In the present research paper. we shall discourse a survey which has been carried out on the Bengali community locating in the Lowlandss ( Tarai ) of the Udham Singh Nagar territory of Uttarakhand and the consequence of Modernization and Globalization on their household construction on this community. Its historicity lies in the fact that the Bengali community life in the Lowlandss of Udham Singh Nagar has all come from East Pakistan ( Now Bangladesh ) and chiefly from its three territories viz. Khulna. Faridpur and Jasaur. Keywords: Impact of Globalization. Family–Structure. Population Exchange Policy
Ever since the growing of human civilisation. alteration has remained a consistent portion of every society though at that place have been fluctuations in its province and waies. At different stages of growing the procedures of alteration have affected the assorted facets of society. The procedures of societal alteration like: Modernization. Westernization. Urbanization and Sanskritization have contributed a batch in altering the Society. In the decennary of 90’s. the policy of Liberalization in the economic field. has resulted in frequent exchanges and a immense addition in the import-export between states. and the development of assorted manners of communicating has made the societal exchanges between states possible and easy. These societal contacts have been defined in the signifier of globalisation have besides influenced the different facets of Indian society. The primary unit of society and besides primary beginning of socialisation is household. The household has besides been influenced by the effects of Globalization.
Though it is the fact that processes like- Industrialization and Modernization have influences the traditional construction of household in the early old ages. but the alterations have been rapid in the recent old ages on the Indian rural society. which has besides passed through Globalization and Information Revolution along with other societal alterations. Globalization is a construct of the outgrowth of a society that is based on the planetary mentality. Globalization is outcome of assorted societal and cultural interactions between the multitudes. The section of Rehabilitation of Indian Government had done ample work for rehabiliting this community in the Lowlandss ( Tarai ) of Udham Singh Nagar.
This rehabilitation was done under the “Population Exchange Policy” after the divider of the state and so they are considered as Non-Residents or Refugees in the Tarai. The lowland of Uttarakhand stretches through four Districts Received: Jan 2. 2012 ; Revised: Jan 12. 2012 ; Accepted: Jan 28. 2012. *Corresponding Author Anchalesh Kumar Department of Sociology. Government P. G. College. Bageshwar ( Uttarakhand ) . India Tel: +91-9412926680 ; Fax: +91-5963-220081 Electronic mail: [ electronic mail protected ]
( Dehradun. Haridwar. Udham Singh Nagar and Champawat ) . The present paper is in mention to the Udham Singh Nagar territories under the Gadarpur Tehsil and within it the Dineshpur town and around 36 small towns environing it. and the Bengali households undergoing alteration in their household construction. For the survey around 36 small towns in and around the Dineshpur town and besides from the next residential settlements around 6 small towns were chosen of through purposive sample method. Thereafter for random trying the Lottery method was applied out of which 300 respondents ( 50 individuals per small town ) were taken into consideration for analysing the function of globalisation on their household construction. All the 300 respondents ( male and female ) were the caput of their several households.
This survey was based on the exploratory and descriptive research design. The chief footing of the research was the primary informations. which was collected through the quasi participant observation and through the interview agenda. In this research. for the aggregation of needed facts the secondary information was besides used on two major facets of the alterations in the household construction were being kept into head while carry oning the research ( a ) alterations in household construction ( B ) An analysis has besides been done on the alteration in the household maps in the present scenario. Change in the first facet of household construction has been clarified by the undermentioned point: Change in the Structure of Family Due to the influence of Modernization and Globalization. there has been definite alteration in the household construction and the original construction of household has been undergoing alterations.
The atomic Family has become the manner and is taking the topographic point of joint household system. In the yesteryear. the joint household system was much prevalent in this community. But in the younger coevals atomic household system is practiced at larger graduated table. During research it besides came in spotlight that in the past bulk of the households were big. but in the present clip the household size has been altering quickly. The tabular array given below shows the household construction and size of the Bengali community locating the Lowlandss ( Tarai ) part of Udham Singh Nagar territory.
The above mentioned table infers that about 27 per centum households belong to large-size and come under the class of joint household systems. The entire Numberss of members in these households are normally above 07. On the other manus 73 per centum atomic households are of little and average size and in these households the entire Numberss of members do non transcend 07. Here. it can be said that in this community the household size has decreased. In the procedure of globalisation. the relationship between hubby and married woman has besides undergone alteration in this community.
About 51 per centum respondents have accepted alterations in the husband–wife relationship. while 49 per centum respondents have denied of any alteration. From the research study. it has come to the notice that in the modern times most of the adult females do non see their spouses as parmeshwar ( Everything ) or like God and are keen on accepting them as comrade. This inclination has been found much on an increasing manner among the educated work forces and adult females. while this move has been found less among the less-educated and illiterate categories. With the addition of the educated mass. the rights in respect to household authorization and decision-making have besides changed in some manner or the other.
Now the married woman besides militias the right to take determinations and her determinations are considered to be of import. The new evolved powers that are the prototypes of alteration in the modern age though have non much influence on the construct of household authorization. but even so if they have ended the monopoly of work forces in respect to determination devising in the household. Now in the household. most of the determinations are taken by both adult male and adult female with equal regard and consideration to each-other’s positions. The inclination of respondents in respect to household authorization and decision-making in the changing scenario is demonstrates in the tabular array given below:
Table 2. The Inclination in respects to Family-Authority and Decision-Making in the Changing Scenario Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Nature of Decision Education related determination of kids Family outgo related determinations Decision about Professional hereafter of immature members of the household Decision sing agricultural –work Decision sing matrimony Decision sing the reaching of Guests Decision sing belongings – buying/house edifice etc. Merely Husband 81 ( 27 ) 78 ( 26 ) 99 ( 33 ) 93 ( 31 ) 87 ( 29 ) 102 ( 34 ) 108 ( 36 ) Merely Wife 53 ( 11 ) 51 ( 17 ) 24 ( 08 ) 42 ( 14 ) 63 ( 21 ) 18 ( 06 ) 36 ( 12 ) Husband-Wife both 186 ( 62 ) 171 ( 57 ) 177 ( 59 ) 165 ( 55 ) 150 ( 50 ) 180 ( 60 ) 156 ( 52 ) Total 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 Percentage 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
It is clear from the above mentioned table that there have been definite alterations in the family-authority and decision-making. The position of married woman and adult females has gained importance in the present times compared to the yesteryear. In every kind of household determinations. the function of adult female and her determinations have become decisive and of import. The cause of this has been the turning consciousness among adult females for their rights and responsibilities. as a consequence it can be inferred that globalisation has brought alterations through assorted agencies of independency communicating. There has been increase in the independency of adult females in every domain of life. In this sequence. around 56 per centum respondents have accepted this fact while 44 per centum respondents have rejected this illation.
The respondents who have accepted this illation agree to it that the adult females release has increased because of the influence of agencies of communications and information revolution. There has besides been a partial alteration in the matrimony regulations ; in conformity to this a few respondents agree to it that the local Hindu rites of matrimony have been included in their traditional Hindu matrimony system and therefore overhauling their ain matrimony rites. The affinity dealingss have started losing their importance and this fact has besides been accepted by 59 per centum respondents and rejected by 41 per centum respondents. The respondents who have accepted this have said that the affinity dealingss are non given much importance. Most of the people keep in touch with other dealingss over the technological agencies of communicating like: Telephone. Mobile phone etc.
In the Bengali community. the rights of the senior members and their several functions in the household have besides been worsening twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours. The rights of the senior members have got distributed among other household members and their kids. The household system has taken over the democratic rules of life avoiding the ancient dictatorial set up. There has besides been addition in the instability in the household because of interpersonal dealingss among members. In this respect. 57 per centum respondents have agreed to it while 43 per centum respondents chose to differ.
The respondents who have accepted this instability says that the common relation among the members of the household has suffered a set back. This instability has accursed because of the influence of information revolution. addition in distance between the household members. addition in modern instruction and economic independency of work forces and adult females. The Head of the household suffers a deficiency of back uping manus from their household members. Today’s household members are less concerned about corporate duty but have an disposition for self involvement and his/her ain net income. So. there has been an increasing inclination among peoples to hold a individualized position of everything and the values like cooperation and forfeit are non followed by the members of the household.
Other alterations in the household construction at the secondary degree can be stated by the undermentioned point: Change in the Functions of Family There have been alterations in the family–structure due to the impact of globalisation and at the same time the map of household has besides been changed. The societal and cultural map of the household has besides undergone a alteration which is supported by 59 per centum respondents while 41 per centum respondents did non hold to it.
The respondents who have agreed to this alteration have accepted that modernisation has replaced traditionalism. influence of information revolution. increasing importance of money. impact of modern instruction and impact of western instruction. civilization & A ; political orientation have caused enormous alterations in household construction in this community. There has been decreasing of mutualness and amity in relationship in the household. In the Bengali households. the impact of globalisation and the nature of dealingss are much evident. The decrease of common ties in between the members of the household is shown in the tabular array given below:
Table 3. The Inclination in respect to Decrease in the Common Relations among Members of Family Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Nature of Relations More Intimate Close Formal Sour Relations Total No. of Respondents 21 132 120 27 300 Percentage 07 44 40 09 100
Table No. 03 shows that about 51 per centum respondents have enjoyed affable dealingss with their household members. These respondents feels that even in this stage of alteration the common dealingss have non suffered any diminution and the dealingss intimacy is integral as there was in the yesteryear. It is possible because members have due regard for each other. Most of the respondents who have expressed this position are traditional and conventional in their ideas and attitudes. These respondents do non O.K. of this alteration in the family-structure because of the on-going procedure of globalisation. On the other manus 49 per centum respondents have accepted that there dealingss have sour and formal dealingss in the household. These respondents agree that there have been inauspicious consequence of globalisation in keeping ties between the members.
In the present phase. the close common and affable dealingss that were existent in the household during the past have been replaced by formal relationships that have gained primary importance. as people find less clip in keeping dealingss. The map in respect to matrimony rites. processs have besides seen alterations. There has besides been little alteration in the attitude of the people of this community in respect to widow remarriage and divorce. The people have agreed to it that widow remarriage and the matrimony of a grass widow becomes of import as the adult females gets support and company for the remainder of her life.
It excessively use in respect to disassociate. they agree that it can besides be implemented or practiced to maintain the household tenseness free and have a contributing atmosphere inside it. Most of the respondents are against the pattern of dowery and see it as an evil pattern and they want to eliminate it wholly. The usage of brand up and cosmetics etc. among the adult females has besides undergone a alteration. The usage of cosmetics. beauty-enhancers etc. have additions because the modern cosmetics and other related things have come in manner.
The recreational signifiers have besides changed in the household. Compared to the traditional signifiers of amusement beginnings the modern equipments have gained importance. Most of the respondents ain modern agencies of equipments like T. V. . Tape-recorder. Mobile phone. Computer. Newspaper etc. and they have replaced the traditional agencies of diversion. In respect to the caste-system. 52 per centum respondents have accepted that there has been change in it. while 48 per centum respondents considers that there has non been any alteration in the caste system. In the caste system. prohibitions are still existed but there has been some lenience in it. Rather it is non purely practiced.
Inhibitions and certain prohibition in respect to profession and nutrient wonts are non followed so purely while suppressions in matrimony ( except prohibitions ) are still followed. In the Bengali community. all respondents belong to Hindu faith. Sing spiritual sentiment 58 per centum respondents agree to it that the importance of faith and religion has besides suffered a diminution while around 42 per centum respondents still believe that faith plays a deity function in the lives of the people of the community. Those who feel that there has been decline in spiritual sentiments and religions say that the commercialisation of faith. influence of electronic media. advancement of scientific discipline and engineering. advancement in instruction and its enlargement. the construct of humanitarianism etc. are the factors that have caused this diminution in faith.
The alteration in the agencies of medicative patterns etc. is besides seen in this community. Earlier for intervention traditional agencies were practiced viz. traditional Hakeems. Ojhas. thaumaturgy. Chandsi practise etc. but there thing are non followed with much religion in the present twenty-four hours. The modern agencies of intervention viz. Homeopathy. Alloepathy have replaced the traditional agencies of intervention. The following tabular array shows this alteration in the agencies of intervention:
Most of the respondents who approve of these modern agencies are educated and have modern thoughts while the other 41 per centum respondents accept that they prefer and O.K. of the traditional agencies of intervention these respondents feel that the traditional agencies do non give any inauspicious consequence on wellness. The respondents who have expressed these positions are traditional. nonreader and besides have conventional attitude. Besides these. 66 per centum respondents have agreed upon the fact that there has been change in the economic and fiscal affairs of the household. while 34 per centum respondents feel that there has been no alteration in the household maps in respect to economic and fiscal affairs. The respondents who have accepted alteration agree to it that the economic and fiscal authorization is non confined in the custodies of the household caput.
It has got distributed among members of the families who are independent are self sufficient. and this alteration has besides come due to the impact of information revolution. economic independency of work forces and adult females and the influence of modern instruction. In the Bengali households. the traditional instruction is wholly replaced by the modern instruction. In the present clip. there has been more disposition of parents and defenders towards Private schools. Convent schools compared to the Government schools. 57 per centum respondents have accepted that instruction has become indispensable in the present scenario ; while 43 per centum respondents consider the necessity of instruction as normal.
The respondents who consider instruction as of import accept that the modern instruction and its enlargement. impact of information revolution. assorted educational Government undertaking. western instruction and impact of western civilization and household encouragement etc. are the factors that have caused the addition of instruction in the Bengali community in the Tarai part of Udham Singh Nagar District.
The present research paper concludes that there have been many alterations found in the Bengali community and this has been because of the impact of globalisation. But this alteration chiefly happens in the signifier of limited alterations that have occurred in their household construction. This alteration is related chiefly to the both aspics of household construction but the functional facet of alteration has been demonstrated in a limited manner. This community has it neither wholly given up its traditional patterns nor has it wholly accepted modernisation in respect to household construction.
The societal operation is operational in between the background of globalisation and household values. It besides reflects that the household construction has been incapable in following its traditional collectivity in the modern scenario. but even so the basic features of traditionalism is existing and it has kept the household together and one. In brief. we can state that the traditional values are bit by bit losing their importance and the topographic point is taken by the modern values. As a consequence. the Bengali community is prone to alter in its household construction due to the impact of globalisation which can besides be referred to as transitional stage of society.
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