Geology Of New York Essay, Research Paper

New York s Geology The bedrock of the Earth is made up of stone organic structures that vary in size, form, orientation, composing, colour, and texture. These stones makeup the bedrock, which is present everyplace. If one were to analyze a map of the bedrock from a verticle point of position, they would happen that forms are made by scoured borders and surfaces of stone organic structures that harvest out of the province. Most rock organic structures are originally cannular and horizontal. Distortions of these stone organic structures occur over many old ages due to leaning, turn uping, crumbling, and interrupting. An illustration of this can be found in the stone organic structures of western New York. It is composed of beds of sedementary stones, all diffrent in thickness, that are tilted down south less so 1 degree ensuing in breadths of out cropped sets. The Adarondac Mountains were one time cannular stone organic structures, but now sweep into wide creases. This deformed-rock form is typical of extremely metamorphosed basment stone. One can easy see this stone form continue in the basment as it passes beneath the B ; anket of sedimentary strata that surrounds the mountains. The form of little blocks along the eastern boundary line of the adirondacs resultes from blaming that dropped crustal blocks down into a gaint stairway. The Taconic Mountains E of the Hudson River Valley are immense pieces of crust that were thrust into that country from the E. The heavy toothed lines show the borders of these thrust sheets. The Earth & # 8217 ; s crust in this part was & # 8220 ; telescoped & # 8221 ; when a volcanicisland discharge collided with the border of the continent, doing what is known as Taconian orogeny. This hit compressed the superimposed stone and deposit of the step ining sea, thrusting them westward onto the continent as immense, stacked -slices. The pieces, which by and large dipped Es in a shingled agreement, were contorted well in the procedure. When completed, the stack extended from New England past the western border of the Hudson Valley. In the Catskill Mountains, the western border of this transported rockremains buried beneath Devonian stone. Erosion has reduced the original push sheets to spots, making Windowss to the stone beneath. For the most portion New York s bedrock is covered by dirt and other loose stuff, this is especailly true in country s with hunid climes. This dirt and other stuff is a consequence of the weathering of surfical stones. This regolith can stay in topographic point, but is normally eroded, transported, and deposited by H2O, air current, or glacial ice. 90 % of New York province bedrock is covered by surfical deposites that one more so 1 metre midst. Most of these sedimentations were left by a Continental glacier & # 8211 ; an ice sheet. The most abundant glacial sedimentation is Till. Till is compossed largely of clay, sand, crushed rock, setts and bowlders that the glacier spread over the countryside. Till can be up to 50 metres thick. Morains are elogate ridgesor strings of hills that formed at the border of the glacier and are compossed of Till. An illustration of this can be found in the Ronkonkoma and Harbor Hill Moraines in Long Island. *To better understand this subdivision refer to the physographicand tectonic maps attached to this paper* This physiographic map illustrates the rich assortment of landforms in the northeasterly United States and next Canada. The assorted landforms are chiefly the consequence of weathering and eroding, which attack different types of stone at different rates. Lowlands signifier on easy erodible stones, Highlandss on immune 1s, with all steps between. The distribution of stone types in a part strongly influences its physical geography. The fiting tectonic map shows the diverse construction of the part & # 8217 ; s bedrock. A comparing of the physiographic and tectonic maps clearly shows how much the physical geography depends on bedrock geology. Continental glaciation played a large function in the development of New York & # 8217 ; s landscape in the recent geological yesteryear. On its far south, the glacier removed and transported dirts and eroded the surface of the bedrock. As the ice melted, thisdebris ( mud, sand, crushed rock, and bowlders ) was left at new sites in a great assortment of depositional landforms. Melting caused the glacier to withdraw across the State from South to north between 20,000 and 10,000 old ages ago. The hilly country in the north-central portion of the map is the Grenville Province of the Canadian Shield, an country of cellar stones, which extends across the narrow Frontenac Arch into the Adirondack Mountains. The harder stones in the arch eroded more easy than those around them and formed the Thousand Islands in the St. Lawrence River. Contemporary drainage characteristics in the Adirondacks illustrate good glacial eroding, transit, and deposition. The Continental ice sheet degree Celsius

onverted many pre-glacial river and watercourse vales into ironss of lakes by carving stone basins during ice progress and by

lodging earth dikes during ice retreat. The outstanding northeast-trending rivers, watercourses, and lakes occur where mistakes and break zones greatly weakened the bedrock to do it easy eroded. In the low fields south and west of the Canadian Shield, bedrock is covered by glacial boulder clay and by beds of sand and clay deposited in meltwater lakes. This country is underlain by level beds of sedimentary stone and is portion of the Interior Lowlands, which extend due west to the Great Plains. Immediately South of Lake Ontario is a singular field of streamlined hills of glacial boulder clay called drumlins, some of which are shown west of Syracuse. East of Lake Ontario, lifts increase to organize the Tug Hill Plateau. South of the lake and across the Mohawk Valley, the land surface rises to organize the Allegheny Plateau. This tableland forms the northern terminal of the extended Appalachian Plateaus, which extend to the sou’-west. The tableland boundary curves eastward across New York South of Rochester and Syracuse, to the Helderberg Escarpment sou’-west of Albany. The tableland surface rises in this way until it becomes the Catskill Mountains. Rivers and their feeders have cut the originally flat Appalachian Plateaus into hilly uplands. The branched drainage form typically is developed by watercourses gnawing horizontal beds of stone. Some of the north-south watercourse vales were broadened and deepened by glacial ice, so dammed by glacial dust to organize lakes. The Finger Lakes South of Lake Ontario were formed in this manner. The two largest Finger Lakes, Seneca and Cayuga, are labeled. Southeast of the Appalachian Plateaus is the Appalachian Valley and Ridge Province, a belt of sinuate ridges that curves northerly through Virginia and most of Pennsylvania. Here the rug of sedimentary stones, was buckled into tight creases duringthe last Appalachian mountain-building episode. Farther sou’-east is the Great Valley, a lowland created mostly by groundwater and surface H2O easy fade outing the carbonate bedrock. This vale merges northeastward with the one occupied by the Hudson River and Lake Champlain. Southeast of the Great Valley is tfie hilly Piedmont Province. ThePiedmont passes northerly through the Hudson Highlands and merges with the hilly and cragged New England Province and with the Taconic Mountains along the eastern New York boundary line. The cellar rocks that make up the Piedmont extend eastward beneath the younger sedimentary beds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Continental shelf. Immediately sou’-east of the Hudson Highlands are the Newark Lowlands. These Lowlandss formed on beds of sedimentary and volcanic stone of Triassic-Jurassic age. The northeasterly terminal of the Lowlands is bounded by the Palisades, a dramatic bulwark on the west side of the lower Hudson River. Included within the Atlantic Coastal Plain are Long Island, Fishers Island, Block Island, Martha & # 8217 ; s Vineyard, Nantucket, and Cape Cod. These are parts of glacial moraines-lorig ridges of clay, sand, crushed rock, and bowlders deposited at the border of the Continental glacier. On Long Island, the Ronkonkoma moraine marks the southernmost progress of the glacier in this part. During the last ice age, the turning mass of ice on the continents depleted the ocean Waterss plenty to take down sea degree by 100 metres. As the ice melted, the lifting sea made parts of these moraines into islands. Waves and currents have been modifying them of all time since. The Continental shelf, incline, and lift lie seaward of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The Continental shelf is about flat, the Continental incline, has a incline of 2-4 grades ; the Continental rise slopes less than 1 grade. They are made of stuff eroded from the land, carried by rivers to the ocean, and distributed at that place by Marine currents. During the period of low sea degree, the Continental shelf was exposed as portion of the coastal field, and rivers cut vales across it to the shelf border. Most of those vales have been filled with deposit, but a trace of the Hudson Shelf Valley still remains. The Hudson Canyon and other, big canons are cut into the shelf border and Continental incline. Much of this canyon-cutting occurred when rivers, swollen with glacial meltwater and loaded with glacial deposit, flowed across the exposed shelf and met the sea at the top of the Continental incline. The deposit that the rivers poured into the ocean at those points formed denseness currents. These currents cut the canons into the slope.Bibliography: Grolier multimedia encyclopedia transcript right 1996.Encarta multimedia encyclopaedia transcript right 1997.Web resources: hypertext transfer protocol: //

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