Basic interaction and understanding other people’s feelings, reactions and nonverbal cues can be difficult for the person who has autism spectrum disorder. A delay in or lack of learning to talk which later cab be difficult to establish friends. 2. Describe- Describe the organism’s behavior so we are able to understand it. Explain- explain why the behavior occurs in the organism; what factors contribute to the behavior. Predict- Predict how their behavior can affect them and what obstacles are they going to encounter. Control- what could be done to help or solve the organism’s behavior? Any positive or negative prediction about events or people that could affect and persons behavior towards them and causes itself to come true. Example: if a woman believes her husband or boyfriend will leave her for another woman, she will act in ways that will put a strain on their relationship by getting jealous, going through his personal items and fighting over assumptions. Eventually her significant other might just leave causing her prediction to come true. 7. Independent variable- is the variable that is controlled and manipulated by the experimenter.
Dependent variable- the variable that is measured by the experimenter. 8. Automatic processes- when you start doing something that you have done many times, you can complete it successfully without giving any thought. It requires little awareness and does not interfere with other outgoing activates. Controlled processes- a voluntary movement which requires a lot of attention and alertness for example driving a car. Daydreaming- requires low level awareness and it is fantasizing or your mind wondering off while awake.
Altered states- Medication, rugs, alcohol, or other number of procedures can produce an awareness that differs from your normal conscious. Sleep and dreams- one biological theory is a repair theory- the brain and body repairs or replenishes itself while sleeping. Sleep consists of 5 stages. Dreaming is a state of consciousness while we are asleep and experience images. 10. Ivan Pavlov’s experiment with dogs has discovered classical conditioning. It is a learning process which takes a neutral stimulus and produce a response that was originally produces by a different stimulus. . Operant conditioning is a method of learning that occurs through consequences. Whether to increase or decrease that rate of some response. Attempting to shape an organisms behavior through rewards or punishments. Skinner contributed by shaping a rats behavior to press the lever in a box to receive food. 12. Positive reinforcement- adding something in order to increase the behavior to occur again. For example a mother praising her son after he did all his homework, the son will continue doing his homework for receiving his mothers praise.
Negative reinforcement- The behavior is strengthened by stopping, removing or avoiding a negative response. For example a son does the dishes to avoid his nagging mother. Positive punishment- decrease the behavior by presenting an unpleasant stimulus. For example your cell phone rings in the middle of class and your teacher gives you a look for not turning your cellophane off prior to class. Negative punishment- taking away something good or desirable away in order to decrease the behavior for example if a teenage girl stays out past their curfew, her parents ground her for a week.