In Freud’s psychoanalytical analysis of the ego. every bit good as Nancy Chodorow’s theory of object-relations. the male parent plays a strong function in the development of male individuality. The Oedipus theory explains that the demand of a male parent is to make adequate anxiousness in a male child to assist the male child to divide from the female parent and identify with the male parent. The boy’s fright of the male parent in conformity with his pre-Oedipal love involvement in the female parent helps the male child to place with maleness and divide his ego from his primary love object that is his female parent. The male child originally sees the female parent as “not me. ” ( Chodorow 67 ) which creates a gender individuality for the male baby. The male baby so sees the male parent as stopping point to his female parent. which is his primary love involvement.

The boy. so. is covetous of the father’s intimacy with the female parent and hence sees the male parent as a menace to his primary love involvement. This creates anxiousness for the boy. which is thought to be the corner rock of individualism and the development of the ego. With out this anxiousness. the son’s maleness may non develop every bit would a male child would who had a present male parent. As the male child moves from the pre-Oedipal to the Oedipal phase. the male child now sees his male parent as more like himself. He uses the male parent as mirror. The power that his male parent has is now envied by the male child. this enviousness besides creates a masculine ego because the male child can associate with the male parent. The balance of each person in the trigon: female parent. male parent and boy. develops a secure male individuality of the ego.

The followers will see the effects on the male ego if the male parent was non present in the assorted phases of the pre-Oedipal and Oedipal periods. It will look at the effects of the age at which the male parent became absent and the presence of other male figures that are non the male parent in the development of the masculine ego. The effects on the relationship with the female parent will be affected every bit good as ulterior life relationships with other females. The absence of a male parent will wholly change the manner a male will emotionally see his ego and the universe around him. It will besides see the effects of the development of the ego with the male parent being absent at different phases of the Oedipal and pre-Oedipal periods.

Even though the Oedipus composite has many phases from pre-Oedipal to Oedipal. Shill found that. in a step of emasculation anxiousness among father absent work forces and male childs. there was no difference in the degree of emasculation anxiousness harmonizing to that age that the male parent was lost. It was found that whether the loss of the male parent happened before the age of two or after the age of two. that there was no impact on the degree of emasculation anxiousness that was felt. This shows that the absence of a male parent is more important to the nucleus male gender individuality through the pre-Oedipal. Oedipal and adolescent phases. ( Shill 145 ) The absence of a male parent during the pre-Oedipal period seems to coerce the boy into the Oedipal period Oklahoman than would of course go on if the male parent were present. However. there is no alteration in the sum of anxiousness that is produced by the loss of a male parent. The Pre-Oedipal period is centered on the realisation that the baby is an single and that the female parent is besides an person.

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This gets shifted and about meshes with the Oedipal period in a male child who has an absent male parent. ( Chodorow 196 ) Therefore. it can be concluded that there is no set age that a kid will do the transportation from the pre-Oedipal to Oedipal phases. This is merely determined by when the kid is ready to do those alterations. However. a male child in a male parent absent place who is still in the pre-Oedipal phase. will be forced to do the alteration from pre-Oedipal to Oedipal much sooner than a kid in a male parent present place. Even though this forced alteration seems to be a traumatic event. there still remains the same sum of emasculation anxiousness in male childs who were forced into the Oedipal phases by male parent absence and male childs who lived in a male parent absent place after doing the alteration from pre-Oedipal to Oedipal.

Similarly. there is no alteration in the degree of emasculation anxiousness in male childs with male parents who are absent by decease. separation. or divorce. The grade in which a male parent is absent does non hold any significance to the degree of emasculation anxiousness every bit good as the relationship with the female parent. Fathers who still live in the family but are non emotionally and physically at that place due to outside work. have the same sort of consequence on a male child than if the parents were divorced. ( Shill 144 ) Even though the male parent is slightly present. he is by and large an looker-on and the female parent maintains the power of the family. The female parent becomes overpowering and creates bitterness in the male child. ( Chodorow 184 ) It is interesting that a male parent who is physically present but emotionally absent has the same consequence as a male parent who is wholly absent. The male parent who is physically in the family could function as a mirror for the male child. nevertheless the male parent does non keep any power in the family. This makes for a different mirror than what a male child in a healthy male parent present place would utilize.

The male child in a male parent present place would see the male parent as a powerful figure and would hold that to pattern his ain maleness from. A male child in a place where the male parent was non emotionally present would merely be able to pattern his physical visual aspect from but will non be able to derive any emotional maleness from the male parent. This is the same for a male child who lives in a house with no contact with his male parent. The male child will still utilize other images imposed on him through society such as telecasting characters or even another male that the male child sees sporadically like a instructor. uncle. or other male influence. It was found that with the presence of a measure father at a immature age there was no consequence on the emasculation anxiousness that was felt from male parent absent boys. This shows the unrecorded bond between male parent and boy that is created during the pre-Oedipal period. The male child in the male parent absent place will still hold no footing to make his ain masculine individuality.

In the absence of a male parent. the relationship between the boy and female parent is changed dramatically. The manner a boy views his female parent and a female parent views her boy are seen rather otherwise in the absence of a male parent. The female parent is in every bit much demand of a hubby as the boy is in demand of a male parent. The demand for the husband’s love. fondness. and gender is so placed on the individual of the opposite sex that is closest to her. She so sees the boy non as her boy but as an opposite gendered other and more of a sexual being. Therefore. the married woman will turn the fondness and sensualness that would usually be directed toward the hubby. and direct it toward the closest male figure in her life which is the boy. The seductive feelings put away by the female parent forces the male child out of the pre-Oedipal period and into the Oedipal period. ( Chodorow 105 )

The wife/mother in this instance will be more seductive towards the boy but will besides keep the function of female parent by training and penalizing the male child. The female parent with show strong sexual feelings of love and fondness toward the male child but will besides keep her function as female parent who is the punisher. which shows feelings of choler and hatred towards the infant boy. This can make a really confusing relationship with the boy to the female parent. The fact that the female parent can honor. love. and thwart the male child at any given clip develops a dependence in the boy on the female parent.

The nature of this relationship leads the male child through striplings and maturity with a different conceptualisation of adult females in general. The male child will look at adult females as cold and unsafe and therefore expression for adult females who are more simple and slightly childish. This is due to the fact that the male child can experience that he has control in the relationship and therefore does non hold the fright of the authority of adult females like he had with his female parent. This feeling of deficiency of power is brought on because the boy. in the Oedipal phase. did non see a male figure with power in which he could place with. The male child ne’er experiences the authority of a male figure. which can merely be the male parent. Dependence of the female parent. which stems from her authority subsequently leads to many other behaviours that carry on through striplings and into maturity.

The behaviours that are created by the dependence of the female parent range far into the grownup mind. Beyond the effects that the absence of a male parent will hold on intimate relationships. it will besides impact the manner the male child will visualise his ain ego worth. Male childs who were brought up in matriarchal families create demands to win and to delight subsequently on in big life. This is caused by the built-in dependence that the male child had with his female parent early in life. The success that the boy creates. gives him the semblance that he is reliable and dependable. all the piece merely dissembling the dependance of his female parent that he still carries with him. ( Chodorow 189 ) The absence of a male parent can ensue in the demand for a meaningful occupation. The emptiness that is left when the male parent is non present leaves the male child without a mirror image to copy. By obtaining a meaningful occupation the male child can derive a psychical and societal entry into the grownup universe that would usually be done through the presence of a male parent. This occupation besides offers boundaries on phantasy and a strong bridgehead in society. ( Minsky 251 )

The affect of the absence of a male parent apparently has a existent function in the male gender individuality and the development of the ego. The male parent holds many places for the boy to obtain a bridgehead on the creative activity of his ego and his masculine individuality. He acts as a mirror for the male child. leting him to place with who is considered the same as himself. The male parent gives the male child something to copy non merely physically but besides emotionally and psychically. At the same clip the male parent helps to develop the boy’s individualism by assisting to interfere with the connexion of the primary love object. which is the female parent. With out the male parent at that place to move as a mirror in the pre-Oedipal phase and be a beginning of anxiousness in the Oedipal phase. it will countervail the balance that is so carefully created through nature by the Oedipus composite. There is no replacing the male parent. A stepfather or gramps can non animate the bond that a boy can merely portion with his male parent. Because of the father’s chief functions in the designation of the ego as a male. the absence can be damaging to the development of a male child and make many stigmas that will stay with the male child for life.

Plants Cited:

Chodorow. Nancy. The Reproduction of Mothering. California: University of California Press. 1978

Shill. Merton. “TAT Measures of Gender Identity ( Castration Anxiety ) . ” University of Michigan Journal of Personal Assessment 42. 5 ( 1981 ) : 136-146

Minsky. Rosalin. “Beyond Raising: Finding the Words for Male Identity” Journal of Psychoanalytic Studies Vol. 2 No. 3 ( 2000 )

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