Introduction This book. “G-Dog and the Homeboys” a former newspaper author of Los Angel Times concentrating on Greg Boyle a priest who founded the Home Boys in the 1980s. during a clip when Los Angel was filled force. condemnable turbulence and public violences. The priest had worked with packs in Los Angels and was to function six old ages in gaol and he is praised for his enormous attempts to help so many people from gaol in acquiring occupations and instruction.
The Jesuit male parent ended up being shadowed by Celeste Fremon who is seen as societal militant that creates phenomena that enable the readers to see the forces within condemnable packs which impact on the mobsters assisting some to come out of the system and besides foregrounding why some have trouble coming out of organized offenses. This narrative captured great attending in the sociological universe particularly in criminology because her thoughts was that before we jump to decisions that mobsters are monsters. we ought to analyse what goes on within these packs. that is. the forces within them. public sentiment and the status.
Therefore. the books best gives the society a clear image of possibly what it had been making incorrect to rehabilitate out of gaol felon and even possibly what truly motivate people to prosecute in condemnable activities and the best ways to tackles felons. Greg advocates that occupations for pack members are what can outdo halt their battle in condemnable activities hence his celebrated slogan. The book advocates that the best manner to assist a pack member quit it becomes really indispensable to suitably supply some of their societal demands. The book gives.
Six of these demands are given which include: “factors that build resilience: lovingness and support. high outlook for success. chances for meaningful engagement. positive bonds. clear and consistent boundaries. and good life skills” ( Fremon & A ; Brokaw. 2004 ) . Literature Review Theories are probationary statements. thoughts or facts are purportedly true as they await confirmation. There are different schools of theories in criminology all of which attempt to explicate assorted facets of offense and delinquent behaviour in the society.
These include classical theories. the positive school and Chicago school. Classical theories are based more of free will. that is. people act being aware of the effects and it is hence based on legal Torahs. Examples include those cesare Beccara and Bentham Jeramy. Positivists differ with classical theories in that they attempt to explicate condemnable and delinquent behaviour scientifically. Data aggregation and deductive logical thinking are included in the effort. Examples of such theories include that of Cesare Lombroso.
The Chicago School on the manus study’s delinquent and condemnable behaviour in the context of the environment factors holding in head that the society at big besides contributes to the being of condemnable and delinquent behaviour. For the intent of this paper. the work of Celeste Fremon can be analyzed utilizing either of the above school although some may look more appropriate. The Strain theory forwarded by Robert K. Merton. in every bit much as it received different degrees of unfavorable judgment seem to capture the image postulated by Celeste Fremon in her account of offense and condemnable reformation.
Merton K Robert was in Philadelphia in the twelvemonth 1910. He lectured in Harvard as a professor in sociology section. He was a pupil of Tulcott Persons. He received many awards the most noteworthy 1s including being elected as the lone ferigner in Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and besides the national academy of Sciences. national philosophical society ( Adler. 1985 ) . Merton his theory seemed to hold borrowed from the construct of anomy in Durkheim’s theory. He argues that behaviour in the society is dependent on the societal construction of the community in inquiry.
This theory postulates that every society sets certain ends and aspiration all of which its member strive to accomplish. or conform to for intents of prestigiousness. societal satisfaction. acknowledgment and a times even for endurance among other things. For illustration. in many states. it becomes paramount to make a certain degree of instruction in order to be employed. Mostly college instruction is largely over accenting of doing every person in the society strive towards such degrees ( Featherstone. Richard and Mathieu Deflem 2003 ) .
In certain case. being uneducated may interpret to a life of public ridicule and rejection thereby making desperation to many of the social members that for one ground or another are unable to accomplish the assorted set criterions of instruction. Education plus many other social set of criterions of life particularly in a capitalistic set-up are expected to be achieved by all members of the society. Harmonizing to Merton. the jobs of offense and delinquent behaviour come up in state of affairss whereby all members are expected to populate in a certain manner but non all are given equal chances to accomplish those criterions.
The prescribed ends besides require a follow up of set tracts that are legal while others are made bastard and if this tracts are unrealistic to many. some via media them harmonizing to their abilities. Like in the instance of Education. it happens that many members in that society may non even afford the basic signifier instruction. In other case the expected degrees are excessively high like in India that happens to hold a impregnation of alumnuss. the expected educational degrees are excessively high.
Therefore. people strain excessively much to afford even the most basic criterion of populating interpreting to a descent repast. descent apparels and descent houses. Such societal state of affairss amongst other things ever tend to take some to make short-cuts to the top. Not all these short-cuts are legitimate. some may happen an flight path to societal job through fall ining organized offenses such as drug trusts as agencies to obtain speedy wealths. The society hence contributes to doing felons out of people particularly when such criterions are unrealistic.
This is the state of affairs in most African states where people from traditional civilization are forced to perforate through stiff bureaucratic civilizations without a penny for a kickoff and doing many of these who may hold migrated to urban countries in hunt for occupations to killer condemnable in hunt for merely small money for nutrient. That can explicate why many condemnable particularly pick-pockets go to the utmost terminals of slaying and merely manages to pick meager points such as phones. a few dollars from their victims.
Criminals hence. harmonizing to Celeste Fremon. undergo certain transformational facets that shape their behaviour which harmonizing to Merton come about from the force per unit area within the society being to the person. An analysis and survey of such forces becomes paramount if at all one is to understand offenses and delinquent activities in the society. To transform a felon would necessitate such an apprehension in order to supply alternative or utility activities to fulfill their self-importance or stuff demands.
Unlike Lombroso’s construct of born condemnable or people of course attached to offense. there exist a large group of condemnable that hate their business but for privation of a breakthrough persist in delinquent and condemnable activities until they achieve certain outlook degrees. Merton theory does non largely concentrate on condemnable activities in the society but instead on the strong values or outlook that held by the society. He proceeds to foreground how different people in the society react or embracing these criterions.
He gives the first group who are the conformists. This consists of people whose attitudes and behavior show that they both accept the agencies and the ends set by his society. There credence comes due to assorted grounds. It could be that they don’t have other ways. believe that’s the way the society should follow. are jurisprudence staying citizens and hence obey the jurisprudence irrespective they achieve there ends or non. The 2nd group is the pioneers who accept the end but because of their grounds invent other ways of accomplishing the ends.
For illustration. they accept people aught to hold money to ain things but they devise other ways of acquiring that money e. g. stealing or making bogus currencies as off contrary to put social criterions ( Washington. 2000 ) . The ritualizes are the 3rd group. and this group accept that the society means of accomplishing those ends are all right but someplace may after recognizing that they are non able to accomplish them. they abandoned them all together and many may ensue to merely being observant citizens populating a normal life.
The Forth is a particular group that both rejects the ends set and the agencies set and are largely merely “ there” ling indifferently as if they these ends and the agencies do non be or don’t affair any longer. This group is called the retreatists and a immense figure of drug nuts. alkies. huffy people. idiots and even some physically handicapped belong here. This group many a times transform to a group of Rebels which is the last group. These reject both the ends and the agencies but proceed to invent their ain different ends and heir ain agencies.
Suicide bombers best tantrum here since the cull the ends and invent their ain ends and agencies of accomplishing them. which is suicide. This theory particularly dominated the field of criminology particularly in the sixtiess but has so far faced enormous unfavorable judgment to an extend that it was at one clip put off. In the year1992. Agnes Robert pioneered the general strain theory which unlike that of Merton’s theory emphasiss on personal relationships such that hapless relationship between an person and the society can impel them to prosecute into condemnable activities.
A good illustration is instance of a jurisprudence staying citizen who finds his married woman with another adult male in his ain house ( Washington. 2000 ) . Such utmost instances of choler have been known to ensue to up in slaying even by persons who would ne’er been thought could prosecute in such Acts of the Apostless. So Agnes explains offense and aberrance shifting from forces within the societal construction to hapless relationship of persons within the society.
In which instance people become hapless directors of the strenuous experiences either psychological. emotional or physical qualifying their lives. Merton’s nevertheless paved manner for many other theories and research undertakings. Some claim that his theories have been below the belt discredited which he is much to fault for this particularly due to his incompatibility and non clearly explicating some of his footings. It is besides argued that he did non complete his Hagiographas and besides fails to clearly separate his theory of anomy and strain theory ( Merton’s. 1995 ) .
I have chosen this theory peculiarly because unlike so many theories in criminology. Merton is able to capture and give a logical account as why some people reject the specified agencies of accomplishing the ends set in the society that drive work forces towards their fates and yet still lodge to the ends. He offers a simple consecutive forward account that clearly lays the foundation for hold oning the roots. the means and the expected consequences of people attitudes towards ends and criterions set in the society.
In the universe today Merton gaining control the existent scenario in most states explicating much of the increasing public violences and turbulences qualifying many states today. His theory besides captures the countries of uniformity within the society that normally lead to escalation of organized offenses which are countries that must be addressed to be able to correctly reform and rehabilitate gaol birds and halt the immature from gang rank. In short. his positions coincides with the thoughts that Greg Boyle stressed of acquiring to understand the head of the condemnable first and what makes him so. before judging him ( Cummins. 2007 ) .
Mentions Fremon. C. & A ; Brokaw. T. ( 2004 ) . G-Dog and the Homeboys: Father Greg Boyle and the Gangs of East Los Angeles. East Los Angeles: University of New Mexico Press. Cummins. G. ( 2007 ) . Theory Application Paper. COM 4480: Seminar in Communication Theory. Westport. Connecticut: Greenwood. Merton’s. K. ( 1995 ) . “Dream Machine” Social Structure and Anomie. Danbury. Connecticut: Grolier. Adler. M. ( 1985 ) . Ten philosophical errors. New York: Macmillan Printing Company. Washington. D. C. ( 2000 ) . We are thankful to Michael Leiber. Sanjay Marwah. and Caryl Lynn Segal for helpful remarks. New York: Pocket Books.