Populating things get the foods needed for growing, care and productive activities from the nutrient they eat. The nutrient for such a intent should be a sort which is balanced and the footing of that balanced nutrient is one that is in the right proportion for growing, development and care every bit good as production. There should be different sorts of nutrient material and this can fulfill the assorted foods required. A big per centum of the universe ‘s under nutrition may be due to the high ingestion of one basic nutrient ( FAO, 1992 ) . This state of affairs could be remedied if there is a careful survey in the aggregation of assorted nutrient material that complements each other when the foods they supply are being mentioned. Protein is one of the foods needed and this could be gotten from works or animate being beginning. Some workss like the leguminous plants are really rich in protein but they may miss some of the indispensable amino acids. Many diets could be well improved if there is the inclusion of little measures of nutrient animate being beginning. Jensen ( 1981 ) found that should every bit small as 25g of meat will give about 45 % protein and half the vitamin B12 needed by a child day-to-day. Meat is hence a sort of nutrient that complements many diets particularly those that greatly rely on nutrient material from works beginning. Meat and its other merchandises have high concentrations of good quality protein and their assorted amino acids which are sometimes absent in workss rich in protein. There is the supply of most of the easy absorbed minerals and vitamins from meat. Components of nutrient which are found in higher concentrations than a few mgs or mcgs per 100g of a peculiar sort of nutrient and that they frequently give energy are said to be macronutrients, fortuitously these foods make up approximately 98 % of the comestible part of meat with H2O inclusion ( Simonsen and Rogowski, 1988 ) .

With all these and other benefits derived from meat, the hazards associated with the feeding of meat can non be overlooked. There are many of them as largely the wellness of the consumers is compromised. One of the hazards involved in meat feeding is the possible consumption of contaminated meat, which has several ways of acquiring onto the meat. Equally much as meat has a high concentration of foods need by worlds for healthy life, micro-organisms besides find meat as a good beginning of nutrient for their life and endurance. Their manner of growing and endurance may go forth the meat unwholesome for worlds. When meat safety confidence is mentioned, proper abattoir design and good direction patterns are of premier importance.

The safety of our nutrient is an issue of great public wellness concern all over the universe particularly really much crucial where the environment in which the nutrient is produced, handled and processed is likely to be extremely contaminated ( EUFIC, 1996 ) .Though there are progresss in modern engineering, nutrient borne unwellnesss have become of import concern in both developed and developing states. A figure of fresh nutrients particularly those from carnal beginning for case beef are extremely susceptible to microbic invasion and for that affair nutrient poisoning. The natural meats in retail stores have been found to be possible agencies for distributing food-borne diseases and hence there is a demand for the pattern of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point ( HACCP ) and the instruction of consumers on nutrient safety, ( Zhao et al,2001 ) . Soyiri et Al, ( 2008 ) found out that many abattoirs in Ghana have really hapless installations for meat production and do non hold HACCP systems available and this can ensue in heavy tonss of bugs. This heavy microbic burden makes the meat unwholesome for human ingestion or lead to incidence of nutrient toxic condition. Bacterial nutrient toxic condition is widely dispersed and occurs when our environments are untidy and the nutrients are non hygienically produced and maintained. Natural meats are sometimes found to be contaminated with bacteriums which can be really harmful to worlds, ( Burgess et al, 2005 ; Tutenel et Al, 2003 ) . Beginnings of the bugs in meat could be an built-in micro-flora found in the tissues of animate beings, the air, milieus, or taint due to unhygienic slaughtering conditions, hapless handling patterns and bad processing conditions. Hobbs and Roberts, ( 1993 ) said that the major bacterial pathogens are Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium botulinus, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus Cereus and Escherichia coli. These bugs cause microbiological and biochemical alterations in meat which consequence in the production of toxic substances taking to the events of illnesss like enteric fever febrility, cholera or other fatal diseases and even decease in the utmost instances, ( Soyiri et al, 2008 ) .Yeast and casts are besides sorts of micro-organisms which cause meat spoilage and for that affair a menace to meat eating wont ( EUFIC, 1996 ) . Bacterial taint is the worst and most common signifier microbic invasion which causes meat taint. More than 74 % of incidences of nutrient toxic condition are as consequence of meat dishes found in a study by Hobbs and Roberts ( 1993 ) .

Food safety in general is evaluated in footings of acceptable degrees of hazard. Given the range and magnitude of nutrient supply in our local scene, there is no manner to guarantee that all nutrient is kept free from possible beginnings of taint. Alternatively, nutrient and for that affair beef safety is enhanced by consistently concentrating upon take downing opportunities for infective bacteriums taint at every point from meat production and processing to distribution, readying, and even ingestion. Different bugs are introduced onto the meat at each phase of beef production and treating these bugs tend to pollute the meat, ( Ebel et al, 2004 ; Sumner et Al, 2003 ) . Some of the bugs are built-in in the healthy animate beings on low counts and due to the sort of managing before and slaughter would let them to increase in figure. Others are gotten onto the meat by taint by the equipment used or the forces managing the meat. The recognition of the manner bugs behave would function a good trade in turn toing practical meat production issues. Their ways of life including conditions favourable for growing and reproduction would show thoughts on how to cut down their presence. Poor sanitation in abattoirs coupled with bad personal hygienic patterns and improper cleansing of meat shops are some of the ways by which meat get contaminated and do spoilage while going menace for ingestion. Meat quality is compromised when taint can non be controlled. The type and degree of taint are observed in order to keep and better the hygienic position and quality of meat produced by a abattoir, ( Inthavong et al,2006 ) Post-mortem meat review has been designed to guarantee the safety and wholesomeness of meat and meat merchandises. However, this review does non see adequately the issues of microbic invasion of meat during the slaughter procedure and its effects on worlds after ingestion, ( Hudson et al, 1996 ) . Another factor which is really of import when microbic taint is discussed is temperature. The encompassing temperature within which production and storage of meat are done contribute to how safe or extremely contaminated the meat would be. There are certain temperature ranges within which microbes thrive really good and besides increase in their Numberss where all other conditions are available. This means that if the temperature under which meat is produced and sold is controlled so most of the bugs could besides be controlled. Other factors like Ph, wet, alimentary handiness, initial microbic burden merely to advert a few would besides impact the taint of meat and meat merchandises. The manner of transporting the meat to the retail centres could besides be a possible agency of presenting and increasing the Numberss of already bing 1s and even present new infective bug every bit good. The application of Hazards Analysis Critical Control Points ( HACCP ) rules can assist cut down important jeopardies in the production of beef ( Reij et al. , 2004 ) . With some of these conditions proposing the possibility of the beef on the market contaminated, the survey hence seeks to happen out certain issues in relation to how safe the beef on the market is in footings of microbic tonss.

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General Aims:

To determine the general safety of beef consumed by the populace in the city sing how the meat is sold. The deductions of uncontrolled temperature during gross revenues and even after gross revenues in the incidence of remnant are non taken into history when meat quality is mentioned.

The specific aims are to:

Identify possible pathogenic bugs on the beef.

Establish the microbiological safety of beef in the Kumasi Metropolis.

Chapter TWO


2.1.0. Contamination OF Meat

In the presence of unwanted substances in nutrient which could be a physical, chemical or an being, this nutrient could be regarded as contaminated. The assorted phases in the transition of unrecorded animate beings to meat present an ineluctable company of taint, ( Nouichi and Hamdi, 2009 ) . The contamination may be harmful or non depending on what consequence it would hold on the meat. Rosset ( 1996 ) , found that bulk of meat contaminations are introduced on the meat at the abattoir. Meat could be contaminated with a whole batch of foreign affair when safeguards are non taken earnestly. Carcass taint degree depends on the cleanliness of the animate being before slaughter, the types and figure of bugs introduced during meat production and processing, the temperature every bit good as the clip and storage, transit and distribution conditions, ( Nortje et al, 1990 ) .

The different phases of the transition from unrecorded animate beings into meat make the microbial

taint of carcases an ineluctable and unwanted consequence.

2.1.1. Physical Contamination

The physical contaminations of meat may happen without any major alterations to the chemical and biochemical composing of the meat. Wagstrom ( 2004 ) reported that physical contaminations could come in meat during the pre-harvest activities due to points like broken acerate leafs. Hair, rocks, machinery pieces matchwoods from palettes and others are the contaminations likely to establish on the meat the production and processing of meat and other meat merchandises, ( Wagstrom,2004 ) .

2.1.2. Chemical Contamination

Chemical taint of meat may happen as a consequence of residues of agrochemicals or pharmaceuticals used in carnal production or due to toxins. These residues and toxins usually accumulate in the tissues of the animate beings which become meat after the animate beings are slaughtered. Most of the contaminations which find their manner into the nutrient concatenation may be pesticides, heavy metals and other chemicals from the farm animal production, ( Anonymous,2009 ) . These chemicals are non detected by physical observation. The traditional veterinary review of meat does non see this sort of taint when there are no abnormalcies in the variety meats inspected, ( Gill,2000 ) .

2.1.3. BIOLOGICAL Contamination

This sort of taint is usually by populating beings which are little but could be seen by the bare oculus or other merely by the assistance of microscopes. The seeable 1s could be identified and easy controlled or eliminated if possible.

2.2.0.SOURCES OF Contamination

The procedures involved in meat production are accompanied by certain degrees of taint which can be controlled but non wholly avoided, ( Nouichi and Hamdi, 2009 ) .Bell and Hathaway, ( 1996 ) reported that the major beginnings of taint during meat production are the slaughtered animate beings themselves, the staff and the on the job conditions.

2.2.0. Meat Spoilage

The foods in meat are the same 1s bugs use for growing and therefore survival doing meat spoilage inevitable.

2.2.2.MICROBIAL Spoilage


The bugs involved in meat taint are usually from the

Very bantam life beings merely seeable to the human oculus with assistance of a microscope are micro-organisms or bugs. They besides find the

2.3.1. Yeast

2.3.2. Mold

2.3.3. Bacterias

Beginning: Anonymous ( 1995 )

The manner of life of bacteriums is

Beginning: Anonymous ( 1995 ) TYPES OF BACTERIA


2.4.1. Substrate

Meat can move as an ideal

substrate for microbic proliferation ( 3 ) .

2.4.2. Temperature

One of the critical environmental factors that affect bacterial growing is temperature. Temperature is an indispensable parametric quantity in the step of nutrient safety, quality and wholesomeness. It affects the shelf-life of the nutrient and whether that nutrient would do nutrient poisoning excessively. Microorganisms and even built-in enzymes found in nutrients are able to execute good or non at certain temperatures. The grouping of bacterium is done approximately on the footing of suited temperature for growing. They are classified as mesophiles ( turn within the temperature of 10C and 52C ) , thermophiles ( turn within temperature of 43C and 71C ) and the psychrotrophs ( turn within temperatures of 0C and 32C ) .The pychrotrophs and the mesophiles are the types of bacteriums of import to the meat industry. The Pseudomonas, the spoilage microbes whereas the nutrient poisoning 1s like Salmonella and E. coli are psychrotrophs and mesophiles severally, ( Anonymous,1997

2.4.3. pH

The pH of nutrient is one of the factors that affect the physicochemical belongingss of that meat, ( Wajda1 et al, 2004 ) . The easy manner of bacteriums invasion and shortened shell-life nutrient are besides influenced by the pH. Meat becomes really susceptible to microbic invasion even under the best production and processing conditions when the ultimate pH is high, ( Hedrick et al. , 1994 ) . Microorganisms found on meat whether spoilage or infective 1s have a certain pH scope to last in. These bugs would non turn good below pH of 4.0 and above pH of 9.0, ( Lawrie, 1991 ) .


The eruption of food- borne diseases is an of import wellness job in the universe. Jay ( 2002 ) said that these diseases come 3rd after cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in USA. The average happenings of food- borne diseases in the developed and developing states are 38.3 and 915.8 in hundred thousand population severally, ( Tavakoli and Riazipour, 2008 ) . Adams and Moss, ( 2002 ) found that the rate of the food-borne diseases incidence has increased from 19 instances in hundred thousand population in 1985 to 62 instances in hundred thousand population in Australia and in Spain from 30 instances in 1983 to 116 instances within the same population in 2001.Tavakoli and Riazipour ( 2008 ) reported that many developing states like Ghana do non hold accurate informations on the incidence of nutrient -borne diseases. This job seems to be higher in the development states than that of the developed universe due to hapless and unhygienic conditions of production, processing, distribution and even points of gross revenues conditions and besides low wellness educational degrees in these states, ( Tavakoli and Riazipour, 2008 ) .The prevalence and incidence of nutrient borne diseases in the development states are higher when compared to that of the developed states, ( Tokassian et Al, 2004 ) .Pathogens isolated from meat may do self-limiting enteral unwellnesss or systemic and even fatal diseases to the immunocompromised, the immature and even the aged, ( Marshall and Bal’a, 2001 ) .Currently research has revealed that there is a uninterrupted development and version of immune infective bugs to antibiotics and bit by bit to the traditional nutrient saving methods, like heat application, solar drying, low H2O activity, low pH, and chemical additives, ( Nouichi and Hamdi, ( 2009 ) , said that Salmonella is one of the most common causes of bacterial stomach flu in worlds in the universe. Red meat and domestic fowl are the major beginnings of the being. There is a considerable addition in the eruption of salmonellosis in most parts of the universe, ( Forshell and Wierup, 2006 ) .The common clinical mark is gastroenteritis with sickness, purging and diarrhea with or without febrility.

Salmonella is among the most common causes of human bacterial stomach flu worldwide. Meats are often contaminated with Salmonella spp. and are accordingly thought to be major beginnings of the

pathogen in worlds. The true incidence of salmonellosis is hard to measure because deficiency of an epidemiological system in topographic point, which is peculiarly true in developing states. However, the figure of eruptions peculiarly in worlds has increased well in most parts of the universe

( Forshell and Wierup. , 2006 ) . The most common clinical presentation is gastroenteritis with sickness,

emesis, and diarrhoea with or without febrility.

Soon there is

uninterrupted version and development of opposition

by infective micro-organisms to antibiotics and

potentially to traditional nutrient saving barriers,

like low pH, heat, cold temperatures, waterlessness, low

H2O activity and chemical additives ( 19 ) .

Development of antibiotic opposition in nutrient borne

2.6.0. Safety Standard

bacterial pathogens ( 2 ) . Meat safety during

processing, packaging, screening, transporting,

exposing, merchandising, cookery, functioning and finally

ingestion ideally should be invariably under tight

examination by authorities functionaries, nutrient processors,

nutrient animal trainers, nutrient suppliers, and the consumers

themselves ( 3 ) .

Chapter THREE


Prior to the start of the work, questions were made about how operations are carried out in the Abattoir. Workers of the Abattoir were given the thought of the exercising so that they would collaborate. Different people are found at each phase of production

The research was conducted at the Kumasi Abattoir Company Limited premises. The slaughter works was where the swabs were taken from to place the microbic taint degree of beef carcases. The Maayanka market merely near the Abattoir was besides the topographic point where swabs of benches and knives every bit good as meat samples from meat Sellerss were besides taken. The swab samples taken were taken the Microbiology Laboratory of the Faculty of Applied and Theoretical Biology in Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology for the research lab analyses.

Slaughter PLANT

The slaughter works has two lines, lines A and B for beef production. Each line has a capacity of about 200 cowss per twenty-four hours. Five carcases were considered in footings of swabs taken from each line. The swabs were taken with unfertile cotton tablets wet with peptone H2O. Swabs were taken at the cervix of animate beings after their pharynxs were cut, the knife used for the cervix piercing, the surface of the flesh under the tegument after flaying, inside of the carcase after evisceration, knife used for


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