporting 42 million riders in 2007.

No fuel surcharges

Michael O’Leary guaranteed that they would be no fuel surcharges for clients. Here Ryanair needs to guarantee that they keep their promises and do non bear down clients fuel surcharges in the hereafter.

New services

Ryanair accessory grosss have climbed by 36 % in 2006, which shows it had grown well quicker than riders ‘ grosss, which resulted in bring forthing a 7.70 Euros per rider. These included services like travel insurance, hotels, extra luggage charges, flight alteration fees, auto leases services, in flight gross revenues, rail and coach conveyance services, Ryanair recognition card with MBNA and personal loans. Here this can be retained by supplying new and up to day of the month installations and first-class accessory services.

New fleet of aircraft

Ryanair replaced its old fleet aircrafts with its new environmentally friendly 1s, doing it the youngest fleet in any major air hose in Europe.

These new planes allowed Ryanair to hold a competitory advantage as ;

They produce 50 % less emanations

45 % less fuel burn

45 % less lower noise

2 % less decrease in fleet fuel ingestion

Ryanair could retain this is, by go oning and placing the environmental concerns and do suited recommendations to undertake environment issues.

New popular finishs

Ryanair now offers new paths to other states such as Poland, Hungary, Slovakia and Marrakesh. To guarantee more clients, Ryanair needs to go on to offer new paths.


Poor employee relationship

Over many old ages Ryanair has been in the imperativeness for many grounds, foremost Ryanair was in the imperativeness for hapless staff services. Many pilots and air hose staff complained that they were non a good company to work with. In October 2006 Trip Advisors voted Ryanair the universe ‘s least favorite air hose.

Furthermore workers complained of hapless on the job conditions and menace of possible work stoppages. Here Ryanair need to hold an improved relationship with their employers.

Bad promotion

Ryanair has besides obtained bad promotion as they refused to return revenue enhancements and fees when riders cancelled their tickets, in add-on to this Ryanair introduced a 20 Euro per ticket disposal fee for managing refunds. Because of this Ryanair faced many unfavorable judgment and bad promotion. Here Ryanair needs to re-evaluate its policies so that it does non acquire bad promotion.

Unreasonable charges

Besides they were unreasonable insurance charges made by Ryanair. The chief concern was that these charges amounted to more that 10 % of Ryanair ‘s mean menus. This was seen unreasonable and many clients believed that these charges were another manner to obtain more money from them.

Investors perspective

Ryanair has been criticised by its investors, for sitting on a 2bn Euros hard currency heap, alternatively of administering it to its stockholders. Ryanair can get the better of this job by paying out dividends to its stockholders.

Security qui vive at airdromes

Due to security qui vives at airdromes, this has led to Ryanair to call off 279 flights and refund 2.7 million Euros in menus roll uping to 40,000 riders in entire. Due to this Ryanair has made a loss of 1.9 million Euros in decreased engagements.

Airport charges

Ryanair was involved in proceedings with assorted airdromes over landing charges. Ryanair had to pay 4 million Euros to Charleroi airdrome, its Brussels base. It needs to hold an arbitration understanding, so that Ryanair does non come into farther breaks.


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