Globalization Final Study Guide Sustainable Development: sustainable “economic” development, long-term economic growth depends on careful stewardship of the natural environment. Resource use aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met for the future Deterritorialization of Religion: Roy claimed it’s primarily caused by migration, Muslim Ummah (Muslim world–Commonwealth of the Believers) quest for definition, for Islam to fit every culture
Liberalization & The Environment: environmentalists say liberalization = unequal economic growth, resources paying for debt, competition (race to the bottom), increased pollution, unsustainable consumption of resources, political unrest while free traders say trade promotes growth and alleviates poverty = environmental benefits, elimination of trade barriers = inc value of resources, environmental progress is easier to achieve under conditions of prosperity
Global Economy & Disease: global trade (IMF/structural adjustments) reduce gov role in healthcare, unhygienic irrigation/packaging practices/storage/non-indigenous crops more susceptible to indigenous pathogens Environmental Change and Disease: Climate change-global warming higher temp & precipitation/humidity, water supply-dams ecological changes affect disease vectors (associated w/ inc. malaria), deforestation inc contact humans w/ pathogens/ dec natural predators of disease vectors / inc malaria in stagnant runoff water pools / loss of biodiversity
Jihad & McWorld: dialectical nature, one can’t exist without the other, short run retribalization global jihad against globalization (Babel) vs. long run globalization (Disneyland). Jihad bloody politics of identity exclusion and hatred w/ paternalism and tribalism vs. McWorld consumption and invisible hand rather than common good through democratic institutions, repeal gov regulations Ethnic Identity: largely fixed during our lives/an identity assigned at birth, societal distinctions or specific attributes between groups of people, related to self determination
Ethnicity: race, not inherently political, collection of same people born in same land Clash of Civilizations: Samuel Huntington outlined 8 main cultures (religions) “people who share ethnicity and language but differ religiously may slaughter each other” (Western, Confucian, Japanese, Islamic, Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox, Latin American, African(? )) de-westernizing, indigenization of societies, hinduization Environmentalism & the Developing South: more appeal in the North than South?
An excuse to continue the North’s long standing practice of military and economic intervention, focus on the south is way for North to deny its own responsibility, calls to link environment w/ security = deep suspicions about ulterior motives Collectivity: part of environmental issues – collective action problems difficult to accomplish, common pool resources, infinite possibility of free-riding Irreducibility: part of environmental issues – holistic in nature, we cannot approach only one part, we have to consider them as a whole
Characteristics of Environmental Issues: Complexity – interpenetration, pollution down the road / temporal and spatial uncertainty – what will happen in the future, how much is it going to affect us? / spontaneity – things tend to happen fast especially in environmental disasters Chinese Triad: Chinese criminal organizations along w/ Thais, Burmese & affiliated gangs in Europe / US / Pacific Rim involved in opium trade
Food Security: all people at all times have physical and economic access to sufficient, self-nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life (UN’s Food & Agriculture Organization) Green Revolution: early 20th century problem not producing sufficient food to feed expanding population, GR 1950-1984 development of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains, expansion of irrigation infrastructure, hybridized seeds, synthetic fertilizers, pesticides to farmers in developing countries. Transformed agriculture around the globe, world agriculture production more than doubled
Earth’s Carrying Capacity: estimates vary widely, believe there will be between 8–10 billion by 2040-2050 The Future of Food: GMO’s: genetically modified organisms, genetically engineered foods and the threat of terminator gene, international companies driving small farmers off land into poverty, invasion of subsidized US corn in Mexico Montreal Protocol: 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer mandated that industrialized countries reduce their production and use of the five most widely CFCs by 50% (gave developing countries gives a grace period to adjust w/ flexibility).
Without it, 50% of ozone would be depleted by 2035 Arms Trade Treaty: Viktor Bout sentenced April to 25 years in prison, 2003 Control Arms Campaign 2006 turned over global petition called “Million Faces” to UN Secretary 2006 states vote resolution 61/89 requesting UN Secretary General to seek views of Member States (US votes against claims national control is better) 2009 UN General Assembly launches time frame for negotiation w/ final negotiating conference scheduled for 2012 – US position overturned. Arms Trade Treaty would require states to have national echanisms for express authorization of international transfers of arms, prohibit transfers of arms that violate human rights and international law Malnourishment: food insecurity, people lack basic food intake to give them energy and nutrients for fully productive lives (in US malnourishment usually involves inexpensive food afforded by low income families) Obstacles to cooperation on environmental issues (regime, actor, and general): lowest common denominator, slow development/implementation, absence of necessary conditions(3 C’s), linked econ and poli interests, unequal adjustment costs, different core beliefs.
Actors: inadequate translation of regime rules into domestic law, can’t implement/administer/enforce domestic legislation, lack of respect for rule of law, high relative costs of compliance. Regimes: can’t monitor compliance and report on implementation, poorly designed regimes w/ poorly designed monitoring mechanisms, many regimes w/ little coordination National Identity: inherently political, belonging to a nation + belief in its political aspirations, often develops from existing ethnic identity (not always), enhancers include common history/territory/culture
Boat People: illegal immigration, smuggling crime rings, 85% of Europe’s total illegal immigrants through Greece, w/ cost of human life. Voyages of refugees, illegal immigrants, asylum seekers with intentions of escape Restaveks (or stay-withs): 300,000 children in domestic bondage in Haiti, forced to do house work and used as unpaid slaves. 50,000 children and teens enter US yearly against their will for sexual slavery, over 2 mil trafficked slaves forced into prostitution and labor around world, 10million slaves in south Asia Overcropping: overexploitation of the environment – poor farming practices, deforestation, overgrazing also included
Overpopulation: inadequate fresh water, natural resources depleted (fossil fuels), inc air/soil/water pollution, deforestation/loss of ecosystems&biodiversity, loss of arable land and desertification, mass species extinctions, high infant/child mortality, industrial farming(evolution/spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria diseases – new endemics/pandemics), low life expectancy in countries w/ fast growing populations, unhygienic living conditions, increased levels of warfare, elevated crime rate, less personal freedom/more restrictive laws
Food vs. Fuel: dilemma regarding the risk of diverting farmland or crops for biofuels production in detriment of the food supply Precision Farming: soil erosion dropped, no-till seed planting, drip irrigation level fields (eliminate runoff), global positioning: efficient harvest/less chemicals Citizenship: individual/group’s relationship to state, swear allegiance+have obligations, state gives benefits
Nationalism: a pride in one’s people and belief in sovereign destiny, seek to create or preserve one’s own national (poli group) through independent state (sovereignty is key) Serge Etele: Cameroonian Jew Blood Coltan: Coltan mining for consumer electronics (mobile phones/comps/video games) has financed serious conflict such as in Dem Rep of the Congo Global Fundamentalism: return to traditional religious values as reaction to modernity/global culture, restoration of scared tradition as basis for society, cultural authenticity vs universalizing global culture
AIDS: ~35 million infected / ~14,500 new infections daily (>90% in global south)/ ~8,000 deaths daily (3mil/year) MDG Goal 6, gov subsidized antiretroviral medications in Brazil/Argentina Deforestation: removes natural carbon sink that used to absorb carbon from atmosphere and simultaneously produce oxygen Arms & Human Trafficking: AT=lack of international treaty regulating legal arms trade, fuels conflict and crime, $60 billion/year industry. HT=labor/sex/organ/babies&pregnant women/child soldier trafficking
Slavery: “a slave is a human being forced to work through fraud or threat of violence for no pay beyond subsistence” – Benjamin Skinner Small Arms: ? mil + people killed each year across world with small arms (34,000 / yr in US) % of GDP high in Colombia, Latin America, Brazil = affect on costly public health Monocultures: the agricultural practice of producing or growing a single crop or plant species over a wide area and for a large number of consecutive years.
It is widely used in modern industrial agriculture and its implementation has allowed for large harvests from minimal labor. Sustainable Agriculture: small scale, biologically diverse farms. Natural pest control, using compost instead of fertilizers, more food less petroleum, sequesters carbon and holds moisture, organic fertilizer requires 5x cattle just for US Environmental Change & Conflict: environmental change is important source of social conflict, societies face more dangers from environmental change than traditional military threats,
Environmental Security: security policies need to be redefined to take account of new realities, only by framing it in security terms can necessary level of gov attention and social mobilization be ensured, security institutions could contribute directly to environmental protection given financial resources/monitoring+intelligence gathering capabilities, scientific and tech expertise Rio Declaration: 1992, right to development, capacity building and technology/knowledge transfers, common but differentiated responsibilities, equity to eradicate poverty, precautionary principle, polluter pays, environmental impact assessments
Concern, Contractual Environment, Capacity: the 3 C’s, obstacles for comprehensive environmental action Demographic Transition: w/ disease population mobility has same conditions causing it as causing infections to emerge (refugees,sanitation,food,healthcare) long term migration disease to non-immune populations and transfer new diseases back / megacities = megaspread Fertility Opportunity Hypothesis: fertility follows perceived economic opportunity (caused partly by food aid, stop giving hope of development to curb reproduction) vs. inc standard of living/life expectancy = dec size of families & birth rates
Transnational Organized Crime Groups: effort to exploit mechanisms of globalization, transportation/ communications tech, aided by deregulation, made possible through corruption of authorities, unethical practices of individuals/corporations, extremely large profits + high risks, global cities main areas of activity, use financial services to disguise criminal activities, defy state offering parallel black market structure (human + arms + drug + natural resource trafficking, counterfeiting intellectual property, illegal currency transactions, cybercriminals) create demand, reach marginalized “losers” of globalization, hierarchically structured, strategic alliances, investing/laundering capital, R&D
Global Health Partnerships: improving access to medicines, financing health activities, primarily “vertical” focus on specific diseases and development/distribution of medicines not focusing on improving health care systems and primary care, multiplicity of donors and actors not aligned w/ gov priorities Global Food Crisis: enough food in world to feed everyone but 925 million ppl experience hunger, 2/3 of these people are in Asia/Pacific regions (India, China, DRC, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan, Ethiopia) FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization, policy and technical assistance to developing countries for food security, nutrition, and agriculture. Forum for negotiation of agreements and debate on policies
Fukuyama (the end of history): optimistic hyperglobalizers, sameness is good, in favor of spread of Anglo-American values and life-styles, Americanization = democracy, free market, liberal democracies wil make world more safe, Washington Consensus, exhaustion of viable alternatives to western liberalism Film: Blood Coltan Nationalism and Regionalism – chapter (Posted on BB) Chapter 4: Barber “Jihad vs. McWorld” Chapter 5: Huntington “The Clash of Civilizations? ” Chapter 41: Lechner “Global Fundamentalism” Chapter 44: Roy “Globalized Islam: The Search for a New Ummah” Chapter 46: Jenkins “The Christian Revolution” Review the WHO Global Burden of Disease website: http://www. who. nt/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/en/#content Globalization of Disease reading (Posted on Blackboard) Wolfgang Hein and Ilona Kickbusch. “Global Health, Aid Effectiveness and the Changing Role of the WHO” http://www. giga-hamburg. de/index. php? file=gf_international. html&folder=publikationen “Champion of the Poor” (Online) http://www. time. com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1124311,00. html “AIDS Whistle-Blower” (Online) http://www. time. com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1124297,00. html “A World Enslaved” by E. Benjamin Skinner, Foreign Policy March/April 2008 “If It Isn’t Slavery, What Is It? ” found at http://www. nytimes. com/2009/01/04/opinion/04kristof. html? r=1&scp=21&sq=january+04+2009&st=nyt (Online) Robert McCorquodale and Richard Fairbrother “Globalization and Human Rights,” Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 21, No. 3, Aug. 1999, (Online), http://0-www. jstor. org. ilsprod. lib. neu. edu/stable/762672 Film: Running Guns (Devil’s Bargain) Peter Landesman, “Arms and the Man” http://www. nytimes. com/2003/08/17/magazine/arms-and-the-man. html? pagewanted=all&src=pm Chapter 27: Mittelman, “Global Organized Crime” Joel K. Bourne Jr, “The Global Food Crisis: The End of Plenty” in National Geographic June 2009 http://ngm. nationalgeographic. com/2009/06/cheap-food/bourne-text Robert Paarlberg “Attention Whole Foods Shoppers” Foreign Policy 2010 http://0-go. galegroup. com. ilsprod. lib. neu. edu/ps/i. do? id=GALE%7CA229227176&v=2. &u=mlin_b_northest&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w Anna Lappe “Don’t Panic, Go Organic”, Foreign Policy on line http://www. foreignpolicy. com/articles/2010/04/29/dont_panic_go_organic Film: The Future of Food Chapter 49: World Commission on Environment and Development “From One Earth to One World” Chapter 50: “Rio Declaration on Environment and Development” Chapter 52: Keck and Sikkink “Environmental Advocacy Networks” Chapter 55: Esteva and Prakash “From Global to Local: Beyond Neoliberalism To the International of Hope” Chapter 59: World Social Forum “Porto Alegre Call for Moblization” Chapter 60: International Forum on Globalization “A Better World is Possible! ”