Events have been around for many centuries, although the nature of events has really much changed over the old ages. This twenty-four hours in age events are viewed as cardinal to our civilization and manner of life. This is due partially to the addition in leisure clip that persons have compared to in the past, every bit good as how persons these yearss wish to pass their leisure clip. Events can run from many things, festivals to concern conventions to such events like nuptialss and societal assemblages. Governments have realised the economic benefits of hosting events and now actively support and advance them in order to market their finish, do money through pulling visitants and constructing their state. Getz ( 2005 ) , states that ‘events that are able to stop up into international information webs are more likely to win in pulling visitants and commercial sponsorship. ‘

Events have in some instances been the chief ground for successful finish selling runs, but unluckily besides fail in countries of pulling the proper sum of visitants to the country. Events have mostly contributed to the success narrative of Britain ‘s cultural and economic developments, Bowdin, et Al ( 2003 ) , tells us that ‘in recent old ages, events have been a portion of cordial reception, touristry, leisure and diversion industries, or as a support service to concerns. ‘

There are many different types of events that differentiate in size and map Getz ( 2005 ) formulated this list of events with their specified type shown in bold letters.

Cultural jubilations: Festivals, carnivals, memorializations, spiritual events

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Political and province: Acmes, royal occasions, political events, VIP visits

Humanistic disciplines and amusement: Concerts, award ceremonials

Business and trade: Meetings, conventions consumer and trade shows, carnivals, markets

Educational and scientific: Conferences, seminars, clinics

Sport competition: Amateur/professional witness / participant

Recreational: Sport or games for merriment

Private events: Weddings, parties, sociables

Bowdin, et Al ( 2006 ) states that ‘There are a huge assortment of events from little to large from spiritual to featuring, from community based to mega international events, the common factor of all these event is purportedly they aim is to hold a positive impact. ‘ The undermentioned study will look into positive and negative impacts that events bring to the host country and their community every bit good as the economic benefits. The analysis will be shown through Political, Economical, Socio-cultural and Technological ( P.E.S.T ) impacts of the events, followed by a decision of the determination of the study.

Events and their impacts

In Great Britain/In the United Kingdom events are changeless throughout the twelvemonth and their country of influence is on many sectors such as the media, concern every bit good as travel in general. Tourism has been used as a signifier of regional development for a long period of clip throughout history, Moscardo ( 2007 ) . As events are portion of the touristry industry most investings on events are justified by the benefits that they can convey to local economic systems and communities. However the results of certain investings in events are non ever positive, Gunn ( 2002 )

It is believed that events help market a peculiar part as a touristic finish and that would assist the local economic system generate more income. Selling and good quality criterions of the services provided is a critical success factor to any event and the part that is hosting it, McDonell ( 1999 )

Political

Government organic structures use events as an industry and economic development scheme. The investings done in these events are explained by their economic benefits to the host part. These events can besides convey cultural benefits and international promotion to the host part. Getz ( 2005 )

Harmonizing to Moscardo ( 2005 ) the authorities performs three types of scrutinies that can show the economic benefits of the investings. These scrutinies are based on:

Expenses from visitants.

Expenses of installations.

Capital gained by the event organisers.

Event direction is highly of import in order to acquire all the benefits that are predicted from events. While pull offing and be aftering events it is common to cover with jobs on fiscal, administrative, building, societal and political evidences. As said by Robertson, et Al ( 1998 ) , the populace sector frequently has troubles in covering with these issues due to miss of experience.

Government organic structures are sometimes accused of puting the private sector demands in forepart of the community needs, lending to resettlements and societal exclusion. The involvements of the community are frequently taken for granted. Hall ( 1996 ) defends this stating that political rating is indispensable to pull out all the benefits events can offer every bit good as holding control over the community. In the long tally Countries will go on to prosecute the chance to host the Olympics they do this as a positive image can be broadcast to the universe in the hopes of pulling tourers and other economically good concerns.

Events can besides impact history every bit good as lending to political argument ; a recent illustration of this could be the G8 Summit. In order to minimise the negative impacts of events, strategic planning must be put in topographic point Getz ( 2007 ) explains that, ‘Depending on the type of event and the benefits to the local community, strategic planning is critical in the puting up of events and equilibrating the overall impacts for all stakeholders so that negative impacts are minimize. Stakeholder ‘s aim ‘s sometimes differs, but the manner in which they negotiate and develop, can take to success or failure. ‘ During the G8 Summit there was big concern for the safety of protestors every bit good as the embassadors from sing states, so it was imperative that equal security steps and eventuality programs were arranged in instance of a catastrophe during this event

Economic

Events can assist local economic systems generate more income. A clear illustration of that is when we analyse the alterations in the Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) of certain host topographic points. Good illustrations of host metropoliss that increased their GDP before and while they hosted a certain event were Atlanta in 1996 and Sydney in 2000. Their GDP increased over 2 % before and while hosting the Olympics.

Not all events can beef up the local economic systems. Development through events depends chiefly on the type of event and the precedences of the organisers. Cultural events normally bring small economic growing to the local economic systems while featuring events, on the manus, are more likely to convey net income to the organisers and, besides, to the host countries.

There is a strong inclination for the private sector to put in events that generate greater net income, even if this means disregarding the local communities ‘ demands and demands. Some events on poorer communities can take to gentrification which leads to societal exclusion.

Gentrification is when a peculiar part becomes more expensive than it used to be and it is unable to provide the demands of the original local community. Gentrification can go on planned or unplanned and most of the times make the local communities move out of their abodes. Gentrification is strongly related to societal exclusion as one has to travel out of their original topographic point, as it is non possible to afford the new life style that has been created in his/her country, Bowdin, et Al ( 2006 )

Some say that when event organisers focus merely on the economic results and disregard the petitions and necessities of the local communities, this can take to conflict protests and general dissatisfaction around the event. This finally can take to a bad image on the host country and event. If event organisers are non concerned about the effects that their actions and programs can hold on the imagine and repute of the host topographic point, a negative image can be created around the host country and the event itself which will so hold awful long term effects to the touristry sector of that peculiar country.

Olympic Games

A perfect illustration of the effects of certain events on poorer communities was the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games when around one and a half million people had to be put someplace else to populate. This had a negative impact on the organisation that organized the events and besides on the Chinese authorities itself who already has a really hapless imagine on Western societies.

Events like the Olympics bring fast economic growing before and while they occur. However when they finish they can convey a new really bad economic world to the host metropolis. Insolvency and high degrees of debt are really common wakes of such events. The metropolis of Montreal, who hosted the Olympic Games in 1976, took two decennaries to stop their debt through revenue enhancement remunerator ‘s money.

London Docklands Excel Exhibition

Business events can be really good to the local economic systems. The London Docklands Excel Exhibition offered many occupation chances as a consequence of the development of the Docklands Light Rail ( DLR ) and the London City Airport. These developments transformed the country into London ‘s new fiscal Centre, increasing the belongings and general life monetary values. However these developments did non assist the local community as it faced challenges such as the new high cost of life in the country every bit good as the rise in belongings monetary values. With no other pick, low income persons were forced to cover with societal exclusion and had to travel.

Nothing Hill Carnival

By ignoring the communities ‘ demands and concentrating merely on the economic benefits of events, organisers and the event can acquire a bad repute and can take to long term dissatisfaction of the populace and the local community. An illustration of this can be seen with the Nothing Hill Carnival. The 2nd largest carnival in the universe after the Rio de Janeiro Carnival in Brazil, Nothing Hill Carnival, generates around ninety million lbs and offers around three thousand occupation vacancies a twelvemonth. This carnival started off as a little undertaking to convey together communities and different civilizations and with the investing of public and private sector it began to turn and increase its net incomes. In this instance the economic benefits disguised the negative impact that the event can do on the local communities as it can increase force, drug trafficking and other kinds of condemnable activities during the event.

Events can hold a positive impact on the part they occur as they normally contribute to the entire clip on the extremum season. This can be really good for countries that get their chief beginning of income through touristry during a certain clip of the twelvemonth.

The impact of events on certain parts is non apparent if the long term impact is non considered. It is of import to see how the economic state of affairs of the host part will be after the event. Although the economic system of the host part becomes more dynamic some might state that the existent net income generated with the event stays in the pockets of the organisers and that if it reaches the custodies of the local persons in the community it gets neutralized by the addition of revenue enhancements due to the rise of the figure of visitants.

Socio-Cultural

All events need clip and advertisement in order to go good know and recognized, for illustration the London Notting Hill Carnival which has been around for decennaries. Although the local community will non ever be happy with the message or the aims that the patrons have when patronizing the event, this is normally due to the fact that the community involved were the 1s who originally celebrated these events and brought them about. In the instance of the Notting Hill Carnival, we know that it was created by Caribbean abodes of Notting Hill old ages ago and merely late has received a bad image because of the immense figure of visitants that attend. Noise pollution, litter, force and issues with offenses such as drugs have all been reported by the neighbors who reside where this event takes topographic point, every bit good as some visitants who attend the event. Bowdin ( 2003 ) tells us that ‘the bigger the event and the closer occupants are to the event the more break will happen, which can include noise pollution congestion, overcrowding environmental harm ; antisocial behaviour, dissatisfaction with event image and struggle. ‘ Unfortunately these types of state of affairss have a negative impact on the civilization that is being celebrated during the carnival.

Events can besides supply a immense sum of regard and apprehension for whatever they are observing, whether it be a music festival or humanistic disciplines festival, these types are events are really utile in conveying communities together who may necessitate to be involved in the event. This may even convey impermanent occupations to persons who live around where the event will be taking topographic point. There are nevertheless other negative impacts that take topographic point with events that are well big, for illustration the Olympics. In Beijing, 2008, 100s of 1000s of people were displaced from their places, and had to go forth with nowhere else to travel and with small aid from the authorities.

Other featuring events such as the World Cup may convey positive images all over the universe as practically the whole universe is involved in such an event because it has become improbably popular over the old ages. Unfortunately such events can convey negative impacts every bit good such as the activities of football extremists or ‘hooligans ‘ who may travel to the host state of this World Cup event looking to get down anti-social behavior and stop up portraying a bad image of the event through their activities. Another illustration of a negative impact of a football related issue is catastrophe that took topographic point in Sheffield, Hillsborough, where the bowl collapsed and killed about one 100 people. This was a awful catastrophe that was able to go on because of hapless planning, and hapless policing.

Bowdin ( 2006 ) claims that, ‘the popularity of events has lead to tendencies towards ingestion and non production. ‘ Events can take to investing in new substructure that will profit the country in the long-run and enhance visitant reachings for the hereafter. Hall ( 1994 ) argues that ‘Local festivals are more socially positive so mega events. ‘ Local events do be given to be more in control and far easier to pull off than the larger trademark events, there are advantages and disadvantages depending on the perceptual experience of the results. Patrons of big events may non be concerned with the wellbeing of the host country, and merely attention for the net income that the patron will do regardless of how the host country is viewed.

Technological

In the past, events that were popular at the clip could merely be seen if an person was standing at that place and watching it unrecorded. These yearss engineering has allowed for people all over the universe to see an event that is taking topographic point in one country. Through the power of telecasting, cyberspace and wireless it has been possible to concentrate the attending of viewing audiences of an event on the host country. Patrons can advance the host country during these events through advertizements that sell merchandises that the touristry industry of that country may offer. Positive images of the host country can be shown to the universe because they are in-tune with the event taking topographic point. This will assist in pulling tourer reachings that will believe of the event, and familiarize it with a positive memory of how the spectator saw that topographic point. Getz ( 1997 ) ‘believes many finishs find it difficult to pull off negative image and promotion and neglect to recognize the advantages of events. ‘ It is of import that these host countries realize the dramatic betterment that can be made in their trade name image if they concentrate on doing their finish expression attractive, safe and exciting to see. Technology helps a great trade to advance a positive image on an country, but can every bit supply a bad image of an country if directors of the event, every bit good as the locals do n’t do excess attempt to do their host country appealing to the spectator.

Decision

This study has shown the different types of events that take topographic point throughout the universe every bit good as the positive and negative impacts that occur politically, economically, socio-culturally and technologically. We have realised now that the impact of the event depends on assorted factors, for illustration the size of the event, the type of event and the nature of the event that is taking topographic point.

Successful events depend mostly on the cooperation of the communities that are involved. Locals of these communities must be considered and respected when forming an event, and the benefits they will have taken into history. For illustration the stakeholders of big events must non be believing entirely of the net incomes they will do whilst forming an event. Unfortunately forming the much larger trademark events sometimes involves neglect for local communities ‘ felicity because the stakeholders have invested so much into the successful production of the event. This was seen in the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Through research into writers work it has been obvious that larger events have negative impacts while smaller community events have proven to be much more successful.

Economically, events have proven to supply immense sums of aid in renewing host countries. Events help pull tourers, make tourist seasons lengthier, renew run down countries every bit good as bettering installations that the community may necessitate to be improved. The study has besides shown that negative impacts can besides happen should these big events be uncontrolled and non good planned doing overcrowding, due to hapless visitant direction. This can take to traffic jams, and an overload of human traffic that gets out of control. On top of this anti-social behavior may besides add to the negative impacts of events, for illustration force, offense and drug usage.

When sing the inquiry of whether events have a positive impact on the economic system and communities of the host country, it is of import to take into history all the factors that have been mentioned in this study. Events can greatly heighten the image of a peculiar finish, if it is managed right. The host country will pull 1000s of visitants to the country which can assist little and average endeavors ( S.M.E ‘s ) every bit good as the authorities as a whole. Communities environing the event can take advantage from all the new tourers that have arrived, and perchance do tourers reachings higher over the old ages. At the same clip it is of import for these host countries to be after the control of the event decently. It is indispensable to hold equal sums of constabularies presence should a crisis occur, every bit good as a structured system of visitant direction in instance a catastrophe such as that of Hillsborough in Sheffield. Community engagement is besides something that must be mostly taken into history when be aftering these events as stakeholders will concentrate more on the net incomes they will do instead than the long term effects that the event will hold on the economic system and wellbeing of the host community.

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