In our single modus operandis. each and every one of us strive to be the best that we are capable of being. How curious this is ; we aim for similar ends. yet the methods we enact are alone. Just as no two people have the same fingerprint. no two have indistinguishable theories on how to populate life. While some follow spiritual lineations to draw a bead on to a degree of moral excellence. others pursue different attacks. Toward the terminal of the Nineteenth-Century and on through the mid-Twentieth. a motion followed “existentialism. ” a philosophical theory of life. in order to accomplish such a degree.
Even though the thought of existential philosophy is complex. certain subjects are common amongst philosophers and writers: moral individuality. freedom of pick. duty. disaffection. Cardinal to understanding existential philosophy is the construct of moral individuality. Existentialism rejects traditional ethical enterprises. Philosophers since the clip of Aristotle. circa Third-Century B. C. E. ( before the common epoch ) . have held that everyone should take for a common extremum of ethical accomplishment. Aristotle argued for the being of a Godhead being. described as the “Prime Mover. ” who is responsible for the integrity and sense of purpose of nature.
In order for humanity to achieve such a flood tide. everyone must copy The Almighty’s perfect profile. Aristotle’s basic doctrine deduces that humanity strives for an indistinguishable extremum of moral excellence. as judged by a higher being ( Aristotle ) . Existentialism declares that the single must take his manner ; there is no predestination. Since the existence is nonmeaningful and absurd. people must put their ain ethical criterions. The existence does non predetermine moral regulations. Each individual strives toward a alone moral flawlessness.
The Nineteenth- Century Danish philosopher Soren Kierkegaard. who was the first author to name himself e ) existential. reacted against tradition by take a firm standing that the highest good for the person is to happen his singularity. His journal reads. ‘I must happen a truth that is true for me … the thought for which I can populate or die” ( Existentialism ) . Existentialists believe that morality depends on the person. instead than a supreme being. Following to moral individuality. the inevitableness of pick is the most outstanding existential philosopher theory. Existentialism assert that people do non hold a fixed nature. as other animate beings and workss do.
Our picks find who we are. The Twentieth-Century French philosopher Jean Paul Sartre proclaimed that the most Important pick is the pick of ourselves. Each character makes picks that create his nature. Being suggests freedom where world is unfastened to a hereafter that is determined by pick and action. Choice is ineluctable and cardinal to human being ; the refusal to take is a pick. Even when a individual seems to be moving out a “given’ function or following “given” values — for illustration. by The Almighty. or by society — he is in fact taking to make so ( Sartre ) .
Persons are free to take their ain finish. Hence. they must accept the hazard and duty of following their committedness. Since man’s picks can non be universally judged. Tocopherol ) Existentialists propose a model for which duty can be recognized. This lineation does non state persons what and how to take ; instead it implies that there are right and incorrect ways of taking. Normally through state of affairss such as decease. battle. guilt. @ anxiousness. sickness. or anguish. one becomes cognizant of duty ( right versus incorrect ) .
Kierkegaard mentioned that an single must see apprehension. fright of specific objects such as the Almighty. to acknowledge duty. The word anxiousness has a important function in the work of Twentieth-Century German philosopher Martin Hiedegger. Hiedegger defines an3dety as an individual’s confrontation with meaningless and the find that the lone justification for one’s demean or comes from within. Heproclaimed that duty will hence be acknowledged. In the doctrine of Sartre. the word sickness is used for the individual’s acknowledgment of continual. absolute freedom of pick ( Olson ) .
It is through these senses that people perceive duty. Existentialists regard duty as personal and subjective ( bing merely in the head ; iIlusionary ) . sing people decide morality. non a supreme being. Tocopherol ) dstentialists have insisted that personal experiences and moving on one’s ain strong beliefs are indispensable in geting at the truth. Consequently. truth is subjective. Therefore. the apprehension of a state of affairs by person involved in that state of affairs Is superior to that of perceivers. Even though one individual may see a state of affairs as immoral. existential philosophy maintains that merely those involved can find morality.
Experiential novels and short narratives include subjects of moral individuality. freedom of pick. and duty. every bit good as disaffection from the universe. The Stranger. by Albert Camus. integrated topics of existential philosophy. In this novel. the supporter Mersault finds himself alienated from the universe. Franz Kafka. another experiential author. expressed his positions in the short story’ The Metamorphosis. ” In this narrative. the hero. a hardworking insurance agent. awakens to detect that he has turned into an enormo us insect. four pess in length. He recognizes his familial rejection as he is left to decease entirely ( Kafka ) .
Many Existentialists focus on an absurd incubus of the universe and life. Dostoyevsky. a Nineteenth-Century Russian Existential novelist. mentioned through one of his characters: ‘We must love life more than the significance of it” ( E3dstentialism ) . After all. Existentialists maintain that life is missing significance without moral individuality. freedom of pick. duty. and disaffection. Each individual decides for himself how to populate life. Peoples have the right to make up one’s mind their ain destiny. even when their determinations are socially unacceptable. like self-choicc-homeless. mercy killing advocators. and homosexual Iffestyles.