1. Ethnicity Ethnicity is non a distinct term. It normally describes someone’s racial or cultural background but has a whole host of other intensions connected with visual aspect. frock. nutrient. lifestyle etc. The cultural bulk in a peculiar topographic point are. non needfully those with the largest Numberss. but those with societal and political power. It is besides the instance that frequently footings depicting race are reasonably nonmeaningful. Peoples from the ‘British race’ for illustration originate from many other civilizations and states. depending on how far back you trace their household trees.

2. Prejudiced linguistic communication Language can be used to do certain cultural groups appear to be foreigners. or different from the cultural bulk. Markedness It is frequently assumed that immigrants. and people from cultural minorities. must suit in with the ways and traditions of the cultural bulk. When this happens. the cultural individuality of the bulk begins to look normal and unseeable. whilst that of the minority appears. strange. worthy of reference and marked.

We frequently find in the media that people’ ethnicity is merely mentioned when they are non white. So. we hear things like “the murdered black adolescent Steven Lawrence” even in cases where the description of ethnicity is irrelevant. Negative labelling Peoples are frequently labelled harmonizing to their coloring material. race or ethnicity. The job with such labels is foremost that they may halt us seeing other facets of the individual as we are focussed on the property that the label describes. The 2nd job is that really frequently these labels are associated with negative stereotypes.

We frequently find that the most marginalized groups in our society have the largest Numberss of violative footings to depict them. In add-on. the media runs comparatively few narratives about those from cultural minorities. and those that are included tend to reenforce the negative stereotypes by being about offense or upset. 3. Taging Cultural Identity Language can besides be used as a powerful marker of cultural individuality. The linguistic communication that we speak. and how we speak it. shows the cultural group to which we believe we belong and claim solidarity with. British Black English People of West Indian and African Caribbean beginning in England use many different

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assortments depending on where about they live and how long their households have been in Britain. Those born in Britain normally speak a assortment of English and besides a assortment of Jamaican Creole. known as Patois. Linguistic characteristics of Patois? Lexical points ( lick ( hit ) . kenge ( weak ) . bex ( angry ) ? Use of [ ? ] and [ ? ] in topographic point of [ ? ] and [ ? ] e. g. [ T? n ] for [ ? ? n ] ? Plural signifiers without /s/ postfix ( e. g. many cow ) ? Verbs non marked for tense ( walk in topographic point of walked ) ? Simplified pronouns ( [ myocardial infarction ] for I. me. my and [ dem ] for they. them and their ) ? Use of ‘fi’ in topographic point of ‘to’ before infinitives.

African American Vernacular English In the USA. the distinguishable linguistic communications of people of African American beginning disappeared centuries ago. Nevertheless. a distinguishable assortment of English. called African American Vernacular English ( AAVE ) . has developed which acts as a symbol of ethnicity. AAVE is most frequently heard in metropoliss in the North of the provinces. Linguistic characteristics of AAVE? Absence of standard linking verb be ( e. g. ‘she really nice’ . ‘that my book’ ) ? Use of linking verb be to signal repeating actions ( ‘she be at school on weekdays’ ) ? Multiple negation ( ‘I don’t want none’ ) ?

Consonant bunch simplification ( ‘aks in topographic point of asks’ ) ? Experiential it ( where criterion English has ‘there’ . ‘it’s a boy’ for ‘there’s a boy’ ) Maori English In New Zealand. it is non clear if a Maori idiom of English really exists. What is certain is that the characteristics listed below occur more frequently in the address of Maoris than Pakeha ( non-Polynesian New Zealanders. normally of European beginning ) Linguistic characteristics of Maori English? Use of [ ? ] and [ ? ] in topographic point of [ ? ] and [ ? ] e. g. [ T? n ] for [ ? ? n ] ? Use of vocabulary points such as kia ora ( recognizing ) and kuia ( old adult female ) ?

Common verb signifiers ( walk for walked ) ? Present tense signifiers with /s/ ‘I sees you’ . ‘we gets home’ ) 4. Social Networks Social webs can assist us understand address forms as the linguistic communication and assortment we use is influenced by the people we spend clip with. You can pull a simple societal web by sing the four or five people you speak to most frequently and pulling lines from their names to yours on a map. If any of those people know each other independently of you. link them with lines ( sooner of a different coloring material ) excessively.

Then add their two or three best friends. and so on. e. g. Tom Richard Bob Barbara Sandy Dave Features of societal webs Density Density refers to whether members of a person’s web are in touch with each other individually. In the illustration above. merely Richard and Bob know each other independently of Tom so his web is non a dense one. Plexity Plexity refers to the type of minutess that we are involved in with other people. If. for illustration. Tom merely of all time plays squash with Barbara. the relationship would be considered a uniplex one. If nevertheless. Tom and Barbara lived. worked and socialised together it would be a manifold one.

Language and Networks The linguistic communication or assortment we use is influenced by the people we talk to and what we talk to them approximately. We may alter the linguistic communication or assortment we are utilizing depending on which portion of our web we are presently interacting with. For illustration. we may be more formal at work than at place. This type of language/variety displacement is likely more likely if our societal web is non really heavy and our dealingss tend to be uniplex. If our webs are heavy and manifold. the whole web is more likely to utilize the usage the same linguistic communication or assortment.

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