In the North, the Civil War especially elevated the power of:
business leaders
During the Civil War, Congress passed:
the Homestead Act of 1862, which gave 160 acres to settlers who lived on the land for five years
Emancipation had what impact on the South?
It left the South’s labor system in disarray
After the war, rumors swept the South that ex-slaves would receive:
forty acres and a mule
Which of the following was a task of the Freedmen’s Bureau?
negotiating labor contacts, providing medical care, setting up schools, distributing food
Under Lincoln’s plan for Reconstruction:
10% of the 1860 voters had to take an oath of allegiance to the Union
On what basis did President Lincoln claim the right to direct Reconstruction?
Lincoln claimed constitutional provisions pertaining to presidential power gave him the authority.
Why did Congressional Republican write the “Wade-Davis Manifesto”?
to protest Lincoln’s veto of the Wade-Davis Bill and accuse Lincoln of exceeding his constitutional authority
Lincoln’s assassin, John Wilkes Booth:
was a pro-Confederate actor
Lincoln’s successor, Andrew Johnson:
was a pro-Union southerner
Why was Johnson picked as Lincoln’s running mate in 1864?
As a gesture of unity, they combined to create a National Union ticket.
Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan:
would restore the Union fairly quickly
Johnson’s Proclamation of Amnesty excluded the people he blamed for leading the South into secession. They were:
the wealthy planters, merchants, and bankers
When, in late 1865, the former Confederate states sent a number of ex-Confederates to Congress, the Unionists in Congress:
denied them their seats
The “black codes” enacted by southern legislatures:
tried to restore key elements of slavery
Southern efforts to recreate a society that looked similar to the Confederacy had what political impact?
Moderate Republicans moved to support Radical Republicans’ Reconstruction policies.
The Radical Republicans understood that essential to maintaining Republican control of the federal government was:
the right of ex-slaves to vote
Why did Radical Republicans want to disenfranchise former Confederates?
to keep them from electing Democrats eager to restore the old southern ruling
The main issue that caused the dispute between Congress and President Johnson was:
a growing conflict of opinion over Reconstruction policy
President Johnson fully broke with Congress in 1866 when he:
vetoed a bill to continue the Freedmen’s Bureau
Why did the Radical-led Congress pass the Civil Rights Act of 1866?
It was a response to the “black codes” and the neo-slavery system created by unrepentant southern legislatures.
The 1866 congressional elections:
gave Republicans veto-proof majorities
The Military Reconstruction Act:
required new state constitutions in the South
Johnson violated the Tenure of Office Act when:
he tried to remove one of his cabinet members without Senate permission
What was the main reason that Congress impeached Andrew Johnson?
Violation of the Tenure of Office Act
Andrew Johnson was:
impeached by the House but not convicted by the Senate
All of the following statements about the Fifteenth Amendment are true:
it forbid the sates to deny any person the vote on grounds of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”, Congress rescinded Georgia’s readmission and insisted it ratify the amendment before regaining its readmission, Kentucky did not ratify it, it ended slavery
What state was the only one in the nation that did not ratify all 3 constitutional amendments related to ended slavery (the 13th, 14th, and 15th)?
Why did service in the Union army or navy benefit many freedmen?
It provided training in leadership and alerted them to new opportunities in economic advancement and civic leadership
During Reconstruction, African Americans:
attempted to establish schools
Most carpetbaggers were:
Union veterans
Most scalawags were white southerners who had:
opposed secession
Many former Confederates resented the new state Constitutions imposed by Radical Republicans because:
their provisions allowed for black voting and civil rights
Christian missionaries who head south after the war:
often brought with them a commitment to civil rights and a vision of biracial social and political equality for freed slaves
Northern voters supported Grant mainly because of his:
military record
Ulysses S. Grant:
brought little political experience and judgement to the presidency
Advocates of “soft-money” or paper currency:
saw economic benefits in price inflation
“Hard-money” advocates argued that gov’t war bonds should be:
paid off in gold
Jay Gould and James Fisk triggered a scandal with their scheme to:
corner the gold market
By the time Pres. Grant took office, southern resistance to the Reconstruction efforts had:
turned violent
The primary objective of the KKK was:
oppressing blacks and white Republicans
In response the Klan, Pres. Grant:
tried to protect black rights
Why was the 1876 Supreme Court decision in United States v. Cruikshank (which pertained to the Colfax Massacre) significant?
It decided that states’ rights trumped federal authority when it came to protecting freed blacks from white terrorists.
The Liberal Republicans:
opposed Grant
All of the following are reasons why Republicans lost control in the South:
electoral fraud, white supremacist violence, the panic of 1873, the growing weakness of Grant’s administration
The Specie Redemption Act of 1875:
allowed for the redemption of greenbacks in gold
Why didn’t Pres. Grant seek a third term in 1876?
By 1875, he acknowledged the growing opposition to his renomination.
On what issue did the Democratic and Republican presidential candidates largely agree on during the 1876 campaign?
relaxing federal authority in the South
When the votes were first counted in the 1876 presidential election:
no candidate had an Electoral College majority
The Compromise of 1877:
ended Reconstruction
Why did southern Democrats agree to the Compromise of 1877?
It ensured the last federal troops would be withdrawn from Louisiana and South Carolina.
What happened after the end of Reconstruction?
The protections of black civil rights crumbled under the pressure of restored white rule and unfavorable Supreme Court decisions.
What was the most significant enduring legacy of Reconstruction?
The passage of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments.
From the end of the Civil War to the turn of the century:
the value of manufactures increased sixfold
All of the following factors helped accelerate economic growth after the Civil War:
the abundance of natural resources in the U.S., the development of labor saving machinery, federal and state policies aimed at limiting foreign competition, innovative, bold leadership from energetic entrepreneurs
Interconnected transportation and communications networks were essential to the origins of the Second Industrial Revolution in the United States because:
they facilitated the emergence of a national and even international markets for American goods and services
A transcontinental railroad was not built before the Civil War because:
North-South sectional differences prevented Congress from selecting a route
The first transcontinental railroad:
was built by the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific Railroads
Crédit Mobilier is indicative of the type of shady big business financial practices that occurred during the Gilded Age because it:
bribed officials and grossly overcharged for its services
The work of Cornelius Vanderbilt helps emphasize that:
business consolidation put the control of railroads in few hands
Thomas Alva Edison invented the:
first light bulb
Who developed the first alternating current electric system?
George Westinghouse
Why was the development of the alternating current electric system significant?
It enabled electricity to be transmitted across long distances.
The Pennsylvania oil rush:
outweighed, in economic importance, the California gold rush of a decade before
Which of the following best accounts for the success of Standard Oil?
Its corporate structure—known as vertical integration—allowed the company to grow tremendously.
Holding companies:
are firms that control the stock of other companies
“Trusts” like Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Trust were vulnerable because they:
were appealing targets for prosecution on the grounds of monopoly or restraint of trade
When it came to steel, Andrew Carnegie did all the following:
promote it, sell it, know how to organize a steel company, hire men of expert ability to help him run his business
J. Pierpont Morgan is distinguished from business leaders Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller because he:
came from an elite, privileged background
Sears, Roebuck and Company was a pioneer in:
selling goods by mail
During the Gilded Age, the rich were getting richer and:
many other people were at least better off
For industrial workers in Gilded Age America:
working and living conditions remained precarious
The Molly Maguires:
aimed to right the perceived wrongs against Irish coal workers
The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 was provoked by:
wage cuts that followed a depression
The Great Railroad Strike of 1877:
ended when the workers, who lacked organized bargaining power, returned to work
Why was there a growth of craft unions during the Civil War?
The war sparked an increased demand for skilled labor.
The Knights of Labor:
called for men and women to have equal pay for equal work
The greatest growth of the Knights of Labor took place:
in the mid-1880s, when the union had several strikes against the railroads
The Haymarket affair:
was blamed on seven anarchist leaders despite a lack of evidence
The American Federation of Labor:
was primarily concerned with securing concrete economic gains
Membership in the American Federation of Labor at first:
grew slowly
How did the AFL differ from the Knights of Labor?
The AFL was a federation of national organizations, each of which retained a large degree of its autonomy, while the Knights organization was more centralized.
The Homestead strike:
was waged against a Carnegie company
Violence erupted at the Homestead Works in 1892 when:
Henry Fick tried to break a strike by bringing in Pinkertons
President Grover Cleveland’s response to the Pullman strike was to:
send federal troops to keep the trains running
Daniel De Leon:
was the leading figure in the Socialist Labor party
Marxism, one strain of socialism, was imported to the United States mainly by:
Which of the following statements about the Socialist Party of America is true?
B. In 1912, the party’s presidential candidate received almost 900,000 votes.
C. It was plagued by disagreements over America’s participation in World War I.
D. It elected mayors in more than thirty American cities.
E. The party experienced great success in Oklahoma.
The Industrial Workers of the World:
had its origin in the mining and lumber camps of the West
William D. “Big Bill” Haywood:
was the leader of the Industrial Workers of the World
The IWW was effectively destroyed when it:
opposed American involvement in World War I
The major prophet of the New South gospel was:
Henry W. Grady
The New South gospel emphasized all the following:
industrialization, sectional peace, racial harmony, better education
Proponents of creating a “New South” argued that the Confederacy lost the Civil War because:
it relied too much upon King Cotton
Proponents of the New South believed that the South should:
In the late 1800s, the South experienced major increases in the production in all of the following areas :
lumber, tobacco products, coal, textiles
The American Tobacco Company was:
dominating the U.S. tobacco industry by the twentieth century
Why was Alabama named the “Pittsburgh of the South”?
It was an iron center.
The postwar South suffered from an acute shortage of:
Why did tenant farmers have no incentive to take care of the farmland that they were on?
They did not own the land on which they farmed.
Fertilizers in the South:
accelerated soil depletion by enabling multiple plantings each year
was a term used to refer to the New South political leadership meant to depict that leadership as reactionary
Under Bourbon rule in the South, state spending for public education:
dramatically declined
Black migrants to the West were called “Exodusters” because:
they were often making their exodus from the South
The very poor generally did not migrate to the West because:
they generally could not afford the expense of transportation, land, and supplies
Buffalo soldiers were:
black soldiers who served in the West
The Comstock Lode refers to:
a mining discovery of gold and silver in Nevada
Six states were created from the western territories in the years 1889-1890. These states were not admitted before 1889 because:
Democrats in Congress were reluctant to create states out of territories that were heavily Republican
In the landmark case Woodruff v. North Bloomfield Gravel Mining Company:
the judge ruled on the legality of dumping mining debris in water sources
Why was hydraulic mining so damaging to the environment?
It caused tons of dirt and debris to clog rivers, kill fish, and pollute downstream farmland.
Following the 1867 “Report on the Condition of the Indian Tribes,” Congress decided that the best way to end the Indian wars was:
to persuade the Indians to live on out-of-the-way reservations
In the battle at the Little Bighorn River in 1876:
some 2,500 Indians annihilated a detachment of 210 soldiers
The Indian tribe that defeated Custer and put up the greatest resistance to U.S. domination was the:
By the late nineteenth century, Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce Indians believed:
the time had come to stop fighting and put a stop to his people’s needless deaths
If there had been no white hunters in the West, the buffalo:
population would still have experienced a devastating decline
Why was Helen Hunt Jackson’s book A Century of Dishonor so influential?
It affected American attitudes toward Indians in a way similar to how Uncle Tom’s Cabin mobilized the abolitionist movement a generation earlier.
What was the purpose of the Dawes Severalty Act?
It sought to “Americanize” Indians by dealing with them as individuals.
In 1877, President Rutherford Hayes addressed the American approach to dealing with Native Americans, saying:
“Indian wars have had their origin in broken promises and acts of injustice on our part”
The first great cowtown was:
Abilene, Kansas
Why was the expansion of railroads significant to the growth of the cattle industry?
As the railroads increased the ability to ship huge numbers of western cattle, more “cowtowns” were established in the West.
Joseph Glidden:
perfected the invention of barbed wire
Range wars erupted by the late nineteenth century because of:
conflicts over land and water rights between ranchers and farmers
Congress passed the Homestead Act:
to encourage settlement of the western lands
The Newlands Reclamation Act of 1902:
provided funds for irrigation works
Much of the development of the western plains has been shaped by its:
arid climate
This export crop spurred growth in agriculture in the West during the late nineteenth century:
The fight for survival in the trans-Mississippi West made men and women:
more equal partners than were their eastern counterparts
In much of the nineteenth century, women in Texas were legally prohibited from:
serving on juries
The 1890 Census reported that:
the frontier era in American development was over
The historian Frederick Jackson Turner argued that:
the frontier shaped America’s national character
The so-called “frontier thesis” is problematic because, among other things:
it exaggerated the homogenizing effect of the frontier environment and virtually ignored the role of women
Why was the development of cast-iron and steel-frame construction techniques significant to the growth of cities?
They allowed developers to erect high-rise buildings.
Which region of the United States had the greatest proportion of urban dwellers?
the Far West
One of the reasons mass transit was significant to developing cities was because:
it allowed larger numbers of people to become commuters and live away from the central city
By 1900, all of the following technologies had helped transform mass transit
subways, electric trolleys, cable cars, elevated trains
Tenement houses in New York City:
had higher mortality rates than among the general population
As a result of overcrowding, sanitation, and ventilation problems in tenements:
the mortality rate among the urban poor was much higher than the general population
All of the following contributed to epidemics, disease, and high mortality rates in the growing cities:
overflowing garbage, untreated sewage, contaminated water, overcrowding
What do cholera, typhoid, and yellow fever all have in common?
They are all water-related diseases.
With the move of American cities toward regular trash-collection services, by 1900 what percentage of cities provided this service?
94 percent
The public health officials and municipal engineers that tried to clean up the city and its public health dangers were called:
sanitary reformers
In 1890, New York City had twice as many Irish as:
Why did the U.S. government open Ellis Island?
It was part of a federal effort to take charge of admitting immigrants to the country in light of the corruption that afflicted the city of New York’s system.
Ellis Island was located right outside the port of:
New York City
After 1890, most immigrants were:
from southern and eastern Europe
The American Protective Association:
was a nativist group strongest in the upper Mississippi Valley
“Nativists” believed:
immigrants threatened traditional American culture
All of the following motivated nativists:
anti-Catholic and anti-Semitic sentiments
beliefs in the superiority of earlier generations of immigrants
convictions that Slavic, Italian, Greek, and Jewish immigrants were inferior alarm that immigrants were taking jobs away from Americans
Angel Island was:
the equivalent of Ellis Island located offshore from San Francisco
The exclusion of Chinese immigrants:
originally called for a ten-year term
Why was the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 significant in American immigration history?
It was the first federal law to restrict immigration on the basis of race and class.
All of the following statements about newspapers in the late nineteenth century are true:
they were the primary medium for political life
the number of newspapers grew twice as fast as the population between 1870 and 1900
they were openly partisan
many published poetry and fiction as well as news
Vaudeville shows were popular because:
they included something to please every taste, social class, and type
One of the reasons parks and outdoor recreation became popular in the late nineteenth century was because:
concerns over congestion and disease led many to seek ways to restore their vitality and improve their health
Frederick Law Olmsted is most famous for designing:
great urban parks in America
All of the following emerged as popular spectator sports with mass appeal in urban areas in the late nineteenth century:
baseball, football, basketball, tennis
Baseball could lay claim to being the most democratic sport in nineteenth century America because:
people of all social classes attended the games
Dr. James Naismith invented:
the game of basketball
All of the following statements about football are true :
It was one of many spectator sports gaining popularity in the late nineteenth century
It was generally played in the fall
It was initially popular at the college level
It was a modified form of soccer and rugby
The first professional baseball team was the:
the Cincinnati Red Stockings
As America industrialized and immigration increased, access to secondary education in the United States:
expanded dramatically
The spread of public education between the 1880s and 1900 reflected the desire:
to Americanize immigrant children
The Hampton Institute in Virginia, which trained Booker T. Washington after the Civil War, is an example of that era’s attention to:
increasing the emphasis placed on vocational education
The Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890:
established and funded land-grant colleges
Which of the following statements about the expansion of American higher education in the late nineteenth century is accurate?
Colleges remained largely male bastions, but women’s access to higher education improved markedly.
The first women’s college to teach by the same standards as the best of the men’s colleges was:
Women’s access to higher education by the end of the century:
expanded significantly to the point that women made up one-third of all college students
Herbert Spencer:
coined the phrase “survival of the fittest”
A strict social Darwinist would object to all the following:
the graduated income tax
sanitation and housing regulations
regulation of medical quacks
the idea that the law of God and the law of nature might be the same thing
Though both embraced “pragmatism,” William James and John Dewey differed in their approaches to philosophizing because:
the inflationary impact of various gold discoveries around the world
The author of Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking was:
William James
John Dewey’s “instrumentalism”:
said that ideas were instruments for action
The main idea of reform Darwinism was that:
cooperation, not competition, would best promote progress
Lester Frank Ward’s version of reform Darwinism argued all of the following:
people compete, but they also collaborate
big government only hinders real progress in society
government could help society progress by promoting education
government could help society progress by eliminating poverty
Why was Lester Frank Ward’s Dynamic Sociology considered a challenge to William Graham Sumner’s “social Darwinism”?
Ward argued that cooperation among people better promoted progress, while Sumner believed in competition.
Western imperialism in the late nineteenth century was stimulated by all of the following :
an ongoing quest for markets
-notions of racial superiority
-the desire to Christianize Africa and Asia
-an ongoing quest for raw materials
John Fiske:
wrote American Political Ideas, a book that stressed the superior character of Anglo-Saxon peoples and institutions
Alfred Thayer Mahan:
argued that sea power was essential to national greatness
In 1878, the Samoans signed a treaty with the United States giving the United States:
a naval base at Pago Pago
President Grover Cleveland called the Hawaiian Islands:
“the stepping-stone to the growing trade of the Pacific”
Queen Liliuokalani:
opposed the Americanization of Hawaii
When Americans led an overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in the early 1890s:
Cleveland stabilized the new government by sending in the Marines
What is “yellow journalism”?
It refers to sensationalist news coverage that was designed to sell papers and manipulate public opinion.
The de Lôme letter:
referred to President McKinley as a weak and cowardly leader
The battleship Maine:
exploded in Havana Harbor and fueled calls for war with Spain
One reason the United States went to war against Spain was that:
there was strong support among the American people for going to war
The Teller Amendment:
disavowed any American designs on Cuban territory
During the Spanish-American War, Theodore Roosevelt:
took part in the land fighting in Cuba
All of the following were locations of campaigns during the Spanish-American War:
San Juan Hill, Santiago, Manila Bay, Kettle Hill
Emilio Aguinaldo:
was the Filipino rebel leader
As a result of the Spanish-American War, the United States:
emerged as an imperial power
By the end of the Spanish-American War:
more American soldiers died from disease than battle
All of the following were put forward as reasons for the United States annexing the Philippines:
the desire to Christianize the Filipinos
acquiring better access to trade with China
the need to keep the Philippines from being taken over by foreign rivals
a belief that the Filipinos were unfit for self-government
A major reason that the U.S. annexed the Philippines despite anti-imperialist opposition in the U.S. was because:
the islands were located very close to China and China’s potential markets
The treaty ending the Spanish-American War:
was initially opposed by most Democrats and Populists
Why did the United States fight a war in the Philippines after the Spanish-American War?
to quell an insurrection of Filipinos who opposed annexation by the U.S.
The Philippine-American War became known for:
its brutality and the atrocities committed by both sides
Protestant missionaries and supporting organizations often supported American imperialism because they:
believed in the global superiority of the Anglo-Saxon “race”*
The notion that Americans were God’s chosen people was often used to:
justify American imperialism and territorial acquisitions
Why were American Catholics troubled by Protestant efforts to evangelize in Spain’s former colonies?
The people of those territories were already Christians who belonged to the Catholic Church.
The United States acquired all of the following as a result of the Spanish-American War :
Puerto Rico, Guam, the Philippines, Guantanamo Bay
The Platt Amendment:
sharply restricted the independence of Cuba’s new government
Residents of Puerto Rico became citizens of the United States:
nearly two decades after the island was acquired by the U.S.
The Platt Amendment did all of the following:
sharply restrict Cuba’s independence
become part of the Cuban constitution
prohibit Cuba from impairing its independence by signing a treaty with a third power
lead to the establishment of the U.S. naval base at Guantánamo Bay
Which of the following statements about the American acquisition of Puerto Rico is true?
The Jones Act of 1917 made residents of Puerto Rico U.S. citizens.
The Open Door policy:
proposed that foreign powers keep the China trade open to all nations on an equal basis
The Boxer Rebellion took place in:
With the Boxer Rebellion, all of the following occurred:
Chinese nationalists laid siege to foreign embassies
Peking came under control with the arrival of foreign troops
Chinese nationalists rebelled against missionaries
a group emerged known as “Fists of Righteous Harmony”
Mark Hanna opposed naming Theodore Roosevelt as McKinley’s running mate in the 1900 election because Hanna:
saw Roosevelt as a madman who just might become president
Why was Theodore Roosevelt picked as William McKinley’s running mate for the 1900 election?
Roosevelt was a popular figure from his exploits in the Spanish-American War and had been a strong public supporter of McKinley.
In the election of 1900, the McKinley-Roosevelt ticket campaigned on a platform that:
advocated “free silver”
To reward Theodore Roosevelt for his vigorous campaigning on behalf of William McKinley in 1896, the new president appointed Roosevelt:
assistant secretary of the navy
The Hay-Herrán Treaty:
concerned America’s right to build a canal in Panama
Who was president when the United States acquired the right to build a canal across Panama?
Theodore Roosevelt
When the United States and Colombia could not agree on a price for the Canal Zone:
the United States lent support to a separatist rebellion in the Colombian province of Panama
In order to acquire the Canal Zone, the United States supported Panama’s revolt against:
The Roosevelt Corollary:
stated that the United States could intervene in the affairs of Latin American countries to forestall the intervention of other powers
As a result of Japan’s show of strength in the Russo-Japanese War:
Americans began to doubt the security of the Philippines
Roosevelt’s “Gentlemen’s Agreement”:
stopped the flow of Japanese immigrants to America
Through his intervention in the Moroccan crisis in 1906, President Roosevelt:
may have prevented a war pitting France and Britain against Germany
The “yellow peril” was:
a racially charged description of a perceived threat from Japan
Roosevelt’s intervention in the Russo-Japanese War and the Moroccan dispute:
won him the Nobel Peace Prize of 1906
Why did Theodore Roosevelt send the “Great White Fleet” on a world tour between 1907 and 1909?
to demonstrate that the U.S. had arrived as a world power
The Act of Algeciras did all of the following:
affirm the independence of Morocco
guarantee an open door for trade in Morocco
provide for the training of Moroccan police
help Roosevelt win the Nobel Peace Prize
Who once said that warfare was the best way to promote “the clear instinct for race selfishness”?
In hindsight, Roosevelt’s approach to foreign policy was problematic because:
he was reluctant to use force in support of American goals

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