Lecture construction
Language and policy about race and ethnicity Changes in society BME in the condemnable justness system Explanations Contemporary examples Racial pro?ling

Lecture results
Develop an apprehension about race and ethnicity Consider the differences in people’s race/ethnicity and whether it is a factor in relation to Numberss within the CJS Examine in deepness the principle behind racial

Race – traditionally been used to separate between groups on the footing of supposed biological differences Ethnicity – refers more loosely to groups possessing some grade of solidarity based on civilization. descent and district Racism– manner of depicting the beliefs and patterns that can ensue in people being discriminated against on the footing of their perceived cultural

Policy and statute law
Race Relations Act ( 1976 ) subsequent Race Relations Act ( 2000 ) Unlawful to know apart against anyone on the evidences of race. coloring material. nationality. or cultural or national origin The Crime and Disorders Act ( 1998 ) established a new set of racially aggravated offenses – hatred offense

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Society has signi?cantly changed
Rivers of blood address by Conservative MP Enoch Powell ( 1968 ) shaped future way of in-migration policy in the UK He predicted that “in this state in ?fteen or 20 years’ clip the black adult male will hold the whip manus over the white man” Criticised in-migration ( open-door policy ) Relaxed in-migration Torahs responsible for offense and upset

Roll uping informations
1981 landmark twelvemonth in the context of British Race Relations – acknowledgment of cultural minorities as victims Home Office published Racial Attacks. its inaugural study foregrounding grounds of the racialist torment directed at minority cultural communities It is merely since1981 that local and cardinal authorities bureaus have kept records of

BME people as victims and wrongdoers ( Newburn. 2007 )
Peoples from BME backgrounds somewhat more likely to be at hazard of exploitation across all classs 2010/11 BCS – there was a statistically signi?cant autumn in the hazard of being a victim of personal offense for members of the White group ( 2010/11 ) 51. 187 recorded racialist incidents – that represents a 18 % lessening from 2006 Black people six times more likely to be victims of slaying than white people Peoples from cultural minorities are more fearful than

By and large talking. minority cultural groups are disproportionality victimised. in portion because of where they live – in poorer urban countries – and partially because they tend to be a younger population. They may besides endure from less constabulary concern and protection ( Webster. 2007 ) The societal geographics of robbery ( Hallsworth. 2005 ) and homicide ( Dorling. 2005 ) shows the links between these offenses and societal exclusion – from this position it is poverty instead than ethnicity that is the cardinal explanatory variable But…Smith ( 1989 ) Racism interacts with category disadvantage to bring forth forms of societal inequality experienced otherwise by minority cultural communities The jobs may get down at school. The survey shows that black kids are three times more likely to be for good excluded from instruction ( Equality Commission. 2010 )

Racial Pro?ling – the usage of race or cultural visual aspect as a factor in make up one’s minding who merits constabulary attending as a leery individual ( Harris. 2002: 8 ) Cultural differences – some argued that civilizations of offense or ‘resistance’ are imported to the state ( Gilroy. 1987 ) Criticised because it over-simpli?es the cultural complexnesss of life and ignores impression of

Tony Blair – 2007 put it down to Black Culture
Seven knife/gun slayings in London ?rst 5 months Not caused by poorness but a typical black civilization – non portion of a general offense moving ridge. but speci?c to black young person Needed to be an intense constabulary focal point on the minority of

Wider condemnable justness system ( Cavadino and Dignan. 2007 )
Black people are arrested in Numberss disproportionate to their presence in the population Race is a factor in the constabularies determination to admonish person BME suspects are more likely to be committed for Crown Court test – therefore more likely to pull more terrible sentences Black suspects are more likely than white suspects to be refused bond ( Bowling and Phillips. 2002 )

Black and Asiatic suspects are more likely to hold prosecutions against so dropped after charge Black suspects are more likely to plead non guilty Black and Asiatic suspects who plead non guilty are more likely to be found non guilty Suggests that the constabulary might bear down Black and Asian suspects based on a lower degree of grounds than that for

Decrease 09/10 in figure of white people arrested. for Black individuals this rose by 5 % and Asiatic people by 13 % Black individuals were arrested 3. 3 times more than White people and 2. 3 times more for assorted groups

Sentencing and the tribunals
Gelsthrope. 2006 concluded that there was limited research on the issue – one survey in the West Midlands ( 1980s ) noted Black grownup male wrongdoers were somewhat more likely to be sent to prison 69 % of Black wrongdoers functioning more than 4 old ages Newburn ( 2007 ) – ( 1 ) there was a inclination to direct more Black people to prison for offenses of medium earnestness. and that some mitigating factors were less likely to be taken into history if the suspect was Black ( 2 ) recent grounds

Experts and politicians said over-representation of black work forces was a consequence of decennaries of racial bias in the condemnable justness system and excessively punitory attack to penal personal businesss ( How Fair is Britain. 2010: Equality Commission )

Diane Abbott ( Labour ) “very much regretted that the last Labour authorities swallowed Michael Howard’s line that prison ‘works’…there was ne’er a serious scrutiny of the effects of locking up a coevals of immature black work forces. The consequence is there are some prisons in the South

Black people are over-represented in prisons 30th June 2010 the entire prison population in England and Wales was 85. 002 – of these 21. 878 ( 26 % ) were from BME groups – consistent with ?ve old ages ago ‘the black prison population rate per 1. 000 population is over four times higher than that for Whites and about seven and a half times for Asians’ ( Newburn. 2007 ) Signi?cant advancement and alteration – why? Cavadino and Dignan ( 2007 ) depict how stereotypes held by prison officers have led to the best occupations in prisons being allocated to white captives Verbal maltreatment and physical mistreatment and deceases in

Deaths in detention
Zahid Mubarek – murdered in his cell by his violent and racialist cell mate Robert Stewart in a Young Offenders establishment ( 2000 ) Official enquiry reported ( 2006 ) Prison service characterised by institutional racism and suffered from hapless systems and hapless communications Jimmy stewarts racism non picked up by staff Neither con?rmed or ruled out that both immature work forces had been intentionally put in the

The Brixton Riots – 1980
The Scarman Report ( 1981 )

The slaying of Stephen Lawrence – 1993
The Macpherson Inquiry ( 1999 )

The Brixton Riots
Confrontation between the MET and protestors in South London 10th – 12th
April 1981 280 hurts to patrol / 45 hurts to the public 82 apprehensions. over 100 edifices destroyed Area with serious societal and economic jobs – recession – malaise between locals and constabularies. unfavorable judgments of constabulary response to offense. alleged favoritism Operation Swamp – plainclothes operation to cut down offense – 1000 people stopped and searched and 82 apprehensions

Thatcher dismissed the impression that unemployment and racism lay beneath the perturbations claiming…’nothing. but nil. justi?es what has happened’…’money can non purchase trust or racial harmony’ Knight. Ted…the constabularies presence ‘amounted to an

Scarman Report ( 1981 )
Disproportionate and indiscriminate usage of halt and hunt powers by constabulary against Black people Training programmes inadequate with no accent on community dealingss The constabularies have to be more representative of the communities in which they serve Behaviour that is either racially prejudiced or otherwise prejudiced should be a disciplinary offense Safeguards introduced to supervise halt and search Police precedence should be care of

The slaying of Stephen Lawrence
22nd April 1993 stabbing of Stephen Initial constabularies response characterised by a ‘lack of bid and a deficiency of organisation’ ( Macpherson. 1992: 62 ) Decisions made at the scene non recorded Leading officer left scene without finding what occurred Failed to happen out what the cardinal informant had said Fishy vehicles allowed to drive through cordons Decision to watch suspects alternatively of arrest them – 4 yearss subsequently 1 fishy seen with black bin line drive with vesture non stopped

Failure to recognize slaying as racially motivated Public Inquiry 1997 – Macpherson Inquiry ( 1999 )

Justice at last
Gary Robson and David Norris found guilty in January 2012 on forensic grounds 18 old ages subsequently Three people still to be charged

Macpherson Report ( 1999 )
Polices Incompetence
Seriess of errors in the probe Treatment of the household – advancement ( Family Liaison Officers ) Police behaved insensitively

Police corruptness – unsubstantiated rumors of bribes Institutional racism – the corporate failure of an administration to supply an appropriate and professional service to people because of their coloring material. civilization or cultural beginning. It can be seen or detected in procedures. attitudes and behavior

Hate Crime
A racialist incident is any incident which is perceived to be racist by the victim or any other individual ( Macpherson. 1999. 47: 12 ) Emphasiss experiences of the victim and does non necessitate a police officer to do a opinion

Stop and Search
We are clear that the perceptual experience and experience of the minority communities that favoritism is a major component in the halt

Stop and hunt
There were 1. 141. 839 Stop and Searches ( 20 % addition in four old ages ) Per 1. 000 of the population. Black individuals were stopped and searched 7. 0 times more than White people Proportion of S & A ; S remained stable for Chinese/mixed/other groups – proportion decreased for white group ( 53 % -42 % ) and

London Riots – LSE research
Mark Duggan shot dead by police Tension between local people and constabularies ; choler and defeat at manner constabulary engage with communities Everyday experiences negative Frustration at halt and hunt

Not seen as race public violences more borne out of defeat with society Longstanding misgiving of the system from Black respondents Antipathy towards constabulary within black communities appeared to exceed coevals

Reading the public violences study
“Ok I ?t the description. What’s the description? Young black male and I’m chilling for you to come and halt me and seek me up. And go against me. Because that’s what it is. a misdemeanor. speaking to me like I’m nothing” ( 32 twelvemonth old Black Male )

“If you are of ethnicity. you’ll acquire stopped. ‘Where are you traveling? What you got forcing? ’ But yeah…same group. white individual. they wont” ( 18 twelvemonth old black adult male ) “All my friends are black. I know a twosome of white male childs and I think they do acquire off with a spot more. And I feel like immature black people are punished a spot more. Like. I’m non merely stating it to do alibis for them. I do. That’s truly what I have seen” ( 22 twelvemonth white miss )

Recent narratives – April 2012
Racism in the MET

Suspension of eight officers and a civilian officer as a consequence of probes into 10 separate allegations of racialist maltreatment. intimidation and force affecting 18 officers and one staff member RACISM in the PSNI

Suspension of four officers following probe into alleged racialist and sectarian text messages

Racism in the Sanford ( Florida ) Police Department?

17 twelvemonth old African American – Trayvon Martin shooting by community ticker coordinator

Racial Pro?ling
Is there a difference between racial pro?ling and proactive policing? Provocative subject – combative – assorted positions Clinton ( 1999 ) ‘morally untenable. profoundly caustic practice’ and that it ‘was incorrect. destructive. and must stop’ Public sentiment in USA – against

Racial/Ethnic Pro?ling after 9/11
Changed the focal point of the racial pro?ling argument from street offense to terrorist act ( Harris. 2002 ) Public sentiment polls conducted merely after 9/11 suggested that positions had changed on racial pro?ling On the 14/15 September…58 % of Americans favoured ‘requiring Arabs. including those who are US citizens. to undergo particular. more intensive security cheques before get oning aeroplanes in the US’ as a agency to forestall terrorism’ ( Gallup Poll. 2009 ) August 2002…survey found that 59 % favoured ‘allowing airdrome forces to make excess cheques on riders who appear to be of Middle-Eastern

Interpreting the information
Americans are more affirmative of jurisprudence enforcement utilizing racial/ cultural pro?ling to forestall terrorist act than to forestall offense Impacts on positions and sentiments

Race Gender
Attitudes and experiences with constabularies Fear of offense Menace from terrorist act

Johnson et Al. 2011 ‘Attitudes towards the usage of racial/ethnic pro?ling to forestall offense and terrorism’ in Criminal Justice Policy

BME in the Criminal Justice System
Judges 114 out of 3232 CPS Lawyers 354 out of 3298
Statisticss on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2006/07 from Ministry of Justice ’08

07-11 the figure of BME constabularies officers rose from 3. 9 % to 4. 8 % 1. 9 % Asiatic 1 % Black Senior officers – 3 %

So what do we cognize?
There is an intrenchment in racial disparity within the condemnable justness system Police arrest information. victimization studies. witness descriptions all point to the decision that black people. are. in comparing with their Numberss in the population. more likely. to perpetrate some speci?c offenses. such as robbery or be the victim/perpetrator in gun slayings ( Home Office. 2005 ; Phillips and Bowling. 2007 )


Disproportionate Numberss of BME people in the CJS The committee for Racial Equality ( 2007 ) “people shouldn’t be afraid to speak about the issue for fright of sounding prejudiced” We can non disregard societal and economic issues Recent intelligence coverage high spots the continued being of racism within elements of the CJS.

Stats taken from – Statisticss on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2010 ( A Ministry of Justice Publication under Section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991 Bowling. B and Phillips. C. ( 2002 ) Racism. Crime and Justice. London: Palgrave Cantle. T. ( 2001 ) Community Cohesion: A study of the independent reappraisal squad. London: Home Office

Following week…
Do you believe racial pro?ling is necessary in the ?ght against offense? Do you believe that racial favoritism continues to take topographic point within elements of the condemnable justness system?


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