Recommended Citation Khan. Adeel. Cultural patriotism and the province in Pakistan. Doctor of Philosophy thesis. Faculty of Arts. University of Wollongong. 2001. hypertext transfer protocol: //ro. uow. edu. au/theses/1736 Research Online is the unfastened entree institutional depository for the University of Wollongong. For farther information contact the UOW Library: [ electronic mail protected ]edu. au Cultural Patriotism and the State in Pakistan A thesis submitted in fulfillment of the demands for the award of the grade of Doctor of Philosophy from University of Woilongong by Adeel Khan Sociology Program. Faculty of Humanistic disciplines February 2001

Declaration I. Adeel Khan. declare that this thesis. submitted in fulfillment of the demands for the award of Doctor of Philosophy. in the Sociology Program of Faculty of Arts. University of Woilongong. is entirely my ain work unless otherwise referenced or acknowledged. The papers has non been submitted for makings at any other academic establishment. Adeel Khan 26 February 2001 11 Aknowledgements I would wish to thank the Sociology Program and the School of Critical Enquiry at the University of Woilongong for assisting me to go to Pakistan twice to make my fieldwork.

In Pakistan there are excessively many people who have helped me in many different ways. I am thankful to all those faculty members. journalists. politicians. attorneies and militants who spared their clip to talk to me. I would wish to particularly thank Mazhar Abbas who non merely provided me with really utile information and contacts but besides arranged meetings with the MQM leaders. I am indebted to Ahmed Shah and Ayub Shiekh for organizing one of the most entertaining every bit good as productive trips to Hyderabad where they arranged meetings with Ibrahim Joyo and Rasul Bux Palejo and other Sindhi patriots.

In Lahore I had the pleasance of Khawar Malik and Imtiaz Alam’s company in one of the most dramatic months in Pakistan’s history when the main justness and the premier curate were caught in a eccentric conflict of self-importance that had created a serious political crisis. In Quetta. Abdul Sami Kakar. a former Pukhtim Student Federation militant. who was introduced to me by Tahir Mohammad Khan. was a fantastic company and great aid in organizing interviews with Baloch and Pukhtun patriots.

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In Islamabad I shall ever lose late Eqbal Ahmed with whom I had some of the most stimulating treatments. My supervisor. Stephen Castles. has been an grim beginning of encouragement and inspiration. He non merely encouraged me to believe as profoundly and every bit critically as possible but besides. at times. forced me to research different facets of the statement whenever he felt I could make better. I have peculiarly benefited from Stephen’s cognition of European history.

What impressed me the most about Stephen. nevertheless. is that he is one of those people who are so comfy with themselves that they barely care what others think of them. and therefore they are unassuming and full of humbleness. I wish I could larn that from him. excessively. My married woman. Rafat. deserves more than a few words of gratitude for she is the 1 who had to set up with my anxiousness. diffidence. writer’s block. temper swings. and all the other ‘hazards’ that come with a individual who agrees with Adomo that “ ( O ) nly those ideas are frue which fail to understand themselves.

” I stand obliged to her for bearing with me. As is customary. and in legal footings. excessively. I must acknowledge that merely I am responsible for the errors and failings in my work. but as I have made it obvious that I would non hold been able to bring forth this work without the aid of all those mentioned above. and hence. morally at least. they can non get away the duty. The lone solace I can offer to them is that I apologise for the errors and failings and promise to seek harder. following clip. to neglect better.

Ill Abstract Nationalism is a manner of covering with a universe where ‘everything thaws into thin air’ . It is a signifier of amour propre in which persons celebrate their corporate individuality. And like all signifiers of amour propre it gets its strength more from the hate of others than its love for the ego Here lies the secret behind some of the most intractable struggles in the universe. Patriotism is. likely. the lone signifier of amour propre that gets its life-blood from an establishment. the modem province.

Had the province non been behind the amour propre of the Germans. they would non hold been able to torment and slay so many Hebrews in such a short period of clip. Likewise. had the West non helped the Jews to set up their ain province in Palestine. the Jews would ne’er hold been able to displace and kill so many Palestinians. Nationalism is non the ‘pathology’ of the modem universe. but is. as a sentiment and as a philosophy. merely a hapless manner to cover with a hapless universe.

But patriotism as a game of power. as a political relations. is deadly and destructive. As a sentiment and as a philosophy patriotism may be the kid of an unstable and fast changing universe but as a political relations it is the kid of the state province. This thesis explores the relationship between the nation-state and the patriotisms of four cultural groups. viz. . Pukhtun. Sindhi. Baloch and Mohajir. who have. at assorted points in clip. contested the legitimacy of the administrative construction of the Pakistani province.

It starts with placing the issue of cultural struggles. goes on to reexamine the available literature and so outlines a model for analyzing cultural IV patriotism. As the accent here is on the function of the modem province in arousing cultural discontent and resistance the 2nd chapter discusses the interventionist function of the province and attempts to foreground its relationship with patriotism. The 2nd subdivision of the chapter looks at assorted attacks to patriotism and explains as to which attack is more suited and why for covering with cultural patriotism.

The 3rd chapter enterprises to explain the difference between pre-colonial and colonial province in India every bit good as the manner the colonial province despite being modem was different from the modem province system in the West. The 4th chapter discusses the province system in Pakistan and argues that the postcolonial province is a reproduction of the colonial province. The following four chapters examine the outgrowth of four cultural motions and their varying schemes for covering with the centralising and homogenizing policies of the province.

Throughout. the focal point remains on the cultural groups’ distance from and propinquity to the province system as the major factor in finding their relationships. Table of Contents Declaration Acknowledgments Abstract 11 three four Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Introduction Nationalism and the State Colonisation of the State in India Nationalisation of the Colonial State in Pakistan Pukhtun Ethnic Patriotism: From Separatism to Integrationism Baloch Ethnic Patriotism: From Guerilla War to Nowhere?

Sindhi Ethnic Patriotism: Migration. Marginalisation. and the Threat of ‘Indianisation’ Mohajir Ethnic Patriotism: El Dorado gone Sour! At a Crossroads as Ever Before! 1 24 45 67 99 133 Chapter 7 158 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 201 238 References Appendix A Interviews 244 259 VI The whole is the false Adomo ‘ Inversion of Hegel’s celebrated pronouncement. the whole is the true ( 1978:50 ) Vll Please see print transcript for image Beginning: 1998 Census ( Statistical Pocket Book of Pakistan. 2000 ) PAKISTAN.

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