Thousands of people used to come from assorted topographic points of the state to Colombo for different intents. They waste batch of valuable and utile clip on the manner due to restriction of conveyance installations and complex route web system bing at nowadays.

The available main roads are non able cater new coming vehicle to the roads and leads to wastage of clip up to greatest extended. These roads are extremely jammed during office and school clip. Therefore it has to be eased up by canal transit to cut down clip and disbursement minimum disbursal and available resources. It is of import to do the best usage of bing substructure in penchant to enlargement, wherever operable.

During recent past Sri Lanka had good H2O bone conveyance system available in Colombo country for conveyance work forces and stuff. This was really much important during Dutch epoch. Therefore, it is apparent that this method can be utilized even at present yearss with small alteration to bing H2O ways. In this research it is expected to turn out that traffic concurrence in Colombo, can be over come by utilizing bing canals system and can be minimize clip wastage on roads. There are many critical factors like efficiency, will of the people and cost. These factors were considered to turn out

The survey country is identified and methodological analysis employed for informations aggregation to transport out to research on field visits and probes, boat drives and collect relevant informations, speaking to Naval Personnel, people around the canals and coach riders, informations from the Navy.

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The survey country is demarcated from Kiralapone canal which starts from Diyawanna Oya and feeding from Kotte canal. This Kiralapone canal flows and diverts into two and created Heen Ela from Rajagirya, so 1km down below it is created one more subdivision and made Dematagoda canal and Kirulapone canal flows farther and once more doing two subdivisions at Havelock town and go on to Wellawatta and other one continue boulder clay Dehiwalla. The research was conducted by utilizing cleared country of Wellawatta to Nawala canal. During site visits in two occasions, the followers inside informations are gathered and most of the measurings taken the Naval squad available at the Canals. The Outstanding characteristics are as follows.

Length – From Wellawatta to Nawala – 1.8km

Width – 9 metres ( intend Value )

Depth – 2.1 metres at high tide status

Particular characteristic – At rains no tide difference take topographic point

Figure 1

Scope

The canal transit will cut down clip and lead to ease up the route traffic at metropolis Centre, minimise pollution and helps to cut down respiratory deaths, attracts tourers to the metropolis and do new ventures like boat edifice industry.

This engorged canals should be converted into scenic beauty for the metropolis, avoid inundation taking topographic point at metropolis Centre and protect vegetations and fauna belongs to these country. The recreational intents besides can be achieved and it will back up do wellness of people in the metropolis. This is one of the great chances to develop a societal integrating program to measure life personals near to the canal country by them egos to value their life manner. Another added advantage is to advance fishing among the people around the country.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

The available main roads and route web system unable to provide new coming vehicle to the roads and leads to make heavy route traffic and hence it has happened to blow tonss of clip at the Colombo City.

Hypothesis

Traffic congestion can be reduced by utilizing canal transit system in Colombo metropolis, with available resources and the best usage of bing substructure.

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

During the research it is expected to happen out that use of canal for transit will cut down traffic congestion in Colombo, where canals are available.

Specific OBJECTIVES

An efficient canal transit system will lend to cut down traffic congestion in Colombo metropolis bound. There are three major factors like efficiency, cost and will of the people to carry through this demand. By acquiring down informations and analyzing of these above three factors are the specific aims of this research.

Chapter 3

Background

In ancient times canals were used for cultivation and irrigation work. The first recorded canal was built in Mesopotamia circa 4000 BC or modern twenty-four hours Iraq and Syria. The Indus Valley Civilization in Pakistan and North India ( circa 2600 BC ) had sophisticated irrigation and storage systems developed, including the reservoirs built at Garner in 3000 BC. In Egypt, canals day of the month back at least to the clip of Pepi I Meryre ( reigned 2332-2283 BC ) , who ordered a canal built to short-circuit the cataract on the Nile near Aswan[ 1 ].

In ancient China, big canals for river conveyance were established as far back as the Warring States ( 481-221 BC ) , the longest one of that period being the Hong Gou ( Canal of the Wild Geese ) , which harmonizing to the ancient historian Sima Qian connected the old provinces of Song, Zhang, Chen, Cai, Cao, and Wei. By far the longest canal was the Grand Canal of China, still the longest canal in the universe today. It is 1,794A kilometers ( 1,115A stat mis ) long and was built to transport the Emperor Yang Guang between Beijing and Hangzhou. The undertaking began in 605 and was completed in 609, although much of the work combined older canals, the oldest subdivision of the canal bing since at least 486 BC. Even in its narrowest urban subdivisions it is seldom less than 30A meters ( 98A foot ) broad[ 2 ].

Canals were of import for the industrial development. That ‘s why the greatest stimulation to canal systems came from the Industrial Revolution with its demand for inexpensive conveyance of natural stuffs and manufactured points.

In Europe, peculiarly Britain and Ireland, and so in the immature United States and the Canadian settlements, inland canals preceded the development of railwaies during the earliest stage of the Industrial Revolution. The gap of the Sankey Canal in 1757, followed by the Bridgewater Canal in 1761, which halved the monetary value of coal in Liverpool and Manchester, severally, triggered a period of “ canal passion ” in Britain so that between 1760 and 1820 over one 100 canals were built[ 3 ].

17. The history of canal transit in Colombo City was started in Dutch epoch. It was entirely used to transport goods from backwoods to coastal country by Paru ( Small Vessel driv

driven by work force ) . This enormous and environmental friendly transit system is still used some countries of the state in smaller graduated table.

18. After industrial revolution car nomadic transit system became popular and with that development of route web system besides took topographic point. Presently figure of vehicles increased but route web system became limited due to infinite job. This causes the traffic congestion particularly in Colombo metropolis and as a consequence, people waste their valuable and utile clip in between their finishs. To get the better of this job it can be used bing canal system for transit work forces and stuff in Colombo metropolis.

19. Except Kirullapana – Wellawatta canal, remainder of the canals are still being used for H2O run outing system of the Colombo metropolis. However, recent past none of these canals have being decently maintained. Soon Sri Lanka Navy is set abouting to clean the Wellawatta canal, Dehiwella canal and Dematagoda canal.

20. The “ Japan Jabara ” ( Fast turning aquatic works which can be float on H2O ) is the chief quandary which need lasting solution and should be removed 100 % from the canals. If non it may take to suspend operation due sudden engine failures[ 4 ].

21. The rider transit by boats in canal will cut down clip and route traffic congestion at Colombo metropolis. Besides this may assist cargo transit by canal cut downing route traffic in the metropolis Centre.

Chapter 4

Datas

22. In Colombo metropolis traffic congestion depends upon topographic point to topographic point. Therefore it is of import that identify those roads and acquire the overall image about traffic congestion and usage available canal system to minimise the clip in effectual way.Traffic congestion roads are identified and inside informations indicated down below.

Galle route congestion is intensified after Moratuwa and stagnated after Dehiwala

High degree route congestion is intensified after Maharagama and stagnated after Nugagoda.

Low degree route congestion is intensified after Kaduwela and stagnated after Kotikawatta.

Kaduwela route congestion is intensified after Malaba and stagnated after Battaramulla.

Kandy route congestion is intensified after Kadawatha and stagnated after Kiribathgoda.

Negambo route congestion is intensified after Welisara and stagnated after Wattle.

Traffic informations

23. Traffic informations within the canal corridor is tabulated below[ 5 ].

Location

Daily Traffic

2002

2003

2005

2010 ( projected )

Domino ‘s Pizza Sri J’pura Rd

59408

61321

68957

85487

Open University Nawala Rd

29734

30660

34548

44648

Wall Tiles Narahenpita

20234

20770

23903

32705

Apollo Hospital Baseline Rd

23849

24632

30059

36813

Weaving Mills Havelock Rd

48968

50273

56241

67309

Wellawatte Bridge Galle Rd

51298

52937

56941

60311

Table 1

Chart 1

24. Time taken to go from Wellawatta to Diyawanna by assorted vehicles, within particular clip periods during a twenty-four hours.

Vehicle

Particular TIME PERIODS OF THE DAY

0630-0830hrs

0830-1600hrs

1600-1800hrs

Public conveyance ( coach )

1hrs 15min

1hrs

1hrs 30min

Official conveyance ( new wave )

45min

35min

50min

Forces vehicle ( auto )

45min

35min

50min

Motor motorcycle

35min

30min

40min

Table 2

25. Time taken to go from Wellawatta to Nawala by assorted vehicles, within particular clip periods during a twenty-four hours,

Vehicle

Particular TIME PERIODS OF THE DAY

0630-0830hrs

0830-1600hrs

1600-1800hrs

Public conveyance ( coach )

1hrs

50min

1hrs 10min

Official conveyance ( new wave )

50min

40min

1hrs

Forces vehicle ( auto )

50min

40min

1hrs

Motor motorcycle

40min

30min

45min

Table 3

CANALS AND DETAILS

26. Wellawatte Canal – The canal 1.8 kilometer in length, and 25 metres broad and the Bankss are beef uping by Gabion Boxes, Steel sheets and Masonry wall. The unfastened side to the sea is protected by two breakwaters forestalling the formation of a sand bar. Some times canal oral cavity is stuck by sand due monsoons rains and air current. However it is non created inundation jeopardy for the metropolis Centre. On other manner this is the most of import way manner to dispatch and modulate H2O when inundation occurred at the City. The canal base on ballss through a residential country and giving fabulous scenic beauty to residence over at that place. This is to the full cleaned and dredged by the Navy and transit is taking topographic point by the naval laguna trade. Detailss are as follows.

Morning starts from Wellawatta – 0730 hour to 0930 hour

Evening starts at Open University, Nawala – 1600 hour to 1800 hour

Lagoon trade ( Fiber Glass ) is propelled by 75 Horse Power of Out Board Motors ( OBM ) utilizing to transport 30 riders at a clip.

04 litres of fuel Burnss for the Journey.

Depth of H2O at Centre – 2.1 metres at high tide.

Peoples around country are extremely back uping the undertaking and seting refuse to the canal is really minimum at the minute.

27. Dehiwala Canal – The canal 3.7 kilometer in length, and 10 metres broad and the Bankss are beef uping by Gabion Boxes, Steel sheets and Masonry wall. The environing country is extremely polluted and after seting enormous attempt by the Navy 3.2 kilometer wholly cleaned up to 01st July 2010 and remainder of the distance in advancement. Detailss are as follows.

Depth of H2O at Centre – 2.7 metres at high tide ( as per 01st July

2010 )

Cleaning is taking placed from both the side of the canal.

Banks should be strengthen in some topographic points

28. Dematagoda Canal -The canal 8.6 kilometer in length, and 10 metres broad and the Bankss are beef uping by Gabion Boxes, Steel sheets and Masonry wall. This is already cleaned up to Royal Park by the Navy.

TIME TAKEN TO TRAVEL BY BOAT

FROM

TO

TIME DURATION

Wellawatta

Nawala

15 min

Wellawatta

Diyawanna ( Battaramulla )

30 min

Table 4

29. Approximately Rs.26.00 will be to go from Wellawatta to Diyawanna ( Baththaramulla ) and Wellawatta to Nawala Rs. 22.00 by public conveyance ( coach ) harmonizing to present status.

Detailss ABOUT CANALS

30. Under mentioned inside informations of canals besides have to see to better clip and to go on with transit.

31. Work Scope and Action Plan for the Rehabilitation / Maintenance of Wellawatta Canal

32. General Details are as follows.

Entire length: 1.8 kilometer

Side wall tallness from H2O line – 5′-7 ‘

Depth of H2O at centre – 1 metre at low tide status

Width – 8 to 10 metres

Middle of the canal itself and environing country was extremely polluted and congested and cleaned by the Sri Lanka Navy.

33. Renovating and cleansing is in progressed and lending batch from the Navy.

Vegetation is already removed by the Navy and cleaned the milieus more 90 % .

Japan Jabara was removed and two subdivisions of “ Bodhi ” trees at the Bankss should be sharpened up to avoid perturbation while boats traveling.

Dredging should be done really sensitive and systematic manner sing tide factor[ 6 ].

Gabion boxes are non the must for each and every topographic point of the Bankss and guarantee to acquire adept advice from the civil applied scientists on this affair and redevelopment should be done consequently.

34. Work Scope and Action Plan for the Rehabilitation / Maintenance of Dehiwala Canal

35. General Details are as follows.

Entire length – 3.7 kilometer

Side wall tallness from H2O line – 5′-7 ‘

Depth of H2O at Centre – 2 ‘ – 3 ‘

Width – 8 to 10 metres

Middle of the canal itself and environing country is extremely contaminated and engorged and Navy is about cleaned 3.2 km up to 01st July 2010.

36. Renovating and cleansing is in progressed by Navy squad.

Need to be removed flora at Bankss.

Transportation removed flora from the site.

Take out and reassign floating refuse at the center of the canal by Floating JCB ( Backhoe stevedore ) or Pontoon JCB.

Dredging should be done really sensitive and systematic manner sing tide factor.

Gabion boxes are non the must for each and every topographic point of the Bankss and guarantee to acquire adept advice from the civil applied scientists on this affair and redevelopment should be done consequently.

MISCELLANEOUS FACTORS

37. The boat and height factor of the Bridgess to be extremely considered when sing clip and required to travel through following tabulated inside informations.

Bridge

Minimum Vertical Clearance in metres

Rainy Dayss

At High Tide

At Low Tide

Ethul Kotte Pizza

0.9

2.56

2.85

Water Line Kotte

Above 3 metres

Above 4-5 metres

Above 4-5 metres

Open University Gate No -01

0.5

1.7

2

Open University Gate No -02

0.4

1.8

2.1

Railway Bridge

Above 3 metres

Above 5 metres

Above 5 metres

Baseline Road at Polhangoda

0.6 metres

2

2.2

Havlock Town Bridge

0.8

2.1

2.3

Duplication Road Bridge

2

3

3.3

Gall Road

Above 3 metres

Above 4 metres

Above 4 metres

Note – This was for Fiber Glass Dingy and More capacity boat clearance will be lesser than this and give endanger for riders in high tide conditions. In showery yearss this will able to work out.

Table 5

BUS PASSENGERS INTERVIEW

38. The coach riders interview were carried out to place bus riders travel forms and reassigning locations including office and school clip. And besides to whether they are ready take up new conveyance manner or non. The inside informations were gathered from people at the coach Michigans and the bases.

Survey Location

Number of Passengers

Remarks

Wellawatta

5

Ready to travel by boat

Havlock Town

10

Ready to travel by boat

Nawala

10

Ready to travel by boat

Rajagiriya

5

Ready to travel by boat

Battaramulla

5

Ready to travel by boat

Base line route

6

Ready to travel by boat

Table 6

Present Developments

39. The Sri Lanka Navy is started the commuter service for Open University pupils for free of cost by utilizing Fibre Lagoon trade from Wellawatta to Nawala. It is already made immense impact to the society and urged people to believe on this fabulous environmental friendly transit service. Due more response from the people of the society, the Navy is seeking to heighten commuter service presenting more capacity for this event. The Navy applied scientists were already trailed 30 figure rider capacity boats with three different types of OBM ( Out Board Motor ) and identified the most suited 1. The test inside informations are as follows.

Out Board Motors

115hp

75hp

40hp

No of Passengers

30

30

30

Approx. Time taken ( From Nawala to Wellawatte )

17 Min

15 Min

15 Min

Fuel ingestion

Petrol, Kerosene

6 ltrs

4 ltrs

3 ltrs

Man power cost ( Rs ) 03 ten individuals

3000

3000

3000

Net income ( Rs )

4000

4000

4000

Table 7

Chapter 5

Analysis

40. Harmonizing to the hypothesis clip taken by canal transit suppose to be lesser than route transit. Following informations can be use to analyze the status.

From Wellawatta to Diyawanna ( Battaramulla )

Public conveyance ( coach )

1hrs 15min

1hrs

1hrs 30min

Average clip taken by coach = ( 1hrs 15min + 1hrs + 1hrs 30min )

3

= 1 hours 15min

Average clip taken by boat = 30 min

Time difference = 1hrs 15 min – 30 min

= 45 min

======

From Wellawatta to Nawala

Public conveyance ( coach )

1hrs

50min

1hrs 10min

Average clip taken by coach = ( 1hrs + 50 min + 1hrs 10min )

3

= 1 hour

Average clip taken by boat = 15 min

Time difference = 1hrs- 15min

= 45 min

======

OTHER ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

41. There are three chief jobs to implement other alternate transit systems.

Cost

Space

Technology

42. Other alternate transit systems like under land trains and overhead train systems can be use to cut down traffic congestion. But the chief factor is the cost comparison with canal transit. To originate resistance or over caput train system it will be one million millions of dollars and maintain cost besides really high comparison with canal transit system. In metropolis like Colombo, it is really hard to make any new buildings. Due to infinite and Colombo is non a planned metropolis. Technology besides really extremely used in above mentioned options compare to canal transit system.

43. Analyzing all these factors, canal commuter system is the most convenient and endurable with comparison to alternate transit systems and besides it can be implement within shortest clip.

LEGAL LIMITATIONS FOR CANAL TRANSPORTATION

44. Sri Lanka Land Reclamation and Development Corporation ( SLLR & A ; DC ) has imposed some conditions and demands, sing safety and environment consequence and to supply good service to passengers.It is mentioned in annex 1.

PROFESSIONAL ANALYSIS

45. Professional thoughts collected from Mrs S.R. M. Adikari, Deputy Manager Research and Design Division of Sri Lanka Land Reclamation and Development Corporation ( SLLR & A ; DC ) every bit good as undertaking coordinator canal undertaking Lcdr RA weerasinghe Sri Lanka naval forces.

Harmonizing to Mrs. S.R. M. Adikari, the canal transit is the most convenient system and it can assist to cut down traffic congestion in Colombo metropolis. It can be developed really easy with bing substructure and installations. It helps to cut down inundation consequence and better many indirect advantages in Colombo metropolis. It was revealed that people are really much like to utilize canal transit system more than by route.

46. Harmonizing to undertaking coordinator canal undertaking Lcdr RA weerasinghe Sri Lanka navy, “ The chief purpose of the naval forces is, to popular the canal transit and make new transport civilization into community. Because people are still non realized and they are non acquire used to it. Ones they started utilizing the system they will recognize the advantages over route transit.

Then the system will better private sector will fall in to the system. If private sector comes, completion creates automatically among them. Finally full system acquire improve and riders getmore benefits than route transit system ” .

47. The other than that, intents of the undertaking include making an effectual conveyance system able of cut downing the figure of hours travelled, cut downing the traffic congestion in Colombo and doing the canal system environmentally clean, the enlargement of the undertaking to other canals in the metropolis such as the San Sebastian Canal in Grandpas and the Dematagoda Canal, is expected to cut down traffic in the metropolis. The environmental jobs of the canal have been reduced if cleaned and dredged it. The people populating near to the Bankss of the canal have been intelligent non to botch the canal. Passengers utilizing the boat service said now that the canal has been cleaned the unpleasant odor had been reduced. The service is more convenient than that of the coach, which is slower and frequently crowded[ 7 ].

Cost OF THE PASSENGER BOAT ( LAGOON CRAFT )

48. At present Navy is fabricating lagoon rider trade which can transport 30 riders with 75 HP OBM ( Out Board Motor ) . Navy says it cost abot Rs. 3000000.00 as per nowadays condition.If it goes to market with net income it will be around Rs.4000000-Rs. 5000000 with all revenue enhancements. Private sector can purchase these boats because they are with in the low-cost rate. Nomal coach besides cost about Rs. 3500000.00 in present status.

49. Maintainess cost is much cheaper than boat than coach because boats are made by fibre, it ne’er corrode. Boat can be used about 25 to 30 old ages with really less maitainness cost. But vehicle like coach can be used up to maximum 10 to 15 old ages so it can non used without major inspection and repair and it will be more cost.

50. Compare with all these factors boats are besides with in the low-cost rates and has more advantages over coachs. If canal transit system popular among people private sector does non hold any limitation to by boats compare with coachs.

HOW Much Percentage CAN REDUCE FROM ROADS BY USING CANAL TRANSPORTATION

By boat: –

Time taken from Wellawatta to Nawala = 15 min

Boarding and Disembarkation clip = 10 min

Entire clip = 25 min

( Sing working hours as 8 hrs/480 min in a twenty-four hours )

No of transition per twenty-four hours = 480/25

= 19 times

No of riders at a clip = 30

Entire no of riders with in a twenty-four hours = 19 x30

= 570

BY BUS: –

Time taken from Wellawatta to Nawala = 60 min

( Sing working hours as 8 hrs/480 min in a twenty-four hours )

No of transition per twenty-four hours = 480/60

= 8 times

No of riders at a clip = 60

Entire no of riders with in a twenty-four hours = 8 x60

= 480

51. This shows canal transit can take about all riders and it helps to cut down traffic congestion in topographic points where canal can be used.

Analysis OF COST PER PASSENGER FROM WELLAWATTA TO NAWALA

BY BOAT: –

Fuel ingestion for one transition = 4 lts

Fuel cost ( gasoline ) = 4×115

= Rs. 460.00

Fuel cost per twenty-four hours ( 19 transitions ) = 460x 19

= Rs. 8740.00

Man power cost ( 03 x individuals ) = 3x 1000

= Rs. 3000.00

Net income per twenty-four hours = Rs. 4000.00

Entire cost = Rs. ( 8740+3000+4000 )

= Rs. 15740.00

No of riders per twenty-four hours = 570

Cost per caput = 15740/570

= Rs. 27.60

BY BUS: –

From Wellawatta to Nawala = Rs. 22.00

52. Compare to bus, boat charges are more but sing clip factor and other advantages people tend to travel if Rs.6.00 higher than coachs. It can be cut down by utilizing kerosine as fuel for boats as follows,

Fuel ingestion for one transition = 4 lts

Fuel cost ( kerosine ) = 4×70

= Rs. 280.00

Fuel cost per twenty-four hours ( 19 transition ) = 280x 19

= Rs. 5320.00

Man power cost = 3x 1000

= Rs. 3000.00

Net income per twenty-four hours = Rs. 4000.00

Entire cost = Rs. ( 5320+3000+4000 )

= Rs. 12320.00

No of riders per twenty-four hours = 570

Cost per caput = 12320/570

= Rs. 21.60

53. This cost is about equal to normal coach charges and kerosene will be more suited than gasoline.

Chapter 6

Decision

54. In ancient clip canals were used for cultivation and irrigation intents in Sri Lanka every bit good as other portion of the universe. Then it became popular transit system. During Dutch epoch Sri Lanka besides used canals for transit efficaciously specially in Colombo country. As a consequence of industrialisation car used as major transit method. Because it was efficient, economical and reached about all finish as pre demands. Then popularity and use of canal transit cut down bit by bit. Sri Lanka besides faced same effects. After that figure of vehicles increased but route web system came to maximal degree. As consequence heavy traffic crated in Colombo metropolis particularly in office and school times. Then the demand arises to happen alternate transit system to cut down traffic congestion in Colombo metropolis.

55. After analyzing alternate transit systems it is intended that canal transit system most appropriate to used as a solution to traffic congestion in Colombo with bing substructure and installations.

56. To implement canal transit system, it should be efficient and economical. This research was carried out to happen these factors and used Wellawatta to Nawala canal as survey sample. Data collected by utilizing 30 rider laguna trade and 60 rider public conveyance coach with the same distances. Then the research was farther more carried out to happen how many riders can cut down from route transit system? And it besides revealed that canal transit system can suit more riders than route transit where canal system can be used.

57. Most sensitive factor is the cost when implementing services like transit to general public. As per land informations in this research it was calculated and proved that canal transit system is about equal with the route transit system compare with cost factor.

58. Then considered the will of the rider those who can utilize canal transit system to daily for their demands and about all of them really much prefer to utilize this system due to easyness and confortability.

59. Harmonizing to analysis sing clip, cost and will of the riders, canal transit system can utilize as an alternate transit system in Colombo. It can be cut down coach riders up to 100 % where canal transit available. But practical scenario it will non go on. Because demands and complexness of demands, some rider will utilize route transit system.

Recommendation

60. Existing some Bridgess have less over caput clearance where canals transit system exists. Because of this size of the trade have been limited. Therefore it is recommended that to architectural design should fit with future demand of canal transit.

61. Navy should bit by bit retreat from the canal transit after the system go popular and to promote the private sector to fall in with the canal transit.

62. Navy is infliction with substructure, engineering and adult male power to bring forth rider trade for lesser awards. Therefore it is recommended that to supply trade for private sector with cheaper cost, until the system go popular.

63. Most of the population of our state make non aware about canal transit and advantages about the system. Government should utilize propaganda about canal transit by utilizing media to popular the system.

64. Government and several governments should guarantee uplift the environment of the both side of the canals. Then it will assist the pleasant environment and people will promote utilizing this canal conveyance.

65. After the human-centered struggle, military forces are with high sum of work force and equipments. They can utilize for the development of state. Government should utilize military forces to unclutter all bing canals and if possible concept canals where of all time applicable by confer withing several governments.

BIBILIOGRAPHY

Gunawardena, C A. “ Encyclopedia of Sri Lanka ” .

Brohier, Richard Leslie. “ Links between Sri Lanka and Netherlands ” .

Lcdr Weerasinghe, RA ( SL Navy ) . Canal Transportation system in Colombo, Sub Docket

Word count: 4598

ANNEX “ A ”

Guidelines Applicable to Canal Transport Project

66. The charge or lease for use of the waterways will be charged per boat as stated here under and shall be paid yearly to the SLLR & A ; DC.

Sri lanka rupees Ten Thousand ( Rs. 10,000/- ) per boat for the first 10 ( 10 ) boats of passenger car up to 30passengers.

Sri lanka rupees 15 thousand ( Rs. 15,000/- ) per boat for the first 10 ( 10 ) boats of passenger car of over 30passengers.

Sri lanka rupees ten thousand ( Rs. 10,000/- ) per boat for the following 10 ( 10 ) boats after the first 10 ( 10 ) boats transporting over 30 riders.

Sri lanka rupees seven thousand five hundred ( Rs. 7500/- ) per boat for the following 10 ( 10 ) boats after the first 10 ( 10 ) boats transporting of up to 30 riders.

It is besides informed that the above fee is for use of H2O ways for carrying of riders merely and non for ware and that there will be a reappraisal and alteration of the fees after one ( 01 ) twelvemonth of beginning of the boat service on the footing of estimated net incomes and histories of the COMPANY.

67. The COMPANY shall transport on its concern merely on the rates specified by the SLLRDC and agree to curtail the rider conveyance of the boats to the said Waterss and undertakes to follow the usual path for the ocean trip which in the absence of grounds to the contrary, is presumed to be the direct geographical path.

a. The COMPANY shall transport on its concern merely on the rates specified by the SLLRDC and obtain a safe-worthiness/fitness Certificate for each boat from the Government Engineer and switch surveyor of the Merchant Shipping Division of the

B. Ministry of Ports and Aviation and to obtain a valid coxswain certification issued under the Launches Ordinance for the coxswains of Boats.

c. The COMPANY shall obtain the relevant conveyance licence from the Government Agent or Local Authority proper authorization in conformity with the commissariats of subdivision 2, 3 ( 1 ) and 4 ( 2 ) of the Boats Ordinance.

68. The COMPANY shall obtain formal security clearance from the Defense Ministry to run so Boat Service on the agreed canals and mercantile establishments.

69. The COMPANY shall frontward to the SLLR & A ; DC transcripts of paperss obtained in regard of Licenses licenses and security clearance stated in paragraphs 3 ( a ) , 5 ( B ) , and 4 above prior to the beginning of boat services to transport riders and goods on the said agreed paths.

70. The COMPANY shall hold that the boats shall be employed entirely for rider conveyance for the sole and proper usage of the populace and shall non transport ware or prosecute in any trade nor in anyhow violate the Torahs of imposts in-migration or violate authorities ordinances soon in consequence nor be used for any improper activities or terrorist activities and as they may be changed hereinafter from clip to clip.

71. The COMPANY shall hold non to stand in rental, sublease, mortgage or in any other manner assign the right of use of the waterways herein mentioned or lands without the anterior writt

consent of the SLLR & A ; DC and shall merely utilize same for the specific intent of the rider transit and for mooring/anchoring of boats.

Insurance

72. The COMPANY shall obtain a comprehensive Insurance Policy covering the boats and lives of riders and staff insured against hurt, decease, fire, Marine and hit hazards & A ; maintain the SLLR & A ; DCcovered and indemnified against any amendss or losingss caused against SLLR & A ; DCC or any 3rd party at its ain disbursal and besides the COMPANY undertakes to transport on board at all times of the board at all times of the boat operation, life jackets for all the riders, for usage in any necessary state of affairs.

Indemnity

73. The COMPANY shall hold to shrive and indemnify the SLLR & A ; DC against all costs, charges, disbursals, actions, claims, compensation, demands, and liability originating straight or indirectly from the province or any other private party.

74. The COMPANY is apt for the harm suffered as a consequence of decease or of personal hurt to a rider and the loss or harm to his personal properties if the incident which caused the harm occurred in the class of the passenger car and was due to the mistake or disregard of the maestro or his retainers or agents moving within the range of their employment. The COMPANY shall hold that the staff employed as Boat crew shall be competent in swimming and trained in life economy.

75. The SLLR & A ; DC shall hold the right at any clip to do review of the vass, as they may see necessary.

76. The COMPANY shall guarantee that neither the riders nor the boat operators will dump any refuse or other stuff such as discharge of waste, sewage oil spills or debris that can foul the waterways in the class of the operations and will take duty to forestall such occurrences by doing their ain agreements for hygienic disposal of such stuff and besides study ; such Acts of the Apostless to the SLLR & A ; DC in authorship.

77. The COMPANY shall hold to avoid oil Pollution except under utmost fortunes whereby the safety of the vas or life during transit would be imperiled and guarantee that no foreign stuff is dumped or thrown into the canal or canal reserve under any fortunes by the riders or the staff.

78. The COMPANY shall take equal steps to guarantee that the zoology and vegetation in the bordering countries of the canal Bankss and reserves including the occupants, who live on either side of the canal Bankss and/or other riders who may be basking similar rights are non harmed or disturbed by noise and other perturbations or nuisance in the operation of boat services.

79. The COMPANY shall obtain Central Environmental Authority ( C.E.A. ) clearances for the operation of boats on the agreed route/s.

80. The COMPANY shall run the boat service peacefully maintaining in head that there will be similar boat operators basking like right and will keep amity and harmoniousness in the common use of such waterways of which the sole keeper is SLLR & A ; DC.

81. All boats shall be less than 20 ft. long, with a bill of exchange of non more than 2’0 ” . Out- board motors shall be no larger than 15 Equus caballus power. The maximal permitted velocity for boats in 10 kilometers per hr.

82. The COMPANY shall hold non to damage the gabions, sheet hemorrhoids and or the canal Bankss piers/ breakwaters in the class of its operations and shall non utilize the gabions, sheet hemorrhoids and out autumn constructions for berthing and grounding of boats. Any harm caused shall be collectible by the COMPANY to the SLLR & A ; DC on demand, as estimated by the SLLR & A ; DC.

83. The COMPANY shall come in in to an understanding with SLLRDC holding to the above guidelines which will be incorporated in the said understanding and the beginning of concerns on the waterways will be merely after subscribing such understanding by both parties holding fulfilled clause 1,3,4,5,8 & A ; 17 prior to beginning of the boat service

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