The spheres of their power being employed in this case are environmental, economic, social/ ultra and political. As for the environmental sphere, Lake Victoria, the largest tropical lake in the world, is situated in the heart of Africa, divided by three countries: Tanzania (49%), Kenya (6%) and Uganda (45%). The lake was and is Africans largest inland fishery, although in the past there were much more species than nowadays. In the sass and sis a new predator, the Nile Perch was artificially introduced into the lake.
The aim of this decision remained unclear: some argue that it was a part of a scientific experiment, others say that the native species were too small and bony to feed the Sherman and their family and also there was a need for an economically more valuable fish. The social and economic sphere of power can be seen in the fishing industry. The health conscious lifestyle of Western European people has increased the consumption and so the demand for Nile Perch among many kind of fishes.
Fish processing plants were founded around Lake Victoria with the financial support of the ELK and these plants became the most important employers in the Anza region. They took advantage of their important position and pay as low wages and price for the fish as possible. Hundreds of farmers from the surrounding villages gave up their previous work and life and became one of the fishermen or the limited workforce of the processing plants so that they can feed their family. Orphaned children and widowed women also moved into town and became prostitutes to serve pilots’ and fishermen’s needs.
The plane which carries the fish officially arrive empty Or with humanitarian aids to Tanzania and they transport the fish on their way back to Europe. In the real life they carry smuggled guns and other armed weapons to support the surrounding countries’ wars and dictators. Along with the environmental, economic, social/cultural and political spheres of power, three ethical issues must be examined in order to discover the extent to which the upper mentioned firms used and abused their power. The first ethical issue: Does mankind have the right to interfere with nature?
The introduction of the Nile Perch caused or intensified several environmental and social problems in and around Lake Victoria. First of all the aggressive predatory Nile Perch was once originally a sea fish where it has some natural enemies and so the size of the population is controlled somehow. In Lake Victoria Nile Perch was at the top of the food chain and so no other species can stop its multiplication. It has soon wiped out smaller fishes and some species were almost driven to extinction. Since the number of small herbivorous fishes decreased, algae proliferated.
Darning’s law of evolution the natural selection has evoked a serious drama. The ecological balance of Lake Victoria has been upset and local fishermen, who could have stopped this process and help to restore the natural order, also contributed to the problem. The Nile Perch is a lot larger than the native species therefore coal people were not able to catch them with their nets, hooks and other equipment. Also their Old conservation method, sun drying was not appropriate anymore, since Nile Perch needed real fire to be smoked.
Due to the increased wood demand, the forests around the lake started to disappear, as a result soil erosion and desertification has already taken their starts. The short term economic value of the Nile Perch seems to be smaller than harm its introduction caused in the long term. The introduction of Nile Perch to Lake Victoria is often mentioned as a great example of thoughtless introduction because the whole ecosystem is threatened by this decision. Since the sass it extinguished few hundreds of native species which cannot be reintroduced.
The high volume commercial fishing would be the only hope and solution because it might give some chance to the surviving native species. Due to the fact that local fishermen do not have the appropriate equipment to catch large amounts of fish, the proliferation of Nile Perch continuous. To realize this fishing firms have to rethink their business models and their relationship with local fishermen and support their work with technology and training. The second ethical issue: Does powerful nations or organizations have the right to encroach on others’ home affairs?
While relatively politically stable since independence (early 1 9605), Tanzania lies in a hotbed of conflict and has operated as both mediator and ally during the numerous regional disputes of the last several decades. It has been involved with the ongoing conflicts, civil wars, peace talks in the surrounding Democratic Republic of Congo (D. R. C. ), Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and Sudan. The country has historically hosted displaced persons from Burundi, Rwanda and the D. R. C. , and houses more effuses than any other African country.
These armed conflicts would not have been so serious if other (developed) countries had not support them with smuggled weapons for their own interests (getting natural resource in exchange for their help). The poor African countries cannot afford to buy large numbers of new guns but smugglers sell the weapons on a lower price. The LLC, the EH and other organizations often emphasize these problems, but no real solution was presented yet. On the contrary the planes transporting the fish bring guns and munitions on their way to Africa disguised as European humanitarian aid packages for the poor countries.
The weapons are then sold and distributed in the surrounding countries. Conflicts will not be solved in a peaceful manner until there is no strict regulation and punishment for those who fight and kill. Third and most important ethical issue: Taking from the poor One might consider the European Union (ELI), the United Nations (ON) and other humanitarian organizations as they have reached the philanthropic responsibility level of Carol’s CARS pyramid because they try to help less developed and poor countries.
From this point of view the introduction of Nile perch to Lake Victoria and the ELK supported fishing industry based on he Perch seem generous because they employ local people for fishing and in the food processing plants and pay them to feed their family. Also the cargo planes, which transport the fish to European markets, give humanitarian aids in return. Other examples would be sending volunteers or money, organizing campaigns to inform people about the dangers of AIDS, although these were not mentioned in Darning’s Nightmare.
The above mentioned facts seem rather idealistic and the documentary shows the reality behind these rotund goals and stories. The fishing industry on Lake Victoria is the greatest employer in the region, but the number of bobs is limited. Despite this latter fact hundreds of farmers left their villages hoping that they can have better life as fishermen. The supply is a lot larger than the demand and this economically results in so low wages that people from Western societies would consider it as slavery.
About sixty per cent of Tanzania population live from less than one dollar per day. They would never refuse job because of low wages, they are happy to get money for their work. Poverty and the migration from agriculture to fishery (from villages to Anza) lead to famine and bad health condition, since fishermen cannot afford to buy Nile Perch and the only alternative is the bony leftover which cannot be sold in Europe. European groceries take the food from the starving just to have greater assortment. Apart from the above mentioned problems, poverty has other consequences.
Lot of families cannot afford to raise their children and the poor sometimes even orphaned kids are being exposed to the street life (drugs, aggression, etc. ). The fishing industry has nothing to offer for the widowed or young women and so for them the only way to make money is prostitution. HIVE and AIDS are also serious problem and the restitution even contributes to their spread. Tanzania people know about these diseases but they simple do not take a step to Stop them (e. G. They refuse to use condoms because of religious reasons).
Not all the humanitarian aid packages carried by the cargo planes are what they seem but this fact was detailed under the second point. This ethical issue is especially important because most of the European people who buy and eat Nile Perch do not know the what actual price is paid for having the delicious fish on their table. Buyers unintentionally contribute to problems of Tanzania and other African countries. Two-faced globalization Lake Victoria, the heart of Tanzania, has been the hotbed of ethical issues and dilemmas.
In this case, the locals are not able to enjoy the fishing harvest Of their own lakes, they have to make do with maggot filled festering carcasses, cesspits of germs and bacteria cooked in unsanitary conditions. Diarrhea is rampart and there is even a lady that has lost her eye due to infection caused by consumption of bacteria-laden fish. On the other hand, clean white coats and stainless steel tables dominate the factory where the prime fillets are processed and subsequently shipped off to Europe. Exploitation is the only way to describe the current situation and the people of Tanzania are the victims.
Ethically, the locals should have the right to their own share of the Nile Perch; especially since the Nile Perch is eating up they usually catch. Firstly, Tanzania is hardly the most pluralistic society. Power is chiefly in the hands of the Ft;Viet men” and corporations. There is barely any freedom of rights or any set of checks and balances to prevent unethical exploitation of the native population. The movie clearly demonstrates the dire straits that the people of Tanzania are in, yet it seems that they have accepted their tuition without so much as a fight. The situation depicted is a clear example of their helplessness.
The lack of education, the lack of affluence, the lack of any international social media has all contributed to an isolated social environment, which allows businesses to conduct unethical practices with little or no resistance. There are no rising expectations Of living standards, nor are there any sort of entitlement mentality, the locals are happy just being alive. They simply do not possess the knowledge that being exploited in unethical nor do the believe living in poverty is not a norm. From the CARS mint of view, corporations operating in Tanzania rank pretty low.
Most of them are focused on economic responsibility, profits are the main goal of the corporation and they would do anything to maximize sales and minimize costs, even going so far to actually still charge the locals for the fish carcasses. Locals are paid pittance, yet much is demanded from them. Social responsibility seems to be non-existence. Companies seem to operate under the policy of “do whatever you can as long as you don not get caught”. Legal responsibility-wise, most corporations barely qualify, and only because Africa sacks a proper legal infrastructure.
Some corporations even openly practice illegal acts with many gunrunners flying in with cargo holds filled with guns, bound for Angola and other neighboring countries at war. Few if any corporations bother with ethical or philanthropic responsibilities. Majority, if not all, of the corporations operating in Tanzania fall under immoral management at worst or at best, amoral management. As it has been argued in the past few passages, gunrunning and total exploitation practices are classic examples of immoral management where there exists active position of ethical practices.
Other companies practice amoral management, where they believe that ethics do not really play a large role in a corporation’s decision-making process. To them, a different set of rules apply in business and in this case, it seems fair that the locals have to pay for their the fish frames, however bad it may be, seeing as how it is their only affordable source of food, it is not unlike a monopoly situation. Business logic would then dictate that profits can be maximized in such a situation. Moral management, unfortunately, seems to be pretty much non-existent.
With aspect to this situation, Goldberg would say that there is only the most basic of moral development levels present. Corporations involved tend to be in the preconception level stage one: Reaction to punishment. The corporations tend to do as much as they can get away with, in this case, with Tanzania being relatively isolated and devoid of a capable government, is quite a bit. They are little impetuous for the corporations to advance up the levels and stages and as such, they will remain in stage one for a long time unless something drastic happens.
However, under the principle of utilitarianism, it an be argued that there is nothing wrong with the scene depicted. In purely economical terms, the corporations are in a state of monopoly in both the labor and food market. The only meat available is the Nile Perch, seeing as how it has eaten pretty much everything else in the lake. The locals are unable to afford the sanitation or the prime fillets and as such must settle for what their money can buy; the maggot infested fish frames. Inside the factory, locals are hired and paid pittance to process the prime fillets.
Once again, seeing as how there are few jobs available, the laws of demand and apply apply. High demand for jobs and low supply leads to sub-par wages. High demand for the fish however, leads to higher prices for fish and subsequently prevents locals from being able to afford the fish. Cant’s Categorical Imperative is the total opposite, stating three basic formulations. Being that of acting on rules you will be willing to see everyone follow, so act to treat humanity as an end rather than a mean and every rational being should be able to regard oneself as a maker of universal law.
The current situation in Tanzania would then be in direct contrast with the three ruinations. One would hardly be willing to be subject to the situation the locals are in, and the corporations are not treating the natives as ends. Instead they are the means to process the fish and guard the factory or research labs to the corporations benefit. Furthermore, the local population is treated little better than slaves, as opposed to Cant’s third belief. In conclusion, there are so many perspectives offering differing opinions on this subject.
The sharp contrast in the conditions depicted is a classic example of the situations all over Africa. White men and large corporations still nominate the continent, governments are powerless and the people suffer in ignorance. The rich still oppress the poor and the world still remains largely ignorant of what truly goes on Africa. Different Ethical Perspectives: a. That of the Global Economy The fish factory in Anza has been an astounding SUCceSS with regards to the world economy.
On the macro level, we can see that under the principle of utilitarianism, it can be argued that there is nothing wrong with the practices of corporations in Tanzania. Without taking personal feelings into account, or the moral ethical issues at hand. The Nile Perch fishing industry in Lake Victoria region is a mufti-billion dollar industry, generating billions of dollars of revenue every year. All in all, its actually very beneficial for the world economy. Arguably, the benefits to many people all over the world may outweigh the detrimental effect on the local population.
This however, is a highly subjective stance, which may vary from person to person. Individually taken, it may not be ethical to exploit a local population. In a way, the invasion of the Nile Perch and the subsequent destruction of the indigenous fish population is a fair representation of what happened to the local Africans once white men arrived. It is most unfortunate that most of the consumers of the Nile Perch know little of the toil it has taken on the residents around lake Victoria. B. That of the Local Economy On a narrower scale, the local economy has certainly received a boost from sales of the Nile Perch.
Jobs are created with the opening of fish processing factories, technological innovations are brought into Tanzania and fishermen receive a boost to their income with the highly valued Nile Perch fetching pretty high prices. However, what seems to be good on paper, does not truly reflect the situation in Tanzania. The Nile Perch has all but destroyed native fishermen’s ability to survive on catching anything else by eating up everything else in the river. Fishermen are thus forced to depend on catching the Nile Perch for income.
With their original source of food depleted, the locals are no longer able to practice subsistence fishing and are forced eat whatever they can still afford. Many women are forced into the dangerous world of unpolished prostitution and men into dangerous jobs. Children fight each other for food and swollen malnourished bellies of infants are a common sight. However, most of the profits gained are diverted to off shore foreign firms and the natives get poorer and poorer, only able to afford the most meager of food or scraps from the fish-processing factory.
With little power, urgency and legitimacy, there is little the locals can do. C. That of the Independent Film maker. The micro level view of an independent film maker is an enigma. It is difficult to tell what manner of ethical perspective he may possess. Generally, there may be two extremes that exist. Firstly, he could genuinely be concerned about the repercussions that the introduction Of the Nile perch has had on he local environment. As such, he would like to educate the ignorant around the world and open their eyes to the price the natives have paid.
By increasing global awareness, it is possible that organizations with more power and legitimacy may step in and prevent further exploitation. On the more pessimistic side, the film maker could possibly wish to turn a profit or boost his personal reputation by exploring a more controversial and obscure topic. This theory can be supported by the rather one dimensional filming style that he employs. Focusing exclusively on the plight of the natives with respect to he invasion of the Nile Perch.
There has been little coverage over the water hyacinth invasion, which was first introduced by Belgium colonists in the state of Rwanda. The plants covered the surface of the lake, reducing oxygen levels and thus contributing to extinction of many fish species as well as providing still water for malaria-ridden mosquitoes to flourish. The film maker also fails to mention anything about the increasing amounts of pollution dumped into the lake due to economic expansion which surely has a part to play in the ecological meltdown the lake has suffered, instead he chooses to push charity of the blame to the Nile Perch.
Stakeholders in the Nightmare Academic Literature provides a rich portfolio of approaches with regards to the analysis and evaluation of stakeholder groups in society. According to Carroll and Bucktooth (2008), Stakeholders are individuals and groups that have one or more of various kinds of stakes in an organization. They classify these stakes into three categories: an interest, a right and ownership. The category “right”, however, rest upon two pillars. Legal rights and Moral rights. A potential interest of stakeholders in a company is determined by the fact whether or not the stakeholder will be affected by the firm’s decisions.
This, however, does not incorporate a legal claim to be treated in a certain way as it is the case with stakeholders that have a “legal right”. A “moral right’ can be deduced from the stakeholders’ impression that certain moral or ethical guidelines ought to protect him from unfavorable actions. The third type of stakeholders are the owners. The essential requirement to belong to this group is the possession of a legal title to an asset or property. The “Stakeholder View of the Firm”, emerged from the “Production VieW’ and he “Managerial View’ (Carroll and Buckshot, 2008).
The authors rate the group of stakeholders as primary and secondary. “Primary stakeholders have a direct stake in the organization and its success” and are hence the most powerful. But also secondary stakeholders can exert a certain degree of influence on the business. Especially reputation and public standing as well as legislation are relevant areas Of agitation. The Stakeholder view Of the firm, as proposed in “Business and Society”, first, comprises the interest groups that have direct dealings with a certain company and second, the environment in which it operates.
This includes the Political, Economic, Social and Technical Environment. The proposed concept proves to be a useful framework to assess the stakeholder relationships in the discussed case. All of the groups that were named up to this point, are referred to as social stakeholders. They represent people’s interest in the broadest sense. However, also non-social stakeholders exist Primary non-social stakeholders for example, include the natural environment, future generations and non- human species (Carroll and Buckshot, 2008). All of them are most relevant in the case analysis of the Lake Victoria problem.
For a thorough investigation of the environment, the identification of the different groups cannot be sufficient. Of course, every stakeholder has a different influence on a given company or issue. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a framework that helps to cluster and quantify the degree of power and relevance of certain groups. In their paper “Stakeholder typology: One, Two or Three Attributes Present” (1 997), Mitchell, Eagle and Wood, propose a typology for this analysis. The three parameters to be considered are Power, Legitimacy and Urgency. The first, Power, refers to the stakeholders’ ability to effect the business.
Secondly, Legitimacy, relates to the appropriateness of the groups’ claims. Hence, conglomerates with a more formal and direct relationship to the business have higher degree of legitimacy. The last element, Urgency, measures the pressure for immediate response to the group’s claims. The following analysis of the stakeholder environment of Lake Victoria and the problems as presented in the documentary Darning’s nightmare, will illustrate the value of the concept. In theory this is threefold. First it has a “Descriptive Value” which means it provides an effective tool to communicate bout the organization and its surroundings.
Second, it has “Instrumental Value”. This refers to the fact that it offers the possibility to analyze the relationship between an organization and its multidimensional environment and therefore allows for the establishment of performance measurements. The last element of value-added is the “Normative Value”. According to Carroll and Bucktooth (2008), this “is often thought of as the moral or ethical view’. Stakeholder theory basically describes how stakeholders should be treated and thereby, sets norms and benchmarks for managerial actions. A stakeholder analysis at its core is always relative.
It analyses the value of certain groups’ claims with respect to a certain business or entity. In the case Of Lake Victoria, however, the issue is slightly more abstract. The analysis that will be conducted, measures the stakes of interest groups relative to the problem field of Lake Victoria. Therefore, not a single firm will be found in the centre of the relationship grid but the issue itself. This enables the authors to also identify local businesses for example as key stakeholders. The first stakeholder that is being identified is Lake Victoria itself.
Being a on-social, primary stakeholder, the lake suffers from the fishing industry. Biodiversity has significantly shrunk since the Nile Perch was introduced to the lake. This caused the extinction of nearly all local fish species and nearly directly relates to the responsibility towards future generations which is another example for a non-social stakeholder. However, in this context, this is to be treated as connected to the formerly mentioned biodiversity of the lake. In the past, the lake provided the local community with a broad range of fishes that catered for the nutritious needs of the population.
Applying the haplology introduced earlier, it becomes obvious that the lake has to be considered as a primary stakeholder that requires close attention. Classifying the lake as an ecosystem or natural resource, it obviously lacks power. The combination of the clear legitimacy of the lake’s claims and the urgency of the matter that Can be deduced from observing the deterioration Of biodiversity, makes it a “dependent stakeholder’. The Nile Perch is an export product of Tanzania. The essence of trade is that it is conducted between two parties that exchange economic goods and money. This leads to the identification of two other stakeholders.
First, the local fishing industry and export companies and second, the importing companies within the European Union. For the local companies, the export of fish is a vital issue because it creates important income. According to the movie, 2. 5 million white people consume fish from Lake Victoria on a daily basis (Darning’s Nightmare). Translated to economic terms, this means a very steady demand situation. The fishing and fish processing companies as presented in the movie, of course do have power in that respective field. They have the knowledge and facilities to control the fishing, the pricing and terms f trade.