The “sphere” that intersects with all of the other spheres is the
biosphere
Geographic factors are important when considering environmental issues or when evaluating potential sites for a new agricultural area or business because
location and spatial distributions often affect environmental, social, or economic behavior.
If two places have the same latitude but different longitudes
the two places are directly east or west of each other.
The difference between open and closed systems is that
open systems can acquire matter and energy, but closed systems cannot
The most direct example of an atmosphere-lithosphere exchange is
a volcanic eruption
A dynamic system refers to a system in which
matter, energy, or both, are constantly changing their position, amounts, or form.
0° of latitude is found at the ______ and the 90° of latitude is found at the _____.
Equator; North Pole
One of the main roles of plants in biogeochemical cycles is to
extract carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
What atmospheric layer is the home of weather, has the greatest density of gas molecules, and has a decrease in temperature with height?
Troposphere
On June 21st which location will be receiving 24 hrs of daylight?
Arctic Circle
Electromagnetic Radiation.
is composed of interacting electrical and magnetic fields.
The solar constant is
consistent amount of energy received at the top of the atmosphere.
Without greenhouse gases, earth’s temperature would be
-18°C.
As the zenith angle _____ the amount of energy reaching the surface _____.
increases, decreases
All of the following involve the input of energy EXCEPT:
freezing
Which location is found at the highest latitude?
Base on the following climographs and insolation graphs. Letters represent a location where the climograph and insolation graph were recorded
D
The earth’s radiation balance involves
most energy leaving the earth in the form of longwave radiation.
From this graph, one should conclude that
most of the energy input into the system goes toward changing state, not to change temperature.
Land heats and cools more rapidly than oceans because of
lower specific heat when compared to the ocean.
Which of the following involves energy storage in the water molecule in the form of latent heat?
melting, evaporation, sublimation
Land heats and cools more rapidly than the ocean because of its
lower specific heat when compared to the ocean.
All of the following is true regarding shortwave radiation that reaches the earth’s surface EXCEPT.
heating of the atmosphere by insolation is more effective than heating of the atmosphere by land and water.
Ozone consists of _______ molecules of oxygen, is found primarily in the ______ and protects us from ______
3, stratosphere; ultraviolet rays
As one approaches the equator, the angle of incidence ____ and the atmosphere attenuation ______
increases; decreases
Which of the following processes is primarily responsible for the sky’s blue color?
scattering
North America is farthest from the sun during
aphelion, which occurs in early July
Ozone thinning is
more pronounced in Antarctica than the Arctic
Which of the following is true regarding the relationship between molecular motion, wavelength, and temperature?
as temperature increases, molecular motion increases, wavelength decreases
On equinox
tilt is neither inclined toward or away from the sun
The only temperature scale that relates changes in internal energy to the absolute amount of heat gained or lost by a system is the
Kelvin scale
At the equator (0°), which of the following is TRUE? Select the best answer.
All of the above= Places receive 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness no matter the time of year, and the supply of energy is going to be very constant, with little seasonality, only, Noontime zenith angles are small (never more than 23.5 degrees)
On December 22 (solstice), which one of the following is FALSE?
Places in the Northern hemisphere spend less than 12 hours in a day in darkness.
Which of the following statements are TRUE? Select all of the correct statements
1. The Earth is closest to the sun during the perihelion. 4. The Earth is closest to the sun during Northern Hemisphere winter.
5. The tilt in the Earth’s axis is what causes Earth’s seasons.
A small zenith angle means what?
The sun is close to directly overhead
Regarding pressure, latitude, and water vs land.
air pressure is high over oceans at 30°
because descending air warms less over the cool oceans.
This diagram features a
cyclone, southern hemisphere.
“N” on the globe represents the northern hemisphere; “S” on the globe represents the southern hemisphere; ITC stands for the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Where will the ITC shift in July?
N
On weather maps, cold fronts are depicted by_____
Blue lines with blue triangles
Which phenomena involves the most equations in weather forecasting models?
atmospheric motion
Which of the following locations would be characterized by drier and warmer conditions during a La Nina?
D- Southeastern US
During a La Nina phase, excess warm water accumulates in
B- Pacific
Which gives rise to equatorial upwelling?
Coriolis deflection causes warmer surface waters to deflect to the northwest causing deeper, cooler waters to replace the dispersing surface water.
With height, wind speed in the atmosphere would _______________. With depth, the effect of wind on the water column would
_________________.
increase; decrease
The dominant control in global sea surface temperature is
the supply of solar insolation.
In the Northern Hemisphere cold currents tend to flow from the ____________. In the Southern Hemisphere warm currents tend to flow from the ________________:
north; north
Which of the following best describes air circulation at high latitudes?
Cold dense air sinks at the poles, flows outward away from poles, and rises between 60 and 45 degrees latitude.
If a gas cools under constant pressure, the molecules within it have ______ kinetic energy (motions) and can therefore _______________.
less; be packed into a smaller volume
The less mass an object has, the stronger the Coriolis effect will be for that object.
False
Which of the following statements is true regarding the relationship between air pressure and altitude?
as one moves up in the atmosphere, pressure decreases, as one moves closer to the earth’s surface, pressure increases
The Coriolis effect is the apparent deflection in the path of a moving object due to
the rotation of the earth.
A true difference between north and south polar areas is.
North Pole is over ocean, South Pole is over land.
Urban areas heat up more rapidly than surrounding countryside. This can result in
low pressure over urban areas with polluted air flowing aloft and then the polluted air sinking over the surrounding countryside.
To create a sea breeze
the warm air over the land rises, creating low pressure. Cool air over water sinks, creating high pressure. This creates an onshore breeze.
Using the insolation diagram, name the correct sequence of surface pressure zones associated with latitude zones. Start from the equator and move toward the poles.
low pressure, high pressure, low pressure, high pressure
An important property of water is its ability to act as a good solvent. This could best be explained by water’s
polarity.
At what point on this water vapor saturation curve graph will water vapor be deposited on ice crystals while liquid water droplets will evaporate?
B
A tropical cyclone will be weakened by
when it makes land fall.
A tropical cyclone will be strengthened by
a path over warm water
A tropical cyclone in the southern hemisphere rotates __________ and has a storm track turning ____________
clockwise; south and southeast.
In regard to ocean salinity, temperature, and density:
ice formation in polar zones increases salinity and density
During the warm phase of ENSO, warmest waters are found along the
equator in the eastern Pacific, west of South America.
In the Northern Hemisphere cold currents tend to flow from the ____________. In the Southern Hemisphere warm currents tend to flow from the ________________:
north; north
Subtropical waters are typically more saline than equatorial waters because of
high evaporation, low precipitation.
At what point on the graph does the density of water begin to decrease? ______ The temperature at this point is _______°C.
D; 4°C
During the warm phase of ENSO, a belt of much warmer than normal water appears along the_____.
equator in the eastern Pacific
x

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