group of people with the same interest
what is bad about a faction?
will try to get what they want even if it hurts others
“enlightened statesmen will not always be at the helm”
leads people to believe that they are not always controlled by the elites
what form of government does Madison want to create?
what does a republic protect us from?
why is the majority not always right?
the majority can be a faction
pure democracy
all power to the people to decide for everyone
two examples of a faction
democrat and republican
what are two ways to remove a faction?
destroy liberty
everyone thinks alike
why won’t destroying liberty work?
we fought for liberty so we can’t take it away again
why won’t everybody thinking alike work?
never going to have everybody think the same
can we completely remove a faction?
how can you control a factions effect?
create a republic
how does making a republic control factions
makes decisions for your country
what do we do to prevent the republic from becoming a faction?
create a large republic
how do we make decisions with a republic?
laws and ideas go through a filter with a board of chosen representatives
large republic
large variety of interests so it’s difficult to make a majority faction
does this system still work today?
no because people can have better communication around so they can have the same interests around the country
what are The Federalist
A collection of eighty-five essays written to explain the theory behind the United States Constitution.
Who were the three authors of The Federalist?
James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay
What was the authors’ main objective in writing The Federalist?
To promote ratification of the Constitution
Supported the constitution and Anti-Federalists Opponents of the Constitution
Who wrote The Federalist 10?
James Madison
Paragraph 1 –
What is the problem that is identified in this paragraph? (Hint. It causes the government to be unstable and contributes to “unsteadiness and injustice”)
Factions. Madison argues for the general political importance of breaking and controlling factions and points in particular to the “factious spirit” of the time.
Paragraph 2 –
Define faction
A group of citizens united by a common idea or opinion
Paragraph 2-
Explain why factions are considered dangerous to the republican government.
Madison believed that factions operate in their own interest and ignore the rights of other citizens and/or the interest of the community.
Paragraphs 3- 6
What are two ways in which factions can be cured?
By removing the causes of factions OR by controlling the effects
Paragraph 3-6
How does the author “shoot down” the possibility of removing the causes?
You cannot remove the causes of factions because to do so, you would have to destroy liberty and freedoms that allow them to exist. If you destroy liberty and freedom you destroy government.
Paragraphs 7- 9
What evidence is offered for the claim that “the latent causes of factions are…sown in the nature of man”?)
Madison believes that as long as man is allowed to exercise liberty that different opinions will be formed.
Paragraph 7-9
What is the most common cause for the development of factions?
the unequal distribution of property
Paragraph 7-9-
What is the traditional role of government on this issue?
The traditional role of government is to protect and regulate any concerns having to do with property.
Paragraph 7-9-
The author states “No man should be judge in his own case.” However, legislators (“a body of men”) are inevitably interested in much of the legislation that they consider. Is there a remedy for this?
Only if it were possible to have “enlightened statesmen” who are only concerned with justice and public good. BUT enlightened statesmen will not always be available or in power.
Paragraph 7-9-
Summarize the four arguments as to why it is not possible to remove the causes of factions.
1. It is not desirable to eliminate the freedom that allows for expression and differing opinions
2. It is not possible to make every person in society have the same opinions
3. Factions generally arise out of a concern for property, and it is one of the duties of government to protect property and to balance its regulation
4. It will not always be possible to have “enlightened” legislators who can rise above their own interests
Paragraph 10
In ruling out these possibilities, the author implies that if the causes of factions cannot be eliminated then the only alternative is to:
Control its effects ( Control Factions)
Paragraph 11
How can a minority faction be controlled?
It will be defeated by a regular vote
Paragraph 12
How can a majority faction be controlled?
either by preventing it in the first place or by making it incapable of putting its schemes (opinions/plans) into effect.
Paragraph 13
What is pure democracy ?
In a pure democracy each citizen represents himself or herself
Paragraph 13
Why is pure democracy often considered the ideal government?
It would seem best for each person to speak and vote for himself
Paragraoh 13
Why can’t pure democracies deal justly with majority factions?
There is nothing to control a majority interest; political equality does not translate into equality of possessions, opinions, and passions
Paragraph 14
Madison presents his solution to the problem of factions. What does he state is the cure? (hint: type of government)
A republic or representative government
Paragraph 15
How is it that republics, especially large ones, can deal more effectively with the problems generated by majority factions? (two reasons).
Republics can represent larger numbers of citizens
Republics may extend over a lager territory
Paragraph 16
What is the major advantage of having Republics represent larger number of citizens?
The effect of having elected representatives is to refine and enlarge the public views by passing them through the medium of a chosen body of its wiser citizens. The public voice of the elected representatives may better reflect the public good than the direct pronouncements of the people.
Paragraph 16
What might be the major disadvantage of this reason or characteristic?
The representatives may not be well acquainted with local circumstances and with the minority’s interests
Paragraph 16
The author then poses a rhetorical question and proceeds to answer it. (write the question and his answer).
Question: Are small or extensive republics more favorable to the election of representatives who will protect the public interest?
Answer: Extensive republics provide the best safeguard to protecting the public interest
Paragraphs 17-18
Explain the two reasons why the author came to this answer (see below)
Question: Are small or extensive republics more favorable to the election of representatives who will protect the public interest?
Answer: Extensive republics provide the best safeguard to protecting the public interest
1. Large republics offer better opinions for electing representatives of fit character, as there will be more to chose from.
2. It will be more difficult for unworthy candidates to become elected when they are under the scrutiny of a larger electorate.
Paragraph 19
In trying to anticipate any possible arguments against his reasoning, the author acknowledges that representative government requires a balance between too many electors and too few electors.
What is the problem with too many?
What is the problem with too few?
Too many:The representatives may be too little acquainted with their particular interests
Too few: The representative may be too attached to their interests and not able to objectively view national issues and interests.
Paragraph 19
Why does the author believe that the new federal constitution provides the necessary balance?
The Constitution provides for two distinct legislatures
Paragraph 19
The Constitution provides for two distinct legislatures, name the two
A national legislature to decide “great and aggregate interests”
A state legislatures for local and particular interests.
Paragraph 19
Identify the principle that the author is defending.
Paragraph 20

What arguments does the author make to support his claim that large (number of electors) and extensive (territory) republics afford the best control of factions?

Extended republics encompass a greater variety of parties and interests, making it less probable that a factious majority can be formed or that it can act
Paragraph 21
For what three reasons does the author believe that large republics have an advantage over small ones and that the Union (national government) has over small republics (the states).
1. Representatives of the Union are more likely to be enlightened and virtuous and less likely to be tainted by local prejudice and in justices
2. The Union is more secure against oppression from a factious party because of the greater variety of parties and interests it encompasses
3. The Union, because of its size, poses greater obstacles to a majority faction’s taking concerted action.
Paragraph 22
The author presents two more arguments in favor of large republics being able to control factions. Explain them.
1. Factious leaders or religious sects may come to dominate a particular state or region, but are very unlikely to dominate the entire nation
2. Improper or unjust projects will be less likely to pervade the entirety of the nation.

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