Nowadays, there are many writers defined motive as a major determiner of the tourers behavior. Largely, the theory of motive is related to the construct of demand. Needs are seen as the force that arouses motivated behaviour and it is assumed that, to understand human motive, it is necessary to detect what needs people have and how they can be fulfilled. Maslow in 1943 was the first to try to make this with his demands hierarchy theory, now the best known of all motive theories.
Hunger, thirst, sex, slumber, air
Freedom from menace or danger
Feeling of belonging, fondness and friendly relationship
Self- regard, accomplishment. Assurance, repute, acknowledgment, prestigiousness
Needs for self- realization
Self-fulfillment, recognizing one ‘s possible
Figure 4.1 Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs ( Beginning: Maslow, 1943 )
Other efforts to explicate tourist motive have identified with Maslow ‘s demands hierarchy. Mill and Morrison ( 1985 ) , for illustration, see travel as a demand or desire satisfier, and demo how Maslow ‘s hierarchy ties in with travel motives and the travel literature. Similarly, Dann ‘s ( 1977 ) touristry incentives can be linked to Maslow ‘s list of demands. He argued that there are fundamentally two factors in a determination to go, the push factors and the pull factors. The push factors are those that make you want to go and the pull factors are those that affect where you travel. In his assessment of touristry motive, Dann proposed seven classs of travel motive:
Travel as a response to what is missing yet desired. We live in an alienated society and this, harmonizing to Dann, fosters a demand in people for societal interaction that is losing from the place environment.
Destination pull in response to motivational push
Motivation as a phantasy
Motivation as a classified intent, such as sing friends and relations or survey.
Motivation and tourer experiences
Motivation as auto-definition and significance, proposing that the manner tourers define their state of affairss will supply a greater apprehension of tourer motive than merely detecting their behaviour.
2.3 Destination Choice
There is few research surveies of finish pick have been analyzed personal values to find for the ground of consumers choose a peculiar finish. Harmonizing to Muller ( 1991 ) stated, he has developed profiles for assorted subdivision in an international touristry market in order to show the utility of profiling visitant sections in such a manner that the importance of assorted touristry finish standards could be attributed to specific value orientations. Besides that, he besides believed that value-based informations are easier to obtain than lifestyle profiles because a value study is well shorter than a lifestyle questionnaire. The attack taken was to:
Isolate sections in the market, based on the importance visitants attach to several properties of a metropolis visit
Develop value-based profiles of these sections
Assess the selling deductions of the value profiles for touristry merchandise development and promotional schemes.
Harmonizing to Crompton, 1977, the finish pick has been conceptualized as holding two stages which are generic stage and the 2nd stage is concerned with where to travel. The generic stage issue the cardinal issue of whether or non to hold a vacation at all. Once the decision-making for holiday is made, the 2nd stage is concerned with where to travel such as program for finish pick. On the other manus, Um and Crompton, 1990 besides explored a construct as to examine the 2nd stage with developing a model of travel finish pick for consumer to supply a context for the survey. In facts, the constructs used in the model were consists of external inputs, internal inputs and cognitive concepts. For the external inputs portion, the amount of societal interactions and selling communications to which a possible traveller is exposed and the internal inputs were viewed as a possible traveller which includes personal features, motivations, values and attitudes. For the last one of cognitive concepts which represent an combination of the internal and external inputs into the finishs and the elicited set of finishs.
2.2 Factor Affects the Consumer Behavior
The rapid growing of the cyberspace has changed the manner people search information about cordial reception and touristry services. Product cognition, or expertness and acquaintance, seem to act upon travellers ‘ information hunt activities ( Gursoy, 2003 ) . The impact of multi-channel entree on consumers ‘ determination devising procedures was discussed in Louviers et Al. ( 2003 ) survey of the planetary hotel industry. In a cross-cultural survey of German and Nipponese visitants to the US, Money and Crotts ( 2003 ) show that uncertainness turning away as a cultural dimension influences consumers ‘ information hunt processes, including channel picks.
Difference between online shoppers and non-shoppers were examined in the context of travel purchases ( Card et al. , 2003 ) . Although response velocity was identified as one of the cardinal ingredients to a successful recovery following an e-mail ailment to a hotel ( Mattila and Mount, 2003a ) , hotels seem to be neglecting in this country. In a survey of Singaporean travel agents, Murphy and Tan ( 2003 ) study that clients have a slender opportunity of having a answer to their e-mail enquiry. Similar dissatisfactory consequences were reported in a Swiss context ( Frey et al. , 2003 ) . Poria and Oppewal ( 2003 ) suggest that online intelligence treatments might supply a new avenue for look intoing consumer behaviour. Dube et Al. ( 2003 ) , on the other manus, argue that “ experience technology ” is a necessary constituent of value creative activity in today ‘s cordial reception industry and that the cyberspace could be efficaciously used to put phase for enjoyable experiences.
2.2.2 Safety and mature consumers
In the post-9/11 environment safety and security have resurfaced as subjects of involvement. While some cross-cultural differences exist in client perceptual experiences of air hose service ( Kim and Prideaux, 2003 ) , Gilbert and Wong ( 2003 ) show that confidence, including safety concerns, is the most important service quality dimension among international travellers. Since safety is one of people ‘s intrinsic motives, understanding tourers ‘ perceptual experiences of offense is critical for finish selling ( Barker et al. , 2003 ) . George ( 2003 ) , for illustration, examined tourist perceptual experiences of safety while sing Cape Town, a representative of finishs with an insecure image. Looking at nutrient safety issues, Reynolds and Balinbin ( 2003 ) show that educating consumers about Mad Cow disease positively influences their perceptual experiences of beef as a safe pick.
The aging population is a major demographic displacement in today ‘s Western universe. To better understand that demands and wants of these mature consumers, many cordial reception research workers have turned their attending to this turning market section. On a positive note, an scrutiny of economic and socio-demographic factors suggests that the demand for full-service eating houses is traveling to increase in the close hereafter partially due to aging population ( Kim and Geistfeld, 2003 ) . Research by Moschis et Al. ( 2003 ) suggests that mature consumers respond otherwise to assorted selling publicities, but that pecuniary entreaties might non be the most effectual manner of making this mark population. These more mature consumers seem to endeavor for socialisation when booming out ( Yamanaka et al. , 2003 ) . In footings of advertisement, cordial reception and touristry sellers need to understand how behavioural scripting in Television ads influences older consumers ‘ perceptual experiences of cordial reception merchandises and services ( Peterson and Sautter, 2003 ) . A survey in a casino context shows that aged females might be a peculiarly attractive but slightly vulnerable ( due to low degrees of instruction and income ) market section ( Moseley et al. , 2003 ) .
2.2.3 Pricing and other surveies
Asymmetrical effects of positive and negative monetary value divergences on monetary value, quality and value were examined by Oh ( 2003b ) . Monty and Skidmore ( 2003 ) discussed the utility of hedonistic pricing in gauging consumers ‘ willingness to pay more for bed and breakfast type adjustments. Contrary to common beliefs, Kincard and Corsun ( 2003 ) demonstrate that the layout if menu points is non linked to item gross revenues. Noriega and Lin ( 2003 ) identified difference in attitudes and behaviours of gamblers based on their preferable gaming activity whereas people with disablements served as a sample for the effectivity of travel agents in Hong Kong ( McKercher et al. , 2003 ) .
2.2.4 Tourism surveies
Sing touristry behaviour, the subjects covered in cordial reception and touristry diaries in 2003 seem to fall in the general classs of consumer research in touristry: finish choice/image, cleavage and decision-making or pick. Understanding the basic motives in finish pick among assorted mark markets was the cardinal construct in many of the published surveies. Andriotis and Vaughan ( 2003 ) studied the attitudes of urban occupants toward touristry development on Crete. Trekkers perceptual experiences of Nepal were identified by Holden ( 2003 ) while Mohsin and Ryan ( 2003 ) examined motivations of backpackers in Northern Australia. Naoi ( 2003 ) used Lew ‘s cognitive position in analysing Nipponese tourers ‘ motives. Uriely et Al. ( 2003 ) examined how occupants ‘ spiritual attitudes influence their attitudes toward heritage touristry in Israel. Teye and Leclerc ( 2003 ) studied the motives of sail line riders from an cultural position.
Rittichainuwat et Al. ( 2003 ) examined the joint influence of finish image, travel satisfaction, motive and inhibitors on repetition purchase purpose in the context of Thailand. Rezende-Parker et Al. ( 2003 ) explored US visitants ‘ image of Brazil as a holiday finish. Pike ( 2003 ) employed repertory grid method to destination image research. From a more conceptual position, Kim and Yoon ( 2003 ) concluded that affect is a more outstanding determiner of finish image than knowledge. To obtain a more dynamic position of finish perceptual experiences, Vogt and Andereck ( 2003 ) examined how finish cognition and desirableness perceptual experiences change during the class of the holiday. As an interesting illustration of interdisciplinary co-operation between academic publications, Journal of Travel & A ; Tourism Marketing had a particular issue co-published with Wine, Food and Tourism Marketing. Many of the articles in that issue dealt with wine parts as tourer finishs ( e.g. , Hashimoto and Telfer ( 2003 ) analyzing the Niagara Region, Frochot ( 2003 ) look intoing the impact of nutrient images on Gallic Regional Tourism and Du Rabd et Al. ( 2003 ) concentrating on nutrient finish selling in South Africa ) .
Culture or geographic location was the chief focal point in most of the cleavage surveies. Sirakaya et Al. ( 2003 ) examined the sections of Nipponese visitants to Turkey. Chen and Uyasal ( 2003 ) developed a typology of leisure travellers sing 10 eastern provinces and found support for two distinguishable groups: freshness searchers and familiarity visitants. In another finish based survey, Wisconsin rural tourers can be classified to five distinguishable sections. Individuality of German tourers sing Norway was examined by Prebensen et Al. ( 2003 ) . Vacation manners were used as a cleavage variable for analyzing winter tourers in Aurstralia ( Dolnicar and Leisch, 2003 ) . McKercher and du Cros ( 2003 ) identified typologies for cultural touristry. Razzouk and Seitz ( 2003 ) found that persons interested in bare diversion tend to be Middle-class, knowing Caucasians who are family-oriented and fun-loving. In an effort to make out to emotions, Chen ( 2003a ) explored tourers ‘ sentiments toward selling as a cleavage variable. Form a methodological position, Chen ( 2003b ) introduced a new cleavage model ( travel cleavage with chi-square automatic interaction sensing ) to the touristry literature.
With respect to decision-making, another of import line of research in touristry behaviour, Van Middelkoop and Timmermans ( 2003 ) showed that other heuristics such as the context might be more good than public-service corporation maximization in explicating tourer picks sing travel manner. Kang et Al. ( 2003 ) examined household determination devising and its impact on cleavage schemes. To enrich our apprehension of touristry pick procedures, Eugenio-Martin ( 2003 ) developed a five-stage, conceptual theoretical account utilizing a distinct pick attack.
2.3 Effectss of environment on consumer behaviour
Traditionally, accounts of consumer behaviour are cast in footings that are rooted in cognitive psychological science ( Bargh, 2002 ) . Before people buy, or take, or make up one’s mind, they engage in more or less luxuriant, witting information processing ( Chaiken, 1980 ; Petty, Cacioppo, & A ; Schumann, 1983 ) . Information processing may take to certain attitudes, and these attitudes, in bend, may or may non impact determinations. The sum of information that is processed is dependent on assorted moderators, such as engagement ( e.g. , Fazio, 1990 ; Krugman, 1965 ) . In add-on, the kind of information that eventually influences your attitudes can differ excessively. Attitudes can be based more on cognitive beliefs, such as when one finds a merchandise really utile, or more on affect, such as when a merchandise has of import symbolic significances ( Venkatraman & A ; MacInnes, 1985 ) . However, assorted known moderators notwithstanding, the key ever seems to be that people consciously process information before they decide what to purchase ( or eat, or imbibe, etc. ) . Although this accent on information processing is extremely utile, it besides has an built-in danger. The spirit of the attack is witting and extremely intrapersonal. That is, the general image that emerges is that of a witting determination shaper who negotiates determinations based on treating the pros and cons of a certain merchandise. There is no uncertainty that people sometimes do this, particularly when such merchandises are of import and expensive, but really frequently they do non.
2.3.1 Ductile automatic attitudes
Given that consumer picks are at least partially based on automatically activated attitudes, the effects of these findings are far-reaching. These automatically activated attitudes are non stable, and therefore, they do non ever lead to the same picks. Alternatively, such attitudes are partially determined by the current societal environment and by current ends. Furthermore, people are by and large incognizant of the moderating effects of these elusive influences.
2.4 The Designation of Factor Influencing Destination Choice
Choice has been defined as a transmutation of motive in buying action ( Buhalis, 2000 ) . The finish pick is made by alternate rating based on single penchants and ends, while rating of tourer merchandise is based on single appraising standards ( Moutinho, 1987 ) .
A Factors that influence consumer behavior can be internal and external to the single. Among the internal determiners are societal and personal, while the external 1s include assurance in the travel bureau, the overall image of options, old travel experience, travel restraints ( clip, cost, etc ) , grade of perceived hazard, etc. Among the major influences of single travel behaviors are household, mention groups, societal categories, civilization and subculture that determine person ‘s personality, acquisition, motive, perceptual experience ( of options ) and attitudes ( Moutinho, 1987 ) . Eilat and Einav ( 2004 ) add finish hazard to be one of the factors that influence finish pick, which, harmonizing to him, is of import for both developed and less-developed states, while manner, common lodger, common linguistic communication, and distance are besides of import determiners particularly in less-developed states ( Eilat and Einav, 2004 ) .
A To understand consumer behavior, it is necessary to analyze the complex interaction of many act uponing internal and external factors ( Moutinho, 1987 ) . Moutinho ‘s survey ( 1987 ) trades with determiners of behavior, civilization and mention group influences, the relationships between persons and their environments, perceived hazards, and household determination processes.
A Numerous literature surveies identify societal, cultural, personal, and psychological factors that influence finish pick. Cultural factors consist of civilization, sub-culture, and societal category. Many research workers have noticed significance of civilization.
A Culture is a set of beliefs, values, thoughts, attitudes and imposts that characterise a peculiar society ( Cateora and Keavency, 1987, cited in Pyne and Dimanche, 1996 ; Moutinho, 1987 ) . Consumer behavior is bit by bit determined by his/her civilization. Culture with its norms and criterions steer a consumer ‘s behavior ( Moutinho, 1987 ) . Cultural norms have an impact on both tourers ‘ outlooks and their perceptual experiences of standard service quality. Peoples from different cultural background have different image perceptual experiences of a finish ( Bonn et al, 2005 ) . Harmonizing to Weiermair ( 2000 ) , civilization affects non merely the manner in which people experience and interpret goods and services, but it has besides an impact on decision-making procedure and finish pick. Understanding of cultural specialnesss of a mark group can explicate and calculate tourers ‘ behavior. The influence of civilization and cultural differences on client behaviors have been analysed in a variable selling literature ( Usinier, 1993 ; Keegan, 1984, cited in Weiermair, 2000 ) .
Among the societal factors are mention groups, household, functions and position. Mention groups – household, faith, ethic groups, trade brotherhood, vicinity etc – can be classified by primary ( personal contact with a group ) and secondary ( on occasion ) , formal ( merchandise brotherhood ) and informal ( vicinity ) ( Moutinho, 1987 ) . Personal factors include age, life rhythm phase, business, economic fortunes, life style, and personality.
A Psychological factors are possibly the most complex and hard to understand and dwell of motive ( theories of human motive: Marshall, Freud, Veblen, Herzberg, Maslow ) , perceptual experience, acquisition, beliefs and attitudes.
A Another of import determiner of tourer ‘s behavior towards finishs and services is the tourer ‘s self-image – what a individual thinks he or she is and what a individual wants to be. There is a relationship between self-image and merchandise image that determines tourer ‘s behavior towards finishs and services. Perception and knowledge influence the rating and judgemental procedure. Attitude and purpose, created by larning and experience are other of import constructs in tourers ‘ behavior treatments ( Moutinho, 1987 ) .
A The importance of old travel experience in the finish pick has got broad treatments between the research workers. Many of them consider old experience on the finish to be a important factor in the finish choice procedure. Therefore, Woodside and Lysonski ( 1989, cited in Oppermann, 1997 ) see that old travel experience is a important factor at the motive and information phase of the finish choice procedure instead than the existent finish pick. Crompton ( 1992, cited in Oppermann, 1997 ) besides do non see old experience of import nevertheless he mentions ‘unpleasant personal experience set ‘ as important factor in the decision-making procedure of the tourers.
Chapter 5: Discussion, Implications and Suggestions
The subject of the research is about consumer behaviour in cordial reception and touristry industry in Kuala Lumpur. After the research worker had analyzed the consequence of questionnaire through the SPSS system, the research worker needs to happen out whether the consequences lucifer with the hypothesis. After completing the treatment, the research worker will so necessitate to supply suggestion for the research subject.
In order to cognize consumer behaviour is help to place the mark consumer in Kuala Lumpur. This research is to establish out the mark market and the behaviour of consumer. Base on the research determination, it shows that more of the consumer had travel experience earlier. The consequence shows that 95.5 per centum of people had travel earlier at least 1 to 5 times. Therefore, there are a little per centum of people that do non go before. So, the research worker can aim the consumer who had travel experience to acquire their behaviour on travel.
In the chapter 1 of the research, the research had made some hypothesis of the research rubric. Hypothesis is usage to foretell the consequence before distribute the questionnaire to the populace. I use correlation analysis to determine the relationship between the influencing factors and rating standards. The first hypothesis is to analyze the relationship between motive and behaviour of touristry and cordial reception consumer. In the research, the research worker had asked about the ground and their travel behaviour. Consumer may go with some ground and the ground can actuate them. The grounds of consumers travel because of relaxing and leisure with 82.5 per centum. It mean that they are more focus on cut down the emphasis and walk around the universe. Therefore, the ground will associate with consumer behaviour which is they would wish to go with who. In the consequence show that 51 per centum of consumer would wish to go with their friends which mean that they would wish to go for loosen uping and leisure with their friends. Friends besides can interact with the ground of shopping. Consumer may wish to shop with their friend instead than household. Besides that, 41.5 per centum of consumer may wish to go with their household for sigh-seeing. In the consequence, consumer behaviour between motive and behaviour is clearly defined. One of the illustration is some of the consumer would wish to go with group because of escapade. They may believe people in a group will assist to care for each other ‘s while they are going for escapade. This shows that the first hypothesis is accepted.
The 2nd hypothesis is the factor that will act upon consumer decision-making in cordial reception and touristry industry. The research worker had list out five factors and rated the of import of each sub-factor from one to five ( wholly unimportant to most. ) The most factors that will act upon the consumer decision-making is personal safety and security in a hotel. Consumers believe that to protect consumer personal safety and security mean to vouch on consumer information will non distribute out. The 2nd factor that will act upon consumer decision-making is the hygiene of the hotel with 75 per centum. Yet, most of the consumer did non care about the repute of the hotel. Repute is the factor act uponing consumer decision-making but on the consequence show that it will non be a large influence. Most of respondents think that safety and hotel hygiene are more of import than the hotel repute.
In touristry industry, the factors that will act upon consumer ‘s decision-making were rated. Harmonizing to the factor will act upon consumer decision-making in cordial reception, the safety and security besides be a factor that will act upon in touristry industry. With the higher rate of 77 per centum, consumer may believe safety and security is the most of import factor. Road, traffic and public conveyance are the 2nd of import factor which besides related with safety and security. Consumer believe that with high technological conveyance is convenient and safety. Therefore, the moderate rate is the cultural or historical of the state with 25.5 per centum. This consequence show that it was merely some of the consumers would wish to go for the finish ‘ cultural or historical. Cultural or historical may had the large influence on consumer decision-making although some of the consumer did non like the historical, for illustration, consumer may non go in Japan because of the secondary war in 2nd century. The 2nd hypothesis was besides accepted.
The 3rd hypothesis is about the of import to understanding consumer behaviour in cordial reception and touristry industry. It is good for marketing in order to cognize their demands and wants. The research worker had do some study to analyse out the consumer behaviour. The consequence shows that 56.5 per centum of respondents choose to remain in hotel and 32.5 per centum of respondents choose to remain in resort surrounded by Nature Park with 33 per centum. The ground of chosen the hotel or resort which is surrounded by Nature Park is to experience the natural and green environment with soundless and comfy topographic point. Besides that, online travel bundle besides of import to fit the consumer behaviour. The consequence shows that 57.5 per centum of consumer will purchase the travel bundle and 42.5 per centum would non purchase. Consumer will purchase the bundle because of the benefit of online travel bundle. The most of the consumer would wish to purchase on-line travel bundle because of bargain one free one with 61 per centum. They may believe purchase one free one is inexpensive. As a consequence, to cognize the consumer behaviour may assist to give the right information to selling mix to bring forth some service and merchandises that match the consumer demands and wants.
With the promotion of engineering, consumers are in much better place today to go that trade with existent universe while going. Theories and methods applied from cultural anthropology would enrich our apprehension of ingestion and its significance in consumer behaviour in cordial reception and touristry industry in Kuala Lumpur.
Apart from acquiring more understanding the consumer behaviour, the research worker suggest that selling of cordial reception and touristry can concentrate on what the consumer behaviour, the ground of motive, consumer demands and wants in order to give the good merchandises to them. Marketing mix can make the publicities that match the demands and wants of consumers in Kuala Lumpur.
As a decision, the hypothesis had matched the consequence of the research subject. Penetrations from consumer research have important potency for positively act uponing managerial selling.