For many old ages. throughout the 1600s and early portion of the 1700s. the British pursued a policy of good disregard toward its settlements. Britain enacted a series of Navigation Laws. but these efforts to modulate trade were minimally enforced. The settlers had a by and large friendly attitude toward the British overall since they enjoyed the benefits of an imperial relationship without attach toing limitations. However. this relationship was dramatically altered by the Gallic and Indian War. The class of the war itself significantly affected the political and ideological relationship of the settlers to their female parent state. in every bit much as the settlers found the British infliction of limitations and its hierarchal ground forces to be abhorrent to liberty. while the British saw the demand for greater imperial control. However. it was the economic wake of the war. which left British with a astonishing war debt and a demand to raise new colonial grosss that militated most to a great extent against colonial cooperation with the British.
The Gallic and Indian War. called the Seven Years’ War in Europe. had its ancestors in the colony of the Gallic and the British in the Ohio Valley. part of the American continent. Both the Gallic and British sought to command lands in the part. while Native Americans resisted the efforts of both to settle. The Indians mostly played off of both sides to keep an uneasy balance of power. but one group finally decided to allow trading grants to the British. giving England greater entree to the inside of the continent. France saw this as a menace to its ain districts and summarily constructed garrisons of defence. like Fort Duquesne. The British followed suit. edifice garrisons of their ain. One such attempt was to construct Fort Necessity near Fort Duquesne. which George Washington led. At the garrison. nevertheless. Washington became embroiled in a struggle with the Gallic forces at that place he was captured and forced to give up. Thus began the Gallic and Indian War.
The settlers had a mostly friendly and amicable attitude toward the British at the beginning. For illustration. General Washington praised the British General Braddock in a 1755 missive a adult male of “abilities and experience” ( Doc. C ) . The long British policy of good disregard allowed the settlers to bask the benefits of trade with and protection from the British without the uncomfortableness to frBigid control. However. this changed as the war progressed. In the 2nd phase of the Gallic and Indian War. get downing in 1756. Britain sought to enforce greater control on the colonial war attempt. British Prime Minister William Pitt tried to command the contact of the contending himself. ” “impressing” ( forcibly enlisting ) settlers to contend and enforcing other limitations on colonial freedom. A colonial soldier. for illustration. wrote in 1759 of how he was improbable to acquire spirits or vesture and of how he was capable to soldierly jurisprudence. ” He protested that he. excessively. was a adult male of English blood. but that he was non afforded the “Englishman’s liberty” ( Doc. D ) .
This political control by Britain led to public violences and colonial opposition ; reasonably shortly. the effects of it overwhelmed any befits it may hold offered. and William Pitt was forced to endorse down. However. for the remainder of the war. the political bequest of repression remained in colonial heads and produced ill will to British control. Another ideological facet of the interaction between Britain and its settlements furthered this ill will. The settlers themselves were organized into voluntary units of work forces contending with comparative equality. The British. interim. were organized into hierarchal divisions in which stiff order was maintained. The Massachusetts soldier who protested political repression besides noted this when he observed that the British military personnels “are but small better than slaves to their officers” ( Doc. D ) .
This ideological thought of a righteous American ground forces together with a stiff British one farther augmented the colonial opposition to British subjugation. The settlers non merely saw British political intervention in their personal businesss as bastard ; they besides resented British hierarchy. The British. nevertheless. took from the war an wholly different position. The settlers may hold seen themselves as great assistance in the battle ; one discourse by Reverend Thomas Bernard in 1763 portrayed New England as the greated assistant of Britain in the attempt. However. the British saw the settlers as lazy and unhelpful. England was further outraged by the fact that some American merchandisers had really sold supplies to the Gallic West Indies during the war against France. The political and ideological lessons learned by the British. therefore. were that the settlers are excessively independent and must be made to move decently. The conlusion. so. was that greater imperial control was necessary.
While political and ideological differences may hold contributed to the alteration from a friendly relationship to a hostile 1. economic science was a major factor as good. The 1763 Treaty of Paris gave Britain all of France’s district E of the Mississippi. except Canada ( Doc. A ) . This doubled the size of the British Empire and augmented the necessity of posting British military personnels on the boundary line to protect against Indian foraies. This was at the same clip that Britain faced a astonishing war debt from the seven old ages of combat. Yet. the settlers mostly refused to lend to a war fought for their ain defence. A 1763 British Order in Council found that the gross from the settlements couldn’t even pay a 4th of the cost of roll uping it. It besides reported that “neglect. collusion. and fraud” had hampered gross aggregation in a clip of greatest demand ( Doc. F ) .
The British. thence. saw it as justified to seek new beginnings of gross from the settlements. The rule vehicle for making so was the 1765 Stamp Act. portion of Prime Minister Greenville’s plan to exercise greater control over the settlements. The Act required that all paper merchandises – from volitions and workss to playing cards – have a cast on them. This was the first direct revenue enhancement ( a revenue enhancement paid outright. instead than an indirect one incorporated into the full monetary value of a good ) imposed by Britain. All old revenue enhancements could be construed by the settlers as 1s imposed by Britain to modulate commercialism. However. this act could non be interpreted that manner ; it could merely be seen as an univocal effort by Britain to raise gross. This aggravated indignation from settlers all over. Lawyers and influential members of society were affected ; newspaper publishing houses. one of the most influential groups on public sentiment. were outraged by the revenue enhancement.
The Pennsylvania Journal even announced that it would “expire” because of the “dreadful” revenue enhancement ( Doc H ) . A Stamp Act Congress was formed to defy the gross addition. while the Sons of Liberty terrorized aggregation agents. Such colonial protests continued as Britain farther attempted to enforce control. until these events finally produced the American Revolution. The Gallic and Indian War transformed dealingss between the settlements and Britain from one of friendly regard to one of hostile misgiving. During the class of the war. political repression by Britain and ideological resistance to Britain’s hierarchal ground forces produced the seed of American protest ; at the same clip. Britain saw the necessity of enforcing greater control on its fractious settlements.
The economic consequences of the war. nevertheless. were even more black. The costs of the combat and protection of a freshly enlarged district forced Britain to enforce new gross like the 1765 Stamp Act so the settlers would pay their ain portion. However. the settlers bitterly resented this univocal British effort to raise gross without the consent of their colonial assemblies. In this manner. the Gallic and Indian War soured the resonance between Britain and its settlements that finally produced the American Revolution.