It is normally known that all Human Beings have demands. Daft ( 2008 ) defines demands as things that persons want and work for to accomplish. Kotler ( 2005 ) points out that an unsated demand creates tenseness which kindle the desire to accomplish an result that seems to be attractive.

Herzberg ‘s Two-Factor Theory shows that there is a immense spread between the things that create dissatisfaction and the things that pertain satisfaction ( Daft 2008 ) . Furthermore, Herzberg found that satisfaction is non the antonym of dissatisfaction, but “ no satisfaction ” ( Kotler, 2005 ) . The Hygiene Factors are things that are expected by a human being and act upon the degree of dissatisfaction. If those factors are hapless or absent, a human being is dissatisfied ( Herzberg 1968 in Mead 2005 ) . If those factors are good, on the other manus, they remove the dissatisfaction but do non make satisfaction. The Motivators nevertheless, create satisfaction if they are good, but do non make dissatisfaction when they are hapless. The degree that lies between the Hygiene Factors and the Motivators creates neither satisfaction nor dissatisfaction ( Herzberg 1968 in Daft 2008 ) . Applied to the Tourism Industry Hygiene Factors could be a safe environment, a clean Hotel room, friendly staff etc. , whereas Incentives could be an unexpected ascent, free radio local area network and over mean security and safety safeguards.

Abraham H. Maslow foremost published his Theory of Needs in 1954. He points out that there are multiple demands that motivate human existences and they exist in a hierarchal order, from the least to the most urgent ( Kotler et. Al, 2006 ) . He categorized demands in five classs which are physiological demands, safety demands, societal demands, esteem demands, and self-actualization demands. Those demands act as incentives in order to drive worlds ( Eckermann ) .

The physiological demands include the demands for nutrient, H2O, remainder and O ( Daft 2008 ) whereas the safety needs represents the demand for security in the physical and emotional environment, protection from physical and emotional injury every bit good as the freedom from menaces ( Robbins & A ; DeCenzo, 2005 ) .

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Social demands, nevertheless, are the demands for giving and having love, belong someplace, and acquire fondness. Daft ( 2008 ) adds that people need to be accepted by others, have friendly relationships and relationships, and to be portion of a group.

Furthermore, the Esteems demands, which are besides called as “ Ego Needs ” , include self-respect and the regard from others. Additionally, there is demand for attending, a positive self-image, acknowledgment and grasp from others ( Daft 2005 ) .

The demand for Self-Actualization is the demand for accomplishing disputing undertakings and to be originative ( Halepota, Eckermann ) . A human desires to develop its full potency, addition competency, and to go and be a better individual ( Daft 2008 ) .

Cartwright ( 2000 ) suggests a 6th demand degree which he calls the “ unachievable ” . It is an unapproachable demands that persons strive for but can ne’er make and hence, they can ne’er be to the full and wholly satisfied ( in Mead 2005 ) .

The lower degree demands are called biogenetic demands ( Schiffmann and Kanuk ) or as Mead ( 2005 ) calls them the basic needs or lack demands ( Daft 2008 ) . Those demands are satisfied through external factors such as nutrient, money, and congratulations from others. They are comparable with the Hiygiene Factors of Herzberg ‘s Theory.

The higher-level demands are the psychogenetic ( Schiffmann and Kanuk ) or self-importance and self-actualization demands ( Mead 2005 ) which are, unlike the basic demands, satisfied by internal results e.g. sense of accomplishment and competency.

Robbins and DeCenzo ( 2005 ) have pointed out that each degree has to be satisfied before an person moves up to the following degree and another demands becomes relevant. If one demand is satisfied, it is no longer actuating and demands are satisfied increasingly ( Mead 2005 ) .

Since for this work, chiefly the safety demands are of relevancy, the writer will chiefly stress on merely those demands. However, besides the physiological demands for shelter are of import to see. The Tourism Industry has to be really familiar with and understand those demands exhaustively. Carry throughing the biogenetic demands of clients will give the company a competitory advantage, since carry throughing those “ basic ” demands will actuate the consumer to endeavor for higher demands ( psychogenetic demands ) and therefore fulfill them more. Therefore, the Tourism Industry has to supply a safe environment for their tourers.

Equity Theory? ? ? Daft


Culture Definition

Hofstede ( 1984 ) cited in Mead ( 2005 ) : ‘Culture is the corporate scheduling of the head which distinguishes the members of one human group from anotheraˆ¦ . Culture, in this sense, includes systems of values ; and values are among the edifice blocks of civilization ( P. 8 ) . ‘ Out of this definition it can be concluded that civilization is learned, and passed on from coevals to coevals, foremost from parents and households and so by establishments and members, and includes systems of values. Harmonizing to Hofstede ( 1984 ) in Mead ( 2005 ) values are premises about how members within a civilization group should act. Those values are more intensively learned in immature age as kids learn more unconsciously and hence, the erudite values are deep-seated. Furthermore, Mead ( 2005 ) points out that each societal group has its alone civilization that is different from the civilization of other societal groups, and they respond otherwise to similar state of affairss. Furthermore, different civilization groups have conflicting and different outlooks from their environment.

Several Culture Models have been established over the old ages, e.g. the Kluckholm and Strotbeck Model in 1961 in Mead ( 2005 ) , where they compared different civilizations on the footing of the different orientations they have. The theoretical account of Hall ( 1976 ) in Mead ( 2005 ) distinguishes between low-context civilizations that emphasizes on the verbal manner of communication and whose members need instead facts than readings and non-verbal communicating such as in high-context civilizations. Due to infinite restrictions, in this work nevertheless, it will merely be focused on Hofstede ‘s Model as it fits the best for this subject because it includes the dimension of uncertainness turning away which can be applied best to the demands for safety and security.

The Hofstede Model has five Dimensions with which it distinguishes civilizations. Those five Dimensions are Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism/Collectivism, Masculinity/Feminity, and Long-term vs. Short-term Orientation ( Hofstede 2001 ) .

Power Distance is the distance between persons from one degree of the hierarchy to the other and the extent to which persons accept or tolerate that power is non distributed every bit. In civilizations where the power distance is high, there is a large spread e.g. between a director and his employees, and everybody knows their function and accepts it. In a low power distance civilization, nevertheless, aˆ¦

Uncertainty turning away represent the demand to avoid uncertainnesss in the hereafter or to be risk-taking. Cultures in which the demand for uncertainness turning away is high, are more dying about the hereafter, stabilise greater relationships and set a batch of energy into doing programs for the hereafter. In civilization where the demand for uncertainness turning away is low, nevertheless, persons are more willing to take hazards and to alter.

Individualism versus Bolshevism shows if persons have deep relationships with each other or instead non hold emotional connexions with others. In individualist civilizations the single individuality is stressed and competition is expected. In leftist civilizations, on the other side, the group involvement is more of import that the single involvement and persons are really loyal to group members.

Masculinity versus Femininity is how the functions and values in a society are divided. In masculine civilizations there is a large difference between sex functions. Those civilizations are really competitory and calling oriented. In feminine civilizations, nevertheless, relationships and human contacts are really of import.

Long-run versus short-run orientation represents a temporal orientation towards life. Long-run orientated civilizations value continuity and relationships are clearly ordered harmonizing to the position of persons. Short-term oriented civilizations value personal steadiness and stableness, respect tradition, and exchange salutations, favours, and gifts.


Percept of hazards


Sirgy ( 1982 ) defines perceptual experience as ‘the procedure by which an person selects, organizes, and interprets information to make a meaningful image of the universe ‘ ( in Kotler et. Al, p. 213 ) . Human Beings collect information through the five senses which are sight, smell, hearing, touch, and gustatory sensation. People act otherwise based on their perceptual experience due to the fact that each individual receives, organizes, and so interprets the incoming information in an single manner. That different people have different perceptual experiences of the same object, state of affairs etc. , is because of the three perceptual procedures.

Selective Attention means that due to the monolithic sum of stimulation a individual is exposed to every twenty-four hours, some stimulations will merely been screened out. Therefore, directors have to do their merchandises noticeable to the consumers, by associating a stimulation to the current demand, make stimulations that consumers anticipate, and set up high divergences compared to the normal size of the stimulation.

Selective Distortion is the distortion of information into personal significance so that it fits the prepossessions.

Selective Retention happens when people merely retain information that reinforce 1s attitudes and beliefs and bury the remainder ( Kotler et. Al, 2006 ) .

Glaesser ( 2003 ) defines hazard as the term ‘expected harm ‘ . It is calculated by the size of the harm times the chance that something will happen. If the tourer receives every bit hazard as excessively much that it exceeds the tolerance degree, the consumer will utilize hazard decrease techniques ( Kreilkamp, 1998 ; in Glaesser ) . This tolerance degree is determined by the grade of credibleness visual aspect of the touristry organisation, the velocity of its actions every bit good as the figure of times a negative event occurred repetitiously ( Kroeber-Riel, 1992 ; in Glaesser, 2003 ) . It besides has to be taken in history, that personal factors extremely influence perceptual experience, which leads to a subjective hazard appraisal which includes quantitative hazard factors, qualitative hazard factors, and single hazard factors ( Jungermann, 1991 ; in Glaesser, 2003 ) . Quantitative hazard factors influence a individual ‘s perceptual experience and increases if a negative event that has occurred in the yesteryear is remembered or can be imagined? ? ? ? ?


Although these two factors are really of import by speaking about hazard perceptual experience, the writer will concentrate merely on the single hazard factors, as those are more relevant for the work. Several personal determiners act upon a individual ‘s perceptual experience such as age, gender, and instruction. The WTO ( 1994 ) states that female tourers have a higher hazard perceptual experiences than work forces. Young tourers between 18 and 24 old ages of age, nevertheless, perceive hazard while going as less than older tourers ( in Glaesser, 2003 ) .

Another of import factor that has to be considered is the cultural facet. Tourists from different cultural backgrounds have different hazard perceptual experiences, which could be explained due to different societal, behavioural and development signifiers ( Kemp, 1993 ; Sonmez and Graefe, 1998 ; in Glaesser, 2003 ) .

Hofstede! ! ! ! ! !

Gee and Gain ( 1986 ) point out that tourers perceive hazard more if a negative incident in the yesteryear has coincidently affected person out of their ain culture/country.

Furthermore, it has to be mentioned that terrorist act in general does non take to a diminution in touristry demand. If the terrorist act onslaughts, nevertheless, are directed direcly against tourers that lead to hurts and deceases, they would take another finish ( Wilkinson, 1993 ; Sonmez, 1998 ; in Glaesser, 2003 ) .

Normally higher than the existent risk/danger that exists ( Brayshaw )

Hazard Perception is normally non logical, because it is influenced through the media. ( Santana ) Amateur picture or colourful images.

Higher alteration of being violated or holding an accident at place than during the holiday/vacation. ( Santana )

Spill-over consequence: association of one incident with the whole part or state ( Santana )

Tourism industry: Sectors within are interrelated and dependent ( transit, exchange rates, political and societal construction, conditions, etc. If one varies or alterations negatively, it affects the others. ( Santana )

Since touristry finishs to a great extent depend on tourers, they have to turn to the to a great extent fluctuating demand that arises due to the altering perceptual experience of the peril of the finish ( Meheux & A ; Parker, 2006 ) . Finishs that are perceived as a menace to their safety or wellbeing of the travellers, will be avoided ( Beirman, 2003 ) . Holden ( 2008 ) stresses this farther by stating that perceived hazards can be so powerful that tourers would even forestall traveling to a finish and taking another finish alternatively that appears to be more pleasant and safe ( Henderson, 2007 ) . Timothy ( 2006 ) points out an exclusion by stating that some tourers intentionally travel to risky finishs out of wonder. Furthermore, it is said that most tourers are non chiefly concerned with being caught in a catastrophe, particularly if a long clip has passed since the last catastrophe or incident.

Summarizing up, it can be said that tourers are prepared and willing to accept a certain sum of hazard. However, if the hazard perceptual experience exceeds the tolerance degree, the finish will be substituted.


Harmonizing to new wave Waldbeck aˆz [ R ] isk appraisal is a cardinal phase in be aftering for crisis, affecting the expectancy of what might travel incorrect and designation of the grounds for divergencies from outlooks ( 2005 cited in Henderson, 2007: P. 3 ) . ”

As a tool, sellers can continuously advance the safety in hazardous finishs, as this can do the tourer pretermiting the menace ( Henderson, 2007 ) . Hudson ( 2008 ) suggests a hurricane warrant that allows the tourers to rebook their holiday. Huan et. Al ( 2004 ) on the other side argue that alternatively of constructing assurance, emphasizing the safety of a finish and safety programs have a negative impact on the tourer ‘s image of a finish and could negatively impact the purchasing determination. Refering the inquiry, how large the clip span between an incident and a restart of marketing the finish, the WTO & A ; WMO ( 1998 ) suggest that this determination has to be made responsively refering the safety alternatively of the profit-making ( in Henderson, 2007 ) .

Definition of Crisis

. ( Glaesser )

Definition of Crisis Management

Crisis Management includes alterations of undertakings as response to a crisis. ( Glaesser )

When thought of Tourism, one most commonly thinks of enjoyment, relaxation, and safety. On the other side, nevertheless, catastrophes bring about fright, emphasis, anxiousness, injury, and terror ( Santana, 2003 ) . Those two sides go manus in manus because crisis have ever been and ever will be portion of touristry operations. Therefore, it affects all parties that are portion of the Tourism System e.g. the tourer, finish, communities, touristry companies, regulators, boosters ( Santana, 2003 ) .

Faulkner defines a catastrophe as “ [ aˆ¦ ] where an endeavor is confronted with sudden unpredictable ruinous alterations over which it has small control ” ( Faulkner, 2001: p. 136, cited in Ritchie, 2004 ) .

Harmonizing to Glaesser ( 2003 ) , a crisis is an unusual and unwanted state of affairs that demands an immediate response due to it earnestness.

Differences between catastrophes and crisis

Crisis describes a state of affairs where the root cause of the event lies internal of an organisation and is due to unskilled or uneffective direction patterns and the inability or involuntariness to accommodate to an on-going alteration ( Faulkner, 2001 ) . E.g. Chernobyl,

A crisis could be to some extent prevented, but standard processs frequently redefine the unnatural as normal and hence, non adapt to alter ( Booth, 1993 ) . A crisis, nevertheless, can besides convey positive things as it acts as a ‘turning point for better or for worse ‘ ( Fink, 1986, in Faulkner, 2001 ) . Pos. results: invention, acknowledgment of new markets ) , ‘totally new and more effectual constellation might emerge ‘ . ( Chaos Theory )

A catastrophe on the other side is a state of affairs or event that is unpredictable and over which organisations or endeavors has small control ( Faulkner, 2001 ) . E.g. eathquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis. Unfortunately, some warning signals of catastrophes that are about to go on are ignored – & gt ; leave communities unprepared ( Faulkner, 2001 ) .

Burton et Al. ( 1978 ) in Faulkner ( 2001 ) : ‘To amount up, the planetary toll of natural catastrophe rises at least every bit fast as the addition in population and material wealth, and likely faster. ‘

‘We unrecorded in an progressively complex universe and this has contributed to doing us more crisis or catastrophe prone ( Richardson, 1994 ) ‘

Daft ( 2008 ) points out that an organisation is confronted with little crises on a day-to-day footing such as informations loss, a fire etc. Bigger crises of knowing immoralities such as bombardments and snatchs, or natural catastrophes such as hurricanes and temblors continue to increase.

Henderson ( 2007 ) states that catastrophes such as storms, inundations, and drouths, will increase in its frequence due to extreme conditions conditions, because of the on-going clime alteration.

This statement is supported by EM-DAT ‘s ( 2010 ) natural catastrophe tendency which shows clearly that catastrophes have occurred more often since the beginning of 1900. This Lashkar-e-Taiba ‘s presume, that catastrophes will even increase more in the hereafter. Graphic EM-DAT

Community responses to crisis include the daze province, where persons experience helpless and disoriented ; the denial and defensive retreat ( to make back to already established safety solutions or to travel someplace else ) ; the recognition province whereby the alteration is accepted ; and the adaptation phase in which the community copes with the crisis and learns from it for the hereafter. ( Arnold, 1980, in Booth, 1993, in Faulkner, 2001 )

Degree to which companies work together and interrupt down institutional barriers! ! ! ! ( because of unequal resources – & gt ; coaction ; has to be planned before ( Granot, 1997 ) )

Fig Faulkner crisis and catastrophes

Although there is no by and large accepted definition of crisis direction in the literature ( Santana, 2003 ) , it can be said that in order to react to a crisis, organisations have to take actions consequently by altering their undertakings and procedures ( Glaesser, 2003 ) . Since it can ne’er be known in progress if and what type of crisis will happen, Organizations have to be prepared through planning for the worst instance. Harmonizing to Santana, this should be done through proper progress planning and set uping models, because merely so it is possible to get by with uncertainnesss. Brownwell ( 1990 ) stresses that there is even a bigger demand for a good crisis direction in the touristry industry since ‘it is one of the most vulnerable industries ‘ .

Fink ( 1986 ) : the media plays an of import function during the catastrophe direction schemes and it has the power ‘make the difference between whether or non a hard state of affairs evolves into a catastrophe ( Fink, 1986 ) . The media can be really utile by informing the community about warnings and to supply information during the recovery phase. However, the media frequently spreads false information and therefore, can impede the exigency operations by deflecting the exigency forces.

In add-on, the media besides exaggerates in order to make panic and bring people to pass money e.g. in the signifier of panic bargains before a possible hurricane. Due to the hyperbole and rumours of the media, the impact of a catastrophe in the touristry industry on the market has an unproportional impact to the existent natural riotous consequence ( Cassedy, 1991 ; Murphy & A ; Bayley, 1989 ; Drabek, 1992 ) .

Drabek ( 1995 ) analyzed that tourers and tourer finishs in general are more vulnerable to disaster than other people/industries/etc. A ground for this could be that the most appealing and popular tourer finishs are tropical topographic points where hurricanes, avalanches or volcanic eruptions are usual ( Murphey and Bayley 1989 ) . Since common marks for terrorists, such as embassies, are made less attractive due to increased safety step, tourers became the new marks ( Lehrman, 1986 ) . Furthermore, during a catastrophe, tourers are ever more independent and vulnerable than the community, as they are non as familiar with the local dangers ( Burby and Wagner 1996 ) . Cassedy ( 1991 ) states that merely a few companies have existent catastrophe exigency programs in their concern programs, and in instance they do so it is merely made for one type of jeopardy ( Drabek, 1995 ) . In general, one can state that the bigger touristry endeavors are better prepared than smaller endeavors ( Faulkner ) .

Harmonizing to Beirman ( 2003 ) , the rules of Crisis Management are coordination, coaction, communicating, and committedness. Those rules are a good effort, nevertheless, they are non sufficient, as during an unpredictable catastrophe there is no clip for aˆ¦

Phases Faulkner


Kotler et. Al ( 2006 ) province that if there are safeguards in topographic point, negative events can be diminished or prevented from happening. Therefore, possible crisis that have a opportunity of happening should be determined and develop programs and worst instance scenarios. These programs have to be communicated to all employees so that everybody knows their undertakings and expected behaviour in instance of exigency.

cascaded strategic precedence profile ‘ ( CSPP ) ( Heath, 1995, in Faulkner, 2001 )

Questionable, because an organisation ‘s usual activities and policies are non applicable during the state of affairs of a crisis. ( Huque, 1998, in Faulkner, 2001 ) e.g. companies with high concatenation of bid would hold a excessively long response rate but need to respond much faster in crisis state of affairss. Other limitations are bureaucratic constructions and low authorization.

Other jobs: communicating failures, deficiency of available resources ( Heath, 1995, in Faulkner, 2001 )

Kotler et. Al ( 2006 ) suggest that a good crisis direction focuses more on the communicating and less on the crisis. During preparation Sessionss, directors should be asked a set of possible ambitious inquiries that they may hold to reply by invitees or the media.


It is really of import to implement early and warning systems, and therefore, create consciousness in the tourer ‘s head of possible danger. Ritchie argues that more importance should be given to decrease and preparedness than to response and recovery, and ‘tourists rely on the Tour Operator to supply them with the necessary information ‘ ( which is really of import as tourers do non hold the cognition about jeopardy issues, as they are in an unfamiliar topographic point ( Johnston et. Al ( 2007 $ ) . Therefore, a proactive direction is necessary, in order to supply the tourers beforehand with the necessary information and safeguards ( Henderson, 2007 ) , so that tourers know the dangers that exists and adjust their behaviours consequently ( Ritchie & A ; Crouch, 1997 ; in Glaesser, 2003 ) .

It is non possible to extinguish every danger or menace ; this is particularly the instance with natural catastrophes, such as temblors, tsunamis or hurricanes. Coburn ( 1992 ) , nevertheless, provinces that the devastation can be diminished by constructing hotels etc. in a more solid manner which make them more immune but besides require a higher investing.

Warning Signals

Warning signals could be of any sort. Kotler et. Al ( 2006 ) suggests that client ailments, or aliens that walk around the belongings should be reported by employees to the security in order to forestall hazards and offenses. Furthermore, in the cyberspace a director can read in confabs or forums what former clients say and think about their belongings and therefore, erase the failures.

Damage Restriction

As mentioned above, communicating is really of import for a good crisis direction. It can besides cut down the negative promotion, if there is a good communicating with the imperativeness in topographic point ( Kotler et. al 2006 ) . A interpreter should be chosen who should pass on the facts to the media, give seasonably updates, and therefore maintain the imperativeness updated. It is pointed out, that by speaking to the media, the interpreter or director should ne’er utilize the term “ no remark ” as it creates intuition. Harmonizing to Daft ( 2008 ) , leaders should develop four communicating accomplishments. First of all, they need to remain unagitated and listen harder, by absorbing people ‘s frights and uncertainnesss. They should give comfort, inspiration, and hope by demoing optimism. Second, they should be seeable in order to demo that person is in control. They need to step out instantly and react to followings and public concerns. Furthermore, it is really of import that the interpreter ever tells the truth and, therefore, merely communicates facts. As a consequence of this, rumours will be reduced as good. Last but non least, a vision for the hereafter has to be communicated so that people do non lose hope, maintain traveling and the rebuilding procedure is faster.

Recovery phase

In order for a finish to retrieve, appropriate equipment, clip and pecuniary strength is needed. Particularly during natural calamities, a part is unable to assist itself, and hence, needs interregional or international aid and aid in signifier of machinery and contributions ( Glaesser, 2006 ) .

Furthermore, it has to be decided who has to put financially in reconstructing the finishs to boot to the contributions. In some instances, the authorities wages and burdens the disbursals in signifier of revenue enhancements on the community, stakeholders are made responsible, the insurance, or the providers of the touristry industry. ( ? )

Another inquiry is, what will be restored foremost. Most stakeholders demand that they are helped foremost, nevertheless, it is more of import to reconstruct the substructure foremost and this will profit the community and the touristry industry, and therefore, generate gross which will be needed once more for farther reparations ( Faulkner and Vikulov, 2001 ; Huang and Min, 2002, in Sharpley, R. 2005 ) .

The clip a finish needs in order to retrieve and convey services back to normal depends on how good the market communicating had been integrated ( Faulkner, 2001 ) but is ever influenced by the involvement of the stakeholder refering the velocity of the diversion, the character of a finish, and how sever the desolation is.

Learning Phase

To sum up, by holding a proper Crisis/ Disaster Management System in topographic point, many jeopardies could either be avoided or minimise their impacts ( Faulkner, 2001 ) .


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