Wealth three decades from 1830,the total land area possession of the tea industry covered one-seventh of the entire settled area in the Assam plains. In between 1872 to 1901 ,total land area under tea industry increased from 56,000 acres to acres,and output increased from 12 million Lb to 134 m Lb,and the amount of capital investment increased from 1 million(one million pound) in 1872 to Lb 14 million(RSI 210 million)by the year 1903. This increase In production Increased Indian export of tea to British market from 4% In 1866 to 59% by 1903.
Constructor of railway started In Assam in 1881 meet the increasing demand for transport of tea to the Calcutta port-At the mean time coal and oil fields were explored which met the auxiliary industries of tea planters,All these required improved and urgent transport facilities through railway. The railway constructions increased at a rapid speed,from 114 miles by 1891 to 71 5 miles by 1 903. At an estimated total Investment of RSI. 95 million till 1 903. With from about 50 tons in 1872 more than tons by 1905-06.
The oil fields developed by British in 1890,increased annual production of crude oil from gallons in 1900-01 to 2,733,000 gallons in 1905-06. To supply packaging boxes,14 saw mills were functioning in 1901 . British investment in coal,petroleum and saw mills were functioning in 1901 . British investment in coal,petroleum and saw mills amounted to an estimated RSI. 5. 4 millions,RSI. 4. 6 million and RSI. L million respectively by the end of 19th Century. Steamer service in the apparatus,tell communication ND mettle road construction also needed huge public and private investment,but no statistics is available in these sectors.
When the tea plantation areas were specialized in Upper Assam,so the capital investment and auxiliary supporting factories were directly channeled to the tea plantations area,coal fields and oil fields areas. But the internal indigenous sectors where the largest indigenous sectors where the largest group of population depend remained neglected,impoverished and stagnant having little benefit from British investment and technological progress. Although the British invested huge fund in road and railway construction,all hose were connected to the tea gardens whom of Upper Assam and coal and oil field sectors.
Rest of the region remained virtually unexplored and outside of any meaningful process of development,institutional and infrastructure facilities. 3. Migration of cheap labors and farmers:The opening of the region with railway linkage and with the requirement of larger labor force in tea plantation sectors,the British inspired large scale migration of outsiders particularly the tribes of barehanded,Arioso and Bengal to work in tea gardens,who popularly known in Assam presently as tea tribe,Bengali educated ‘babes’ came to work in administrative um service sectors.
Again land abundant the breakouts valley Filed to produce required level of food grain to its population. Annual import of food grain increased from 0. 3 million mound minion to 0. 7 million mound in around 1877. Price of food grain was rising rapidly and many death for starvations were reported from Awning in 1896 and people started agitation against bananas(Mammary hoarders) and condition further determined with occurrence of earth quake in 1897.
To coup with the situation of deficit food production,and also to introduce Jute cultivation,the British inspired rage flow of Bengali speaking Muslim immigrants to settle in the revering low land of the apparatus valley. Consequently from the very beginning of the 20th Century large influx of immigrants Muslim peasants from former East Bengal and after partition the Bengali Hindu immigrants from east Pakistan settled in the region. The 1951 census shows a total of 13,44,003 immigrants in Assam including Megalith and England and of which 5,58,833 east Bengal born Muslims and they settled in the revering areas of apparatus.
Due to occurrence frequent flood a large number of these people presently lost their cultivatable and household properties eave encroached Upton the grazing land and tribal villages. Moreover a large group as landless laborer wandering through different urban centers in search of unskilled labor work and settle down as slum dweller on the government reserve land along with immigrant doubtful Bangladesh foreigners for their similar structure,language and culture.
This has now become the burning economic and political problem in North east India. 4. Effect of protected area or innerving system:the system of 1873. At says” a line is to be called innerving to protect any subject living outside the area from moving living or moving therein”. Except the Khaki,the agar and the mike hills,all other hills of Himalaya frontier were encircled by 1942 under inner line system. But with this system the hilly lands and the tribal belts are virtually kept untouched with the plains.
The positive effect of it is that it protected the tribal lands from non-tribes,but the negative effect is that keeps the protected areas isolated and unexposed from taking part with the economic progress going on the plains. The resources of these tribal belt areas remained unexplored and the economy is lagging behind in the medieval period. Those areas which have got exposed have got the ace of development. This large economic disparity between tribe and non-tribe areas presently creates a doubt among the tribal society,as if they have been exploited since long by the non-tribes and an issue for unrest arises. . Shifting of Cultivation:Most of the hill tribes of the N. E are still now practicing the method of shifting cultivation. Let is very primitive method of agriculture carried out with ordinary technique and instruments. This method in North-east is known as ]humanities of cultivation. Len this process a particular of sloppy or foothill forest land is cleared cutting trees and burning bushes or cultivation,where seeds of the crops are sown according to their requirement and there is very little possibility of utilizing any modern technique of cultivation,like instruments,etc.
One plot is used under cultivation for three to four years and then it is left barren when becomes unfertile and another plot of ]hum’s prepared by the same way for cultivation. In this way rotating through three or four plots a Chum cycle is completed. So the economy of the hilly Jamie tribes remain backward year after year. Due to their nomadic nature of living,they hesitate to mix up with the neighboring communities and this makes them more isolated and aggravates their conditions of poverty. T develops psychological fear among themselves towards the neighboring tribes and non-tribes. According to the task force Report on shifting cultivation the total area under shifting cultivation the total area under shifting cultivation in N. E is 3869 Sq. Km,IEEE about 1. 5% of total geographical area. Annual distribution of area under (s/c). The total number of tribal numbers involved in SIC in entire NERD is about 4. 45 lack,statewide 1. 6 lack families in England,70,OHO in maniple in Assam,54,OHO in A. P. 52,290 in megalith, 0,000 Mozart and 43,000 families in tripper.
There is urgent necessity from the part of the Government to convert these families to permanent agriculture practice and settled land use system to develop their agriculture and economy. Len many cases taking the advantage of impoverishment of the Jamie tribes migrants encroach into their areas and purchase their land. Len karri angling district of Assam the conflict between karats and Admass on one hand is to keep possessions of the Chum land and on other hand the conflict between karats and briar,where the bearish farmers encroached into their Jump land. tripper migrant Hindus from Bangladesh have occupied the tribal land and reduced the tribal population from 58% in 1951 to 28% in 1991 . Such social conflict among the tribes for land possession are Kaki and Nag maniple indigenous tribes and migrated chasms in Raunchy Pradesh,tension between Agar tribe and Aruba tribes in the Agar hills of megalith against the other as if their backgrounders is because of the exploitation by other. Inconsequently,the younger generation of the backward tribes are easy ground of member collection for the underground outfits and such groups are multiplying ay-by-day. No body can ignore the fact that land and forest are the centre of tribal economy,culture,religion and identity. So they think the conflict around land as defense of their culture,identity and livelihood. 6. Unemployment: Large scale unemployment among indigenous communities and tribes also highly responsible for ethnic conflict in the region.
According to the Economic survey of Assam,2003-04,the total number of Registered Job seekers never came to the employment exchange to register their name. Hence today in 2008,the level of unemployment alone in Assam ill be more than 20 lakes and in the whole EN the level will be more than 30 lakes. The unemployed of the local communities regularly blame the outsiders particularly to the Bengali and bearish as if these outsiders are occupying their jobs. Consequently different ethnic groups raise the demand for reservation for Job and other economic political facilities.
Some ethnic groups are demanding for tribal status and their agitation programmer creating law and order problem and ethnic tension. The demand for tribal status by Koch-raisins and tea-garden laborers creating civil disorder and ethnic conflict with other tribal groups. These demands are mainly for Job reservation under SIT quota. The Aruba tribes are demanding autonomous status of their localities as if it is the most urgent way for their economic fulfillment. N novo 2003,the tension between bearish and sesames raised for 2000 railway Jobs. 7. Socio-Political effects:in the post-independent period of educational,economic and occupational facilities are gradually expanding in different urban and sub-urban centers through the N. E. These facilities have created a conscious and also opportunistic middle class among different ethnic groups and argyle through the sesames speaking community of the apparatus valley with creating more facilities in the valley than the hills.