Evaluation of oxidative emphasis and antioxidant position duringnormal catamenial rhythm

Abstraction: Background & A ; Aims:Oxidative emphasis has been investigated to explicate assorted physiological every bit good as pathological footing of many medical conditions. But really few informations refering the oxidative emphasis during normal catamenial rhythm of eumenorrheic adult females are available. Therefore, the intent of survey was to analyze the physiological function of oxidative emphasis during normal catamenial rhythm.Methods:120 immature healthy female topics of generative age group ( 17-27 year ) , holding regular catamenial rhythm, were examined. Serum malondialdehyde ( MDA ) , an oxidative emphasis biomarker and serum ascorbic acid ( vitamin-C ) , an antioxidant vitamin were assessed in the follicular stage ( on 7Thursdaytwenty-four hours ) and in the luteal stage ( on 21sttwenty-four hours ) of normal catamenial rhythm.Consequences:In the present survey, important higher ( p & lt ; 0.0001 ) degrees of MDA and lower but non-significant ( p & gt ; 0.05 ) degrees of ascorbic acid were observed in the luteal stage when compared to the follicular stage. Non-significant negative correlativities were besides observed between MDA and ascorbic acid in both the stages of normal catamenial rhythm. Significant addition in serum MDA degree coincided with the increased Lipo-Lutin and estrogen degrees during the luteal stage. High degrees of estrogen may be the instigator of lipid peroxidation procedure which finally ends up with cellular hurt during the luteal stage.Interpretation & A ; Decision:Oxidative emphasis has an of import function to play in physiological phenomenon of the menses.

Keywords:Antioxidants, ascorbic acid, malondialdehyde ( MDA ) , catamenial rhythm, oxidative emphasis.

Abbreviations:MDA, malondialdehyde.

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Introduction: Menstrual rhythm is the consequence of complex interacting processes affecting interaction of the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovaries, womb, prostaglandins and neuroendocrine factors1.

The normal catamenial rhythm is a 20 eight twenty-four hours period which is divided into two stages i.e. follicular stage and luteal stage. The follicular stage is characterised by a low degree of estrogen and Lipo-Lutin which is followed by rise in estradiol, lutenizing endocrine, and follicle exciting endocrine at the clip of ovulation, while the luteal stage is associated with increased degrees of Lipo-Lutin and estrogen. These stages are associated with assorted alterations in blood parametric quantities along with fluctuations in the sex endocrines.

Several powerful reactive O species or free groups or oxidizers are produced during the class of metamorphosis in blood cells and most other cells of the organic structure. These oxidizers are really reactive molecules that can respond with proteins, nucleic acids, lipoids and other molecules which changes physicochemical position of the cell to change their construction and cause tissue harm. Lipid peroxidation is a good established mechanism of cellular hurt in human and is used as an index of oxidative emphasis in cells and tissues. Malondialdehyde ( MDA ) is one of the of import by-product of lipid peroxidation procedure which is widely used as an index of lipid peroxidation2.

These free groups are the mark for the enzymatic and non-enzymatic scavenging systems3, which includes the antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, vitamin-A, vitamin-C, vitamin-E etc. that scavenge the free groups and protect the tissues from oxidative emphasis.

Oxidative emphasis has been implicated in assorted physiological every bit good as pathological bases of many medical conditions including generative system. Evidences have shown the double effects of O groups in the physiological generative procedures such as oocyte ripening, ovulation, menses, luteolysis, luteal care in gestation, nidation and blastodermic vessicle development4,5,6,every bit good as in the pathological conditions like self-generated abortions and sterility in females7.

The instability between free groups and antioxidants ensuing from either an overrun of free groups or a shortage in antioxidant protection leads to oxidative emphasis8.

Although, studies sing fluctuations of oxidative emphasis across the normal catamenial rhythm in eumenorrheic adult females have been published, specially in mention to MDA ( a marker of oxidative emphasis and an of import by-product of lipid peroxidation ) , but these are sparse and have conflicting tendency.

Therefore, the intent of this survey was to analyze the function of oxidative emphasis during the different stages of normal catamenial rhythm by mensurating the MDA which is served as an oxidative emphasis biomarker and ascorbic acid ( vitamin-C ) , served as an antioxidant.

Materials and Methods:The present survey was carried out on 120 normal healthy and regular flowing female topics aged between 17 and 27 old ages ( average age 20.53+2.9 old ages ) selected from thexxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Study was carried out in the xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxPermission was besides obtained from institutional ethical commission for transporting out the research work. After seeking an informed written consent and entering the elaborate catamenial history ( i.e. age at menarche, day of the month of last menses, rhythm length and yearss of shed blooding ) , the topics were so subjected to try aggregation. Serum malondialdehyde ( MDA ) and serum ascorbic acid ( vitamin-C ) degrees were assayed during their monthly catamenial rhythm. All topics were neither corpulent nor on any medicine of any known pathologies.

5 milliliter of fasting blood samples were drawn from antecubital vena from each topic during the follicular stage ( on 7Thursdaytwenty-four hours of the rhythm ) and luteal stage ( on 21sttwenty-four hours of the rhythm ) after taking full antiseptic safeguards.

The MDA degrees were measured by thiobarbituric acid assay method9. The rule of the method was based on the spectrophotometric measuring of the coloring material developed during the reaction of thiobarbituric acid with MDA. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was calculated by the optical density coefficient of malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid composite.

Serum ascorbic acid was estimated spectrophotometrically, by utilizing 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine10. The implicit in rule was based on the oxidization of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid followed by matching with 2,4- dinitrophenyl hydrazine under controlled conditions, in the presence of Thiourea as a mild reduction agent which gives ruddy colored osazones.

The information therefore obtained was subjected to statistical analysis utilizing the PRIMER OF BIOSTATISTICS package. The comparing of variables was done utilizing the Student paired ‘t’ trial and correlativity between variables was estimated by utilizing Karl Pearson’s correlativity coefficient. The significance degree was considered at P & lt ; 0.05.

Consequences:The average serum MDA and serum ascorbic acid degrees during the follicular and luteal stages of catamenial rhythm are presented as in Table 1. In the present survey, the average serum MDA ( nmol/ml ) degree was greater during the luteal stage ( 4.294+1.60 nmol/ml ) as compared to follicular stage ( 2.119+0.83 nmol/ml ) . The difference between MDA degrees in the luteal stage was extremely important ( p & lt ; 0.0001 ) when compared with the follicular stage.

Lower values of serum ascorbic acid were found in luteal stage when compared to follicular stage. The average values observed were 0.9399+0.40 mg/dl & A ; 0.8963+0.37 mg/dl in follicular stage and luteal stage, severally. But, the alterations were non important statistically ( P & gt ; 0.05 ) .

In this survey, a negative correlativity was besides observed between serum ascorbic acid ( mg/dl ) and serum MDA ( nmol/ml ) degrees in both follicular and luteal stages but the correlativity was found to be non-significant in both follicular stage ( r value=-0.026, P & gt ; 0.05 ) every bit good as in luteal stage ( r value=-0.010, P & gt ; 0.05 ) .

Table 1: Mean+SD degrees of serum Malondialdehyde ( MDA ) and serum Ascorbic acid during follicular and luteal stages of catamenial rhythm.


Follicular stage

( Mean+SD )

Luteal stage

( Mean+SD )

P value

Serum MDA

( nmol/ml )





& lt ; 0.0001*

Serum Ascorbic acid

( mg/dl )





& gt ; 0.05**

Datas expressed as mean and SD, * Highly important, ** Non-significant.

Discussion:Present survey has revealed the function of oxidative emphasis in the physiology of menses. We observed a important higher degrees of MDA while a non-significant lower degrees of ascorbic acid in the luteal stage when compared with the follicular stage of the catamenial rhythm.

Previous surveies besides have correlated increased serum MDA degrees during the luteal stage with the physiological phenomenon of menses in the healthy normal menstruating females which support our survey consequences6,11. While, no important differences in MDA degrees throughout the normal catamenial rhythm besides have been reported12,13,14.

Unlike our survey consequences, a progressive important rise in plasma ascorbic acid degrees has been reported from catamenial to ovulation15. Similarly, “a crisp addition in the fasting degree of plasma Vitamin C” besides has been showed in some adult females during the center of the catamenial rhythm16. Whereas, some other research workers found no groundss of unusual variableness of plasma ascorbic acid values throughout the catamenial rhythm, which supports our survey17.

The important rise of MDA and depletion of ascorbic acid degrees during the luteal stage of catamenial rhythm coincides with the increased degrees of estrogen and Lipo-Lutin, which is a characteristic characteristic of this stage18. Increased degrees of estrogen and Lipo-Lutin cause the proliferation of womb while the induction of shedding of the endometrium is chiefly due to the rise in the estrogen degrees18,19,20.

Therefore, the high estrogen degree from developing follicles may be the instigator of lipid peroxidation procedure21, which finally causes the cellular hurt followed by release of cytokines particularly tumour mortification factor-alpha, which generates reactive O species from the tissues which in bend causes lipid peroxidation22. The generated free groups may play an of import function in cramp of the extremely vascularised vass taking to vascular mortification and catamenial flow, when hormonal support for the endometrium is diminished.

High degrees of oxidative emphasis have been coincided with high degrees of female sex endocrine such as estradiol in old surveies besides6,21,23. While, in other surveies a important negative correlativity between these parametric quantities in on a regular basis flowing females besides have been established24. Whereas, some groundss show no important correlativity between ovarian endocrines and oxidative emphasis during the follicular and luteal stages of catamenial rhythm25.

Present survey possibly hence suggests that the high MDA degree in the luteal stage may play an of import function in the induction of menses which is a good established cellular hurt based phenomenon.

Decision:In decision, these consequences suggest that addition of serum MDA degrees may play an of import function in the physiological phenomenon of menses.


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