Sensory stores consist of the eyes, nose, fingers, tongue, etc and the corresponding area of the brain. The sensory stores constantly receive information but most of this information receives no attention and remains in the sensory stores for a very brief period. If a person’s attention is focused on one of the sensory stores, then the data Is transferred to short term store. By paying attention, we can remember. But information stored in short term store is easily lost; it will decay very rapidly if not rehearsed.
Memory will also disappear if new information enters short term store and displacing the original information. This happens because the short term store only has a limited capacity. The second step is moving Info from short term store to long term store. Initially rehearsal maintains memory In the short term store but constant rehearsal helps memories last longer. In short, the more the Information Is rehearsed, the better It Is remembered. There are some evidences that support the multi store model. For example brain damaged patients.
The case study of HEM had proven that the hippopotamus may function as a memory gateway through which new memories must pass before entering permanent storage in the brain for anything that happened since. This proven that memory must go through the short term store in order to be able to move to the long term store, as the multi store model suggests. There Is also the primacy regency effect. Psychologist created a study In which they made the participants recall unrelated words in a free order (free recall).
The finding is that words at the beginning and at the end are more remembered compared to words In the middle. The better recall of the first words rather than the middle words are is called the primacy effect. The better recall of the last words is called the regency effect. The primary effect Is prove for the “rehearsal in order to remember more”, the regency effect Is prove for the “paying attention can also helps us remember”. Even though this model has strong evidence to support It, there are some few criticisms.
It is very likely that there might be more than one short tormentors. For example in the case of brain damaged patients, in particular HEM, his personality remained the same and he still remembers things before his operation but he could not form long term memory. And rehearsal is not the only way to transfer info into long term store as In the case of HEM, he could not form new long term store even Hough he goes through the same experience everyday. Also this model Is out of date; It might not be precise to today’s time. Besides the multi store model, there is the working memory model.
The working memory model was published in term store and it is a far more complex explanation of short term store than the multi store model. Biddable and Hitch figured out that short term store was not just one store but two stores, including one store for visual processing and one for sounds processing. The working model of memory has 4 main components: the Central executive, the phonological loop, the viscous-spatial sketchpad and the episodic buffer. The central executive with low capacity directs attention to particular tasks and determine how resources are allocated to tasks.
The phonological loop deals with auditory info and preserves order of info. The viscous-spatial sketchpad when planned a spatial task and it saves memory temporarily. The episodic buffer is the general store, it integrates info from the central executive, the phonological loop and the viscous-spatial sketchpad and forms long term store. Research evidence for the working model of memory varies. Case studies of brain damaged patients support this model a lot. The case study of KEF – a brain damaged patient with no problem with long term learning but some aspects of his immediate memory were impaired.
This has proven that the working model of memory was right when suggesting that short term store works independently of long term store. In addition to evidence supporting this model, Biddable and Hitch did a research on making participants do two tasks using the same or different components. Task one occupied the central executive, task two either involved the articulators loop or both the central executive and the articulators loop. Speed on task one was the same whether using he articulators loop or no extra task.
This shows that doing two tasks that involve the same component causes difficulty. It also suggested that when two different components are used, performance is not affected. Even though the working model of memory is better than the multi store model, it still has some weaknesses. For example the role of the central executive is vague and it needs more research. Also there were problems with case studies on brain damaged patients, as brain injury is traumatic and may change behaviors. These may be psychological rather than due to memory systems are damaged.
It does not offer a complete understanding of the memory system as short term memory may be influenced by long term memory and it is difficult to separate them out. In conclusion, both models have their contribution. The multi store model as the original is quite successful in opening up a pace for the working memory model. The multi store model focused mainly on the structure of memory. On the other hand, the working memory model as a successor focused more on the process, in order to give us a more thoroughly view. These two models complement each other, they both have an important role in cognitive process of memory.