Enzymes are protein molecules which make things go on to other molecules that would otherwise stay perfectly inactive. They make stable saccharides, fats, and proteins susceptible to digestion merchandises as edifice blocks to do new cells ( Komberg ) . A protein is classified as an enzyme if it is know to catalyse a reaction. Some enzymes are strictly proteins. In other instances consist of two parts: the protein part and a cofactor. The cofactor may be an ion of a metal or an organic molecule ( Campbell 2008 ) .

Some enzymes control individual chemical reactions and sometimes they bind with similar molecules and execute a little group of associated reactions. The substance in which the enzyme works is called a substrate. Lone portion of the substrate binds to the enzyme and that country is called the Active site. Enzymes, as protein are big molecules of a concatenation of aminic acids that have at least third construction, and in some instances quaternate constructions ( Marieb 2009 ) . In order to rush up those chemical reactions an enzyme requires certain sum of energy. This energy is called activation energy. Activation energy is the sum of energy needed to get down a reaction. Therefore, enzymes lower the activation energy so the reaction can happen quicker, but can non coerce chemical reactions to happen between molecules ( Rittner ) .

Enzymes as proteins depend on its specific three dimensional constructions, and its intermolecular bond. However, H bonds are easy broken by many environmental factors such as inordinate pH, and temperature degrees, doing proteins to unfold and lose their specific construction. In this instance the enzyme is said to be denatured ( Gale ) . Temperature and pH are environmental factors indispensable in the action of an enzyme. Most enzymes are optimally active at really low H ion concentration ( pH ranges 5 -9 ) . However, alterations in optimum pH will hinder proper folding, and interrupt the 3D form by interfering in the intermolecular construction of enzymes ( Kornberg ) . In the other manus, most human enzymes have optimum temperatures at 35A° – 40A° C ( Campbell ) . Every individual enzyme has an optimum temperature at which its reaction rate is greatest. Enzymes are non affected in their structural degree in cold environments. However, the reaction rate additions with higher temperatures until it reaches its optimum temperature ; nevertheless, above optimum temperature the velocity of enzymatic reaction lessenings. ( Campbell ) . The addition of kinetic energy on the enzyme disorders the hebdomad bonds, that stabilize the active site, and the protein finally denatures.

The effects of enzyme and substrate concentration are purely related to the rate of reaction, but they do non impact the three dimensional construction of the enzyme. ( Campbell ) . The more substrate molecules offered, the more reactions occur in the active site. However, there is a bound to how fast the reaction can happen in relation to substrate and fixed concentration of enzymes. The enzyme is said to be saturated when the rate of reaction is determined by the velocity at which the active site convert the substrate to merchandise ( Cambell ) On the other manus, if substrate degrees remain changeless and enzyme degrees addition, the enzymatic rate of reaction addition. However, enzyme activity will cut down as one enzyme reacts with one substrate, and accordingly it will non happen substrate to respond with an outnumber sum of enzymes ( Campbell ) .

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Catalase is a protein that catalyzes the disproportional of dihydrogen peroxide to O2 and water.. It is found in about all micro-organisms exposed to O and resides in the peroxisomes of largely all aerophilic cells. Catalase optimum pH for homo is about 7, and optimum temperature ranges between organic structure temperature ( Worthington Biochemical corporation ) . My anticipation for the catalase experiment is to work better in impersonal pH environments, and near to organic structure temperature. It is predicted that enzyme reaction rate will increase as more enzyme as are add to the experiment. In the same mode, the reaction rate will increase as more substrate is add to the experiment until it reaches impregnation point.

Aminopeptidases catalyze the cleavage of aminic acids from the amino end point of protein or peptide substrates. They are widely distributed throughout the animate being and works lands and are found in many cellular cell organs, in cytol, and its membrane constituents ( Taylor ) . In worlds aminopeptidase is produced by secretory organs of the little bowel I predict aminopeptidase pH optimum status will be about 7 because it resides in the little bowel ( Kornberg ) . In respect, to the aminopeptidase optimum thermic conditions my anticipation is in a scope near to organic structure temperature. Abandoning organic structure temperature, it will do these enzymes to denature. I expect that the rate of reaction addition as more enzyme and substrate are release in the reaction, until it reaches impregnation.

Methods

A A A A A A A A A

In this experiment, it was examined the features, construction and effects of pH, temperature, enzyme and substrate concentrations on the enzyme catalase. During the experiment, we tested the efficiency of the enzyme catalase by changing the temperature, pH, substrate concentration, and enzyme concentration. The enzyme catalase was extracted from a barm concentration, and we measured the production of O gas for each test. The step of O was accomplished utilizing the Logger pro computing machine plan, and the Vernier Gas Pressure Sensor.

A A A A A A A A A A A The first portion of the experiment was to put up the Vernier LabPro, the Gas force per unit area Sensor and the LoggerPro Software to correctly mensurate the sum of O gas discharged for every test and their relation with temperature. This procedure is described as this: we connected the Gas force per unit area detector into channel one of the computing machine interface. We prepared the computing machine for informations aggregation by opening the file “ 06B Enzyme ” from the Biology with computing machine booklet in Logger Pro. Once the system was connected and the parametric quantities were set up, we were ready to get down the temperature experiment. In the experiment, we added three milliliter of 3 % H peroxide and three milliliter of H2O to a 50 milliliter beaker and drew the solution into a syringe. The syringe was placed in ice for three proceedingss. After the clip passed we removed the syringe from ice and record the temperature utilizing a thermometer. Following, we filled an Ehrlenmeyer flask half full with ice H2O ; we so placed three beads of the enzyme solution into a trial tubing and sealed it with the gum elastic stopper. After the hundred period, we connected the syringe to the gas force per unit area setup. We opened the valve on the side of the syringe and injected the six mL solution into the trial tubing. Quickly we closed the valve and collected the informations on the computing machine package. The information aggregation ended after three proceedingss. We kept an oculus on the reaction guaranting non to transcend 130kPa of force per unit area. After this process, we removed the syringe and robber stopper assembly. In the Logger Pro package, we selected experiment and so Store Latest Run. We saved our informations by dual snaping on the column. The same process was repeated to accomplish the effects of the enzyme at room temperature and utilizing H2O baths set at 30A°C, 40A°C, 50A°C, and 60A°C. For every test the syringe was placed in H20 baths or maintain at room temperature. Therefore, we repeated the same process describe above. At the terminal of this experiment, we found the rates of enzyme activity for each temperature test. These rates were calculated as the inclines of the curves generated during the experiment. In order to mensurate the incline, we moved the mouse arrow straight to the point where the line started to increase. We pointed this subdivision and dragged the mouse arrow to the point where the line does non look additive. From at that place, we clicked in the additive fit button to cipher a additive arrested development. A box appeared with a expression for best- fit line for every individual test. We recorded the equation of the line, the incline, and the arrested development coefficient in Table 3 of our catalase experiment press release.

A A A A A A A A A A A The 2nd portion of our experiment consisted to prove the effects of different pH environments to the catalase.In the same manner, we used the Vernier LabPro, the Gas force per unit area Sensor and the LoggerPro Software antecedently assembled. We added 3mL of a pH3 solution and 3mL of 3 % H peroxide to a 50 milliliter beaker. Next we drew the 6 mL solution into a gas syringe. At the same clip, we placed three beads of the enzyme solution into a trial tubing ; we made certain to put the enzyme solution at the underside of the trial tubing to avoid erroneous aggregation of informations. We secured the stopper to the trial tubing making a tight seal ; we made certain that the stopper valve is in the closed place before shooting the solution. Following, we injected the peroxide solution to the trial tubing ; instantly, we closed the valve and clicked the cod button in the computing machine. The test lasted three proceedingss ; we captured our informations and removed the syringe from the setup. We followed the same process utilizing pH 5, 7, 9 and 11 solutions. At the terminal of this experiment, we found the rates of enzyme activity for each pH test in the same manner we measured the equation of the line, the incline, and the arrested development coefficient in the above described. Finally, all the information was recorded in Table 4 of our catalase experiment press release.

Third, we proceed to prove the effects of enzyme concentration for catalase. In the same manner than anterior experiments, we assembled the Vernier gas force per unit area detector. Once the setup was installed, we added 3 milliliter of H20 and 3mL of 3 % H2O2 to a little beaker. After that, we placed one bead of the enzyme solution into the underside of a trial tubing. We tightly inserted the stopper into the trial tubing, and so drew up the 6ml substrate solution into the syringe. We assembled the syringe to the gum elastic stopper and continue to shoot the solution into the trial tubing. Quickly, we closed the valve and clicked the cod button to get down informations aggregation. This test lasted around three proceedingss, when the informations aggregation finished ; we removed the stopper and discarded the substance of the trial tubing in the sink. In the computing machine package, we saved our informations by choosing the experiment, and so the shop latest tally buttons. In the same mode, we repeated the same procedure utilizing 2, 3, 4, and five beads of the enzyme solution. At the terminal, we found the reaction rate for each measure of enzyme solution by ciphering the incline and additive arrested development in the above described. We merely finished entering our informations in Table 1 of our enzyme experiment press release.

Last, we were ready to prove the consequence of substrate concentration for catalase, we assembled the Vernier gas force per unit area detector in the same manner as described in experiments supra. As the setup was installed, we added 1 milliliter of H20 and 5mL of 3 % H2O2 to a little beaker. Later than that, we placed three beads of the enzyme solution into the underside of a trial tubing. We tightly inserted the stopper into the trial tubing, and so drew up the 6ml substrate solution into the syringe. We assembled the syringe to the gum elastic stopper and continue to shoot the solution into the trial tubing. Quickly, we closed the valve and clicked the cod button to get down informations aggregation. When the informations aggregation finished ; we removed the stopper and discarded the contents of the trial tubing in the sink. In order to salvage our informations, we selected experiment, and so the shop latest tally options in the logger pro package. Right after this, we repeated the same processs above described utilizing 2ml of H20 and 4mL of 3 % H2O2. Followed by 3ml of H20 and 3mL of 3 % H2O2, so by 4ml of H20 and 2mL of 3 % H2O2, and eventually by 5ml of H20 and 1mL of 3 % H2O2. At the terminal, we found the reaction rate for each measure of substrate solution by ciphering the incline and additive arrested development in the above described. We merely finished entering our informations in Table 2 of our enzyme experiment press release.

Consequence

Figure 1. Relationship between rate of reaction and temperature for the enzyme Aminopeptidase. Note that the information was collected from a fake experiment utilizing the computing machine package Enzyme Incestigation. In order to fix this simulation pH, substrate and enzyme concentration remained changeless.

Figure 2. Relationship between rate of reaction and temperature for the enzyme catalase, remind that the information was collected from an existent experiment utilizing the computing machine package Logger Pro. In this experiment, pH substrate and enzyme concentration remained changeless.

Figure 3. Relationship between the rate of reaction and possible H for the enzyme Aminopeptidase. The information was collected from a fake experiment utilizing the computing machine package Enzyme Investigation from EME Corporation. In this experiment the temperature, substrate, and enzyme concentration remain changeless.

Figure 4. Relationship between the rate of reaction, and possible H for the enzyme catalase. In this existent experiment, it is observed the reaction of the enzyme in different pH environments while temperature, substrate and enzyme concentration remained changeless. Datas collected from an existent experiment utilizing the computing machine package Logger pro.

Figure 5. Relationship between the rate of reaction and substrate concentration degrees for the enzyme aminopeptidase. In this fake experiment temperature, pH and enzyme concentration remained changeless. Note that the information was collected utilizing the computing machine package Enzyme probe.

Figure 6. Relationship between the enzymatic rate of reaction and the substrate concentration degrees for the enzyme catalase. In this existent experiment, information was collected utilizing the computing machine package Logger Pro. Note that pH, temperature and enzyme concentration remained changeless.

Figure 7. Consequence of the enzymatic reaction of the enzyme catalase in respect its enzyme concentration. In this existent experiment, the pH, temperature and substrate concentration remained changeless. Note that the information was collected utilizing the computing machine package Logger Pro.

Discussion

In this survey, it is examined the features, construction and effects of pH, temperature, enzyme and substrate concentration on two enzymes catalase and aminopeptidase. Figure 1 and 2 describe as temperature rises, responding molecules have more and more kinetic energy. This increases the opportunities of a successful hit and so the rate additions ( Hoehn 2009 ) . There is an optimum temperature at which an enzyme is at its greatest production. In figure 2, I observe catalase greatest rate of reaction at 31A° C. However, In figure 1, the enzyme aminopeptidase greatest rate of reaction occur at 39A°C. Above this termperatures the enzyme construction begin to interrupt down ( denature ) since at higher temperatures intermolecular form are alter as the enzyme molecules derive even more kinetic energy ( Campbell 2009 ) . Consequently, the rate of reaction start to worsen as it seems in the fake experiment of Aminopeptidase. The consequence of catalase was surprising because the tendency does non follow my declared anticipations. The rate of reaction started increasing up making its optimum temperature at 30A° C. It is expected that as the temperatures leave optimum conditions the rate of reaction lessening. Then the rate of reaction additions at temperatures that are non optimum for the enzyme catalase. This tendency reveals an mistake at 50 A° C caused by inappropriate acclimatization the enzyme to the temperature.

An optimum scope of pH exists for every enzyme. The optimum status for catalase in worlds is about seven ( Worthington Enzyme Manual ) . Additionally, the optimum pH status for aminopteptidase ranges between the pH of 8 or 9. ( Jencks ) Abandoning these degrees cause the enzyme to denature diminishing its catalyzing abilities ( Jencks ) . The consequence I obtained supports my anticipations, aminopeptidase finds its optimum pH concentration between 7.5 and 8 ( see figure 3 ) . On the other manus, catalase finds its optimum pH value at 7 ( see figure 4 ) . A possible mistake is seen ( see Figure 4 ) in catalase informations. Harmonizing to the graph catalase finds its optimum pH around 7, and get down worsening when wantonnesss optimal status as it gets more basic. However, when the reaction reaches pH 9 all of a sudden increase the reaction rate. This error might happen because we use a different pH solution, and that might change our reaction.

The effects of enzyme and substrate concentration are purely related to the rate of reaction, but they do non impact the three dimensional construction of the enzyme. ( Campbell ) .The consequences for substrate concentration prove my anticipations, as more substrate molecules are offer, the more reaction in the active site ; hence, an addition in the rate of enzymatic reaction. My survey reveals that catalase and aminopeptidase increase the reaction rate as more substrate is offer to change over into merchandise ( see Figures 5 and 6 ) . However, the reaction ne’er reaches impregnation point. Saturation point is the point where the reaction is limit by certain sum of substrates working on the enzymes ( Campbell ) . It ne’er reaches impregnation because the sum of substrate is really low ( see figure 6 ) . My enzyme concentration behaves in the same manner, as substrate degrees remain changeless, and more enzyme molecules are added to the reaction, the reaction occurs rapidly ( see Figure 7 ) . Therefore, the reaction rate additions.

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