Primark is the UKs 5th largest entire vesture retail merchant. It was started in 1969 and presently operates 198 shops in 7 different states in Europe. It is celebrated for supplying value vesture in the retail market. It is besides known for ever holding something new in the shop, giving its clients an of all time altering retail experience (, 2010 ; ) . Supplying its clients with of all time altering experience and value for money Primark holds a good figure of satisfied clients who come back to the shop about every hebdomad.

Primark purchases its merchandises and goods in big measures straight from diffrent mills. They sell dressing for work forces, adult female and childs ; there are besides a batch place based luxury items.Their philosohy of concern is more inclined towards volume and are runing a thin concern.

Primark consists of assorted sections. I work as a retail helper in the kids ‘s subdivision of the Westgate shop in Oxford. As a retail shop the nucleus of its operations rests chiefly on the retail helpers at the boulder claies who deal straight with clients. This portion of the organisation should be managed efficaciously and efficiency in order to run into both clients outlook and organisational aims.

Slack et Al ( 2004 ) specify operations direction as the procedure of how organisations produce goods and services and if employed expeditiously it can profit an administration in the undermentioned ways:

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– It can diminish the costs of bring forthing goods and services.

– Addition clients satisfaction about the provided services and merchandises.

– Reduce the sum of capital employed.

– It can heighten future invention.

Greasley ( 1998 ) besides describes operations direction as how administrations produce or present the goods and services that provide the ground for their being.

Operations direction job

As mentioned above of being associated with Primark retail shop ( Oxford Branch ) I realized that there is an operation job which is impacting the overall public presentation and productiveness of the shop. The identified job is the client waiting times at the boulder claies. Customers by and large buy an norm of two to three baskets of vesture at a clip and it usually takes an norm of 12 proceedingss to function these clients, where there are few points being purchased the client can be out of the store in under 5 proceedingss but this is rare. As of my observation there is non sufficient staff at tellers every bit good as retail helpers end, in add-on the current staff are non adequately trained for problem shot every bit good as besides non even allowed/authorised to turn to the same. Hence and hence rely on their supervisors to work out any job that occurs at the boulder clay which as a consequence increases the clients waiting times. Long waiting times can cut down the sum of gross revenues done in a twenty-four hours because most clients may be detered from buying anything when they see long ques.

The above prescribed can really good be related to operations direction in Primark as a defined procedure by which clients are served. In relation to the specified job the procedure requires to be measured as of how expeditiously or inefficiently clients are served in a shop. Efficiency or deficiency of it needs to be observed in the quality of service and related client waiting clip.


Transformation procedure

-Taking the basket from the client

-Scan the points

-Fold the apparels

-put them in the bag

-Take the money

-put the money in drawer and give the alteration if there is any

Operations direction is concerned with managing procedures. All administrations produce goods and services by pull offing these procedures to alter the province or status of something to bring forth end products ( Slack et al, 2004 ) . As what perceived from the definition above we can state that all organisations have operations procedures to bring forth goods and services. In some instances organisations produce merely goods or merely services in forms of end products. In the topic instance the procedure being described is specifically related to the services provided by Primark with an aim to get an end product in form of clients satisfaction. Hammer and Champy ( 1993 ) specify a procedure as a aggregation of activities that take one or more sorts of input and make an end product of value to a client. They besides define concern procedure reengineering as the redesign of an organizational procedure to make a drastic betterment in cost, service or velocity.

Every procedure is described as holding inputs, transmutation and end product. Input signals are the resources required to transport out a peculiar operation ( staff, clients and points purchased ) . Transformation is the procedure through which the inputs go through and the length of clip it takes e.g. how long the retail helper takes to treat purchases and how long it takes for each client to be served. Output is the terminal consequence ; client satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The undermentioned figure maps the operation procedure under consideration in Primark.


-Cashier/Retail Assistants having client purchases and treating them.

End product

-Satisfied client


Input signal

– Merchandise for client buying.

Fig. 1

The following diagram shows the procedure involved in the purchases made in a Primark shop which will foreground the above mentioned operations job. The diagram is divided into input, transmutations and end products. This procedure starts with clients waiting in waiting line to be served and ends with them go forthing the shop with their purchases.

Wait Time


-Taking the basket from the client

-scan the points

-put the points in the bag

-Take the money or infix the card.

-put the money in the drawer

– stopping point the drawer.

End product

-put the reception in the bag

-give the bag to the client

Input signal

-Staff ( Cashiers/Retails helper )



There are certain alterations that need to be made to the procedure described above to better the quality of service being provided at the Primark boulder claies. These alterations need to be good managed to guarantee success.

The chief alteration that needs to do to this procedure is to cut down the length in waiting times. In order to make this, Primark will necessitate to alter its developing stuff to give staff comprehensive preparation on boulder clay usage. They will hold to alter some of their package and machinery to do the procedure of look intoing out points faster. Finally they will hold to do major alterations to how waiting lines are formed to the boulder claies so that clients with few points can look into out faster.


A theory can be defined as a set of statements that give inside informations to explicate, depict or clear up a group of facts or phenomena, peculiarly 1 that has been often tested or is widely accepted and can be used to make anticipations about existent systems ( Free, 2010 ) .

The followers are operations direction theories: line uping theory, scheduling theory, and entire quality direction ; all these theories that assist in, planning and commanding existent systems.

Line uping theory is mathematical modeling of waiting times ; this applies to people or things. It seeks to gauge whether available resources will be plenty to run into the likely demand over peculiar clip ( Business, 2010 ) The line uping theory helps to minimise the clip people wait in a waiting line utilizing mathematical analysis.

The line uping system can be characterized by four parametric quantities:

-the distribution of reaching times

-the distribution of procedure times

-the figure of services at each station

-the maximal figure of points allowed in the system ( Slack et al, pg. 400. , 2004 )

There are three features that are common to all line uping systems:

Arrival Process – the possibility denseness distribution that determines the clients arrival in the system

Service Process – the chance denseness distribution that determines the client service times in the system.

Number of Servers – the figure of waiters available to function clients.

(, 2010 )

The above features can be compared to the queuing system at Primark. The arrival procedure can be compared to the client reaching to the shop ; the service procedure can be compared to the length of clip it takes the client being served and the figure of waiters is figure of tellers /retail helpers available to function clients.

Types of line uping systems:

• M/M/1: This refers to service with a individual waiter and negative exponential reachings. It is the most widely used line uping systems. This system is based on Poisson reachings, Poisson service clip, and individual waiter. The Poisson reachings need to run into the undermentioned regulations: big figure of clients in the system ; small client impact on the systems public presentation and independent clients. The Poisson service times for clients are negative exponentially distributed. Finally at that place has to be a individual waiter for the waiting line.

• M/D/n: In this system the service clip can be assumed to be same for all clients. Here the reaching procedure is Poisson and the service clip distribution is deterministic. The system has ‘n ‘ figure of waiters. ( E.g. a ticket booking counter with n tellers. )

• G/G/n: The reaching and service clip processes in this system are both arbitrary. This system has ‘n ‘ figure of waiters and has no known analytical solution. (, 2010 )

Primark ‘s line uping system can be likened to the M/D/n type of line uping system where there are a figure of waiters go toing to a waiting line and service times are deterministic. In Primark there usually is a long waiting line in which clients stand and are served by different cashiers/retail helper. Here the service times are deterministic because the length of clip spent in a queue depends on how many points are being purchased or how many waiters are available or how many errors are made by the waiters in handling of the purchase.

Slack et Al ( 2004 ) define the Capacity of an operation as the maximal degree of value-added activity over a period of clip that the procedure can accomplish under normal operating conditions. Brown et Al ( 2005 ) besides define capacity as the possible end product of a system that may be produced in a specified clip by the size, graduated table and constellation of the system ‘s transmutation inputs. This shows that the maximal input and an end product capableness within a certain period of clip helps the organisation to do critical actions and determinations.

Approximately all operations have some sort of fluctuation in the demand for peculiar goods or services. By and large talking Primark has a high figure of clients from Monday to Friday ; this eases up during tiffin clip and doubles on weekends and public vacations. The figure of weekend staff is non plenty so most staff who works on weekend are making overtime. This consequences in staff working excessively much and for excessively long and as a consequence the quality of service is reduced ensuing in unhappy clients. When the waiting lines at the boulder claies become highly long the directors call for staff from other parts of the shop to come and help those at the boulder clay by turn uping and packaging and this consequences in hapless client service in those countries demoing how defect in this impermanent solution and as indicated above in horizon operation direction job.

Scheduling is a theory in operations direction is associated with the line uping theory. It has an of import map non merely in Primark but besides in most fabrication and service industries. This helps administrations to work with minimal resources. Scheduling is defined by Bagchi ( 1999 ) as ‘the optimisation procedure by which limited resources are allocated over clip among parallel and consecutive activities. There are two basic inquiries that need to be asked when programming:

When is each set of given undertakings performed

Which resources need to be assigned to execute each of these undertakings

In Primark programming is of import in the queuing procedure because it will assist cut down the waiting times. To find when each set of given undertakings will be performed information demands to be gathered on how many clients are in the shop at a peculiar clip and the mean figure of point sold per client. This will enable them to contract down about how many gross revenues minutess will be done in a given hr. When this is determined it will do it easy for the appropriate figure of staff to be assigned to boulder claies at a peculiar span of clip and aid in structuring displacement forms -as to when a displacement begins and terminals and how a displacement is changed, replying the inquiry which is that if programming is expeditiously done can it cut down waiting times.

Harmonizing to Pinedo ( 2009 ) the planning scheduling map in a company relies on mathematical techniques and heuristic methods that allocate limited resources to the activities being done. This would bespeak that scheduling can be used to avoid line uping jobs. The scheduling theory can be applied to form the agendas of waiters. It can besides be used to guarantee that at busy times there is adequate staff to work on boulder claies. Finally it can be used to form staff displacements expeditiously to do them more effectual.

Feigenbaum ( 1986 ) defines entire choice direction ( TQM ) as an effectual system for incorporating the quality betterment attempts of the assorted groups in an administration so as to enable production and service at the most economical degrees which allow for client satisfaction.

TQM is concerned with more than quality entirely. It is concerned with the betterment of all facets of operations public presentation and peculiarly how betterment should be managed ( Slack et al, pg.719. 2004 ) .

Harmonizing to Brown et Al ( 2005 ) TQM embraces the followers:

-Continuous betterment

-Top direction committedness

-All facets of concern

-Long-term committedness

The construct of entire quality direction is a strategic capable necessitating a clear committedness by senior direction, it is non related to pull offing staff in specific, but instead is related to developing and bettering the quality of goods and services procedures in order to run into client outlook.

Dale and Lascelles ( 2003 ) carried out research based on six degrees of acceptance of TQM, the six degrees are:

Uncommitted: Organizations that have non commenced a formal procedure of TQM.

Vagrants: Organizations that have been involved in uninterrupted betterment for up to three old ages, so after that quality betterment has non become portion of the strategic concern model.

Tool-pushers: These organisations have ISO9001 enrollment.

Humanitarians: Administrations that have made important betterments, while prosecuting in a procedure of uninterrupted betterment for a period of three to eight old ages.The focal point depends upon cardinal directors who are driving the procedure of betterment but TQM is non internalized within the organisation.

Award -winners: Continuous betterment is seen as entire within the organisation as all employees are involved in the betterment procedure.

World -class: Entire integrating of uninterrupted betterment and concern scheme, ever prosecuting client satisfaction.

Depending on the degrees of TQM acceptance identified by Dale and Lascelles we can state that the degree of acceptance that would use to Primark is that of Improvers, TQM is non yet internalized within the company, they are seeking to better their concern and this can be seen be seen in how Primark fired three Indian houses for using child labor when the dirt came out in 2008 ( BBC intelligence, 2008 )

TQM is a uninterrupted betterment processes, it ne’er ends. It enables an organisation to better the quality of merchandises and services in the best manner possible to run into client demands. The execution of TQM emphasises squad work and uninterrupted development and betterment to do certain that every point is made right.

Directors must portion information with every one and affect employees in decision-making. Team work is the most of import thing that TQM focuses on and it is the foundation of uninterrupted betterment. Furthermore employees must be trained with the tools that are needed to better the administration ‘s quality

Impact on Customers/Quality: Slack et Al ( 2004 ) define quality as consistent conformity to client ‘s outlooks. There is a batch of competition between retail shops ; all of them are seeking to offer the best sort of goods and services to run into client ‘s satisfaction and demand.

Primark is known for supplying clients with value for money and this means there are shops out at that place with vesture with better quality. If clients do non acquire choice service from Primark they are bound to travel on to other shops that offer value for money with somewhat higher quality and prices.. Primark ‘s staff must be good equipped to supply quality client service at the front line boulder claies. The pride of Primark is its clients. Staff are trained to make the followers: Look, Greet, Listen and Thank you.

Primark ‘s client rules: ( PRIDE ) stand for Positive, React, Interest, Demonstrate, and excel.

– Positive means respond positively to you clients.

– React to client demands.

– Interested: be interested in your client ‘s demand and wants.

– Show the four service necessities.

– Excel: do it your purpose to stand out at clients service.

Harmonizing to Angelina ( Training facilitator ) Primark uses ‘mystery shoppers ‘ to look into up their degree of quality and services. There is besides a Zero Tolerance attack to stock dropped on the floor, but most of the clip there are a batch of stocks dropped on the floor, because there is non figure of staff to take attention of the mentioned facet. Sometimes, there is merely one employee in the section, and who entirely can non make many things at the same clip, as returns, recovery, tidiness and service clients on boulder clay. This causes waiting lines to turn longer because few people are making everything and this affects the quality of service clients are having since most clients come into contact with staff for the first clip at boulder claies.

One attack that some companies use to compare their operation with those of other companies or other parts of its ain company is called benchmarking. Benchmarking is a procedure of continuously placing, comparing, deploying and reexamining the best patterns worldwide in order to derive a competitory advantage in a structured and analytical manner. Benchmarking is a really utile attack for Primark to follow, by comparing themselves with others they can judge how good they are executing. During an office meeting it was said that Primark benchmarks themselves with companies like Matalan and TK Maxx. Benchmarking is non about the terminal consequence, it is non direct comparing but instead an chance to larn from rivals and the best in the concern. Primark needs to larn from others how best to run into client ‘s satisfaction ( Anton and Gustin, pg. 3, 2000 )

ISO 9000 is an internationally recognized criterion of quality that many houses strive for in order to show that quality criterions and procedures are in topographic point ( Brown et al, pg. 299, 2005 ) . It is non a guarantee for company success but it gives clients the confidence that what they have bought was produced under set of criterions. Implementing ISO 9000 is good to Primark because they will derive clients loyalty and their employees will be committed to uninterrupted betterment but in relation to line uping it will non be really relevant as the human facet of administrations is non addressed.

The Six Sigma is a smart manner to pull off a concern or section. It puts the clients foremost and uses facts and informations to deduce better solutions ( Pande and Hopp, pg. 2, 2002 ) . The Six Sigma is an attack that emphasizes the fact that, for any organisation to be to be successful client satisfaction should be put foremost. Primark should set more attempts to better client ‘s satisfaction by better developing the staff at the boulder claies and presenting new equipment and non concentrate entirely on cost decrease schemes to increase their client base. While the Six Sigma attack is an first-class manner to pull off and command procedures, but expensive.


The operations direction job discussed above high spots jobs with the line uping system in Primark. The following are recommendations on how Primark can improvize line uping procedure:

• Using more staff to adult male the till Bankss, there are two on the land floor e.g. Primark ( Oxford Branch-West Gate ) to which I am associated with. There are two client functioning boulder claies on the land floor degree and tow on the first floor, while merely one operates in each floor. The quandary of pull offing capacity can be solved by doing certain that there are adequate members of staff at each boulder clay all the clip and so convey in supports to assist parcel and pack the points during peak times. This nevertheless should be a short term solution. In the long term it would be advisable for them to put in a radio line uping system that displays the available counters every bit good as more boulder claies with people to adult male them. These counters will forestall retail helpers from holding to shout to alarm clients that a boulder clay is free. They could besides present self-service system along with its hard-ware like the 1s in Tesco ‘s and Argos to cut down the figure of people in the waiting lines.

• There should be supervisor helper or ( cardinal holder ) responsible for all the undermentioned things: nothingness points, null minutess, and & A ; lb ; 50 note cheque, monetary value entry and monetary value questions working near to the boulder claies in instance any of the retail helpers need aid with a dealing. If this can non be arranged, there should be a manner of signalling the supervisor utilizing a bell.

• In Primark there is one long waiting line but I recommend that two or possibly three different designated waiting lines harmonizing to the figure of points purchased so that clients with few points join one waiting line and those with tonss of points join another waiting line, this manner those with few points can finish their minutess faster.

• Retail assistants/cashiers should be given intensive preparation on how to utilize the boulder clay. In Primark boulder clay preparation comprises merely of 1 hr at the clip fall ining the occupation. This is the chief ground why supervisors are needed at the boulder claies to assist with small jobs that could hold been easy solved if there was an in-depth preparation in topographic point for the cashier/ retail helpers. The initiation for the new staff is really basic.

There needs to be a good idea of orientation programme as portion of preparation. This preparation should include till developing irrespective of the section a employee is hired to work in. There should be developing in the cardinal apprehension and cognition of all criterions and processs used in the workplace. Customer attention preparation is besides of import as retail helpers trade with clients and need to cognize how to manage them. Staff at the boulder claies should be able to talk fluid English so that they can understand clients better.

• Cashiers/Retail helpers should be given at least a 10 proceedingss break on each displacement. The employee who works 4 hours a twenty-four hours is non allowed to take a interruption.

• Staff programming should be managed efficaciously and expeditiously following the best patterns.

• The boulder claies should be on a regular basis maintained to forestall from interrupting down in the center of busy yearss.

• Employees need to be given a comfy working environment to work in, for illustration the air conditioning at the subdivision. Uncomfortable working environments make staff uncomfortable and this may impact the manner they treat clients.

• Customers feedback should be taken on regular footing. People ever retrieve bad experiences and remarks negatively. The Primark direction squad should endeavor to better client service.


From the above treatment it has been established that Primark is one of the most successful vesture shops that sells value for money vesture. It has besides been shown that one of the operations direction jobs they face is a queuing at the boulder claies. This job has been addressed in this assignment and alterations to be implemented are recommended. In decision Primark needs to work out the queuing job in order to keep their client base by bettering service quality and client focal point.Negating the same will ensue in compromising with the loss of the same.


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