Which of the following describes the Gilded Age?
It was an era marked by personal greed and a corrupt partnership between business and politics.
Which of the following developments was a key factor in the rise of the Gilded Age?
growth of industrialization in the U.S.
Which of the following big businesses came to dominate American life in the second half of the nineteenth century?
Railroading
Which of the following factors boosted nineteenth-century railroad construction in America significantly?
monetary and land grants from federal and state governments
How was it possible that Jay Gould was described as both the world’s richest man and the most hated man in America when he died in 1892?
He was a symbol of all the most troubling aspects of big businesses in America.
Which relatively new building material improved railroading in the late nineteenth century and depended on it?
Steel produced through the Bessemer process
What was the purpose of vertical integration, which was pioneered by Andrew Carnegie in the late nineteenth century?
It placed all aspects of a business under the control of a chief operating officer.
Carnegie Steel achieved the tremendous productivity that Andrew Carnegie insisted on
by forcing employees to work long hours under extremely dangerous conditions for low pay.
What was the main purpose of crude oil in the United States before the advent of the automobile?
lubrication and kerosene
Which statement describes the oil industry before John D. Rockefeller’s rise to power?
Low entry costs allowed riotous competition.
Why was Standard Oil first organized as a trust?
to control key elements of production and corner the market for oil
Why did Rockefeller ultimately reorganize Standard Oil as a holding company in the late nineteenth century?
to legally combine competing companies
Which of the following was true of Standard Oil in the 1890s?
It controlled more than 90% of the oil industry.
In her ‘History of the Standard Oil Company’ published in McClure’s Magazine, Ida M. Tarbell characterized John D. Rockefeller as
a man who used illegal methods to take over the oil industry
How did Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone revolutionize both communications and business in America?
It used a complicated organizational structure in his new company that allowed local and cross-country communication.
Where had electricity been put to use in the United States by the late nineteenth century?
Mostly urban areas
The industries that grew up around the revolutionary inventions of Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Alva Edison demonstrated that
the age of the inventor was becoming the age of the corporation.
The turn of the twentieth century saw individual entrepreneurship in the United States to yield to
financed capitalism
Prominent business leader of the late nineteenth century J.P. Morgan believed that
consolidation and central control were preferable to competition.
How did Morgan achieve his stunning reorganization and consolidation of businesses in the late nineteenth century?
He formed a community of interest comprised of a handful of directors.
Morgan acquired the core of what would be the largest corporation in the world when he purchased
steel interests formerly controlled by Andrew Carnegie.
What idea was promoted by the theory of social Darwinism in the late nineteenth century?
Progress is the result of competition, and social reforms and other modes of human interference impede progress.
Who wrote the social Darwinist book “What Social Classes Owe to Each Other”?
William Graham Sumner
What message did Andrew Carnegie promote in his gospel of wealth?
Millionaires should be trustees and agents for the poor.
According to American businessmen who subscribed to the economic theory of laissez-faire, what was the role of the government in the economy?
It should not interfere with economic affairs except to protect private property.
The economic theory of laissez-faire gained political clout in the late nineteenth century because
the Supreme Court increasingly was reinterpreting the Constitution to protect businesses.
Which of the following factors explains the high voter turnout in national elections during the last three decades of the nineteenth century?
Voting was an important way to get a government job.
To what did the term “solid South” refer in the decades after Reconstruction?
The states of the Old Confederacy, which voted Democratic in every election for the next 70 years
What was evident in the call for a New South in the decades after Reconstruction?
the desire among some southerners to shift from an agricultural economy to an industrial one
Where did the South’s iron and steel industry develop?
Birmingham, Alabama
What was the outcome of the notion that black men were a threat to white women in the South in the late nineteenth century?
an increasing number of lynchings across the South
According to Ida B. Wells, lynching was a problem rooted in
gender as well as race.
How did American women respond to the denial of their right to vote in the late nineteenth century?
Women participated in the political process through the antilynching, suffrage, and temperance movements.
The presidents who served in the last part of the nineteenth century–Rutherford B. Hayes through William McKinley–
were overshadowed by business development and party politics at state and local levels.
Which group of Republicans fiercely supported the patronage system?
Stall warts
How did the Republican party attempt to foster unity for the election of 1880?
It nominated a stall wart, Chester A. Arthur, for vice president. (Presidential candidate: a mud womp)
President James A. Garfield unwittingly helped the cause of civil service reform when he
was shot by Charles Guiteau, a disappointed office seeker
The Pendleton Act of 1883 established the Civil Service Commission and
made it impossible to remove people in civil service jobs for political reasons.
What was an important consequence of the civil service reform of the 1880s?
Business became even more influential in politics than before.
Having stated that “the paramount issue this year is moral rather than political,” supporters of Grover Cleveland in 1884 were chagrined to learn that Cleveland had
fathered a child out of wedlock.
Why were Irish Catholic voters offended by James G. Blaine’s campaign?
Blaine neglected to respond to a slur on Catholic voters.
The tariff posed a threat to America’s prosperity in the late 1880s because
it created a surplus that was not used to produce goods and services.
Which group enthusiastically supported the tariff in the nineteenth century?
Industrialists
Democrats dubbed the Republican-dominated Fifty-first Congress the “Billion Dollar Congress” because it spent the nation’s surplus on
lawmakers’ own constituents
The Supreme Court’s decision in Wabash vs. Illinois (1886), which reversed its ruling in Munn vs. Illinois (1877),
led to the passage of the first federal law regulating the railroad industry.
How effective was the Interstate Commerce Commission, the nation’s first federal regulatory agency?
It was so weak in its early years that it served as little more than a historical precedent.
What did the Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Antitrust Act have in common?
They testified to the nation’s growing willingness to intervene in big business on behalf of the public interest.
The Greenback Labor party believed that the government should issue paper currency based on
the country’s total wealth.
When advocates of bimetallism referred to the crime of ’73, they were talking about
the decision by Congress in 1873 to stop buying and mining silver.
President Grover Cleveland hoped to increase the nation’s flagging gold reserves during the economic depression in the winter of 1894-95
through making a deal with a private group of bankers, headed by J.P. Morgan, to purchase gold abroad and supply it to the goverment.
What late-nineteenth-century development did New York City’s Brooklyn Bridge symbolize?
the ascendancy of urban America
By 1900, the population in New York City, Chicago, and Philadelphia had each grown to exceed
1,000,000 people
Which of the following factors contributed significantly to the astonishing growth in America’s urban population between 1870 and 1900?
European migration to the United States
Which of the following describes the world economy at the turn of the twentieth century?
An industrial core, an agricultural domain, and a third-world tied to the industrial core by economic colonialism
What circumstances enabled U.S. industrialists to hire cheap labor from around the world in the 1870s?
Railroad expansion and low steamship fares brought many immigrants to America.
After 1880, most new immigrants to America orginiated from
eastern and southern Europe.
Which of the following describes the majority of immigrants’ lifestyles in the United States after 1900?
They lived in cities because jobs were available there and because they did not have the money to buy land.
How did most new women immigrants come to the United States in the late nineteenth-century?
as wives, mothers, or daughters
The racism directed at ethnic immigrant groups in America in the late nineteenth century
were based on the perception that ethnic and religious differences were racial characteristics
In the late nineteenth century, some established immigrant groups viewed more recent immigrants as
not being a part of the white race.
Southern blacks migrated to northern cities in the 1890s
for economic opportunities and safety
Which statement describes the immigrant experience in the late-nineteenth-century American cities?
They generally lacked the capital to buy land.
Why did Congress approve a literacy test for immigrants in 1896?
as a means of limiting the influx of uneducated people into the country
Along with the horse car, which mode of transportation first allowed late-nineteenth-century cities to expand into the suburbs?
electric street car
As middle- and upper-class urbanites moved to new areas of their cities in the late nineteenth century, poor city dwellers
stayed in the neighborhoods near the factories
What did Jacob Riis achieve with his best-selling “How the Other Half Lives” (1890)?
He forced middle-class Americans to acknowledge the degraded reality of the poor.
Which group constituted the backbone of the American labor force throughout the nineteenth century?
Unskilled laborers
Working as a skilled craftsman in America in the late nineteenth century
did not ensure financial security.
Employers sought to limit the control of skilled workers on the shop floor in the nineteenth century
by replacing skilled workers with machines.
Which of the following developments changed the U.S. garment industry in the 1850s?
Independent tailors were replaced by sweatshop workers.
Which of the following describes the economic survival of the nineteenth-century American working class family?
Family’s surrvival depended on employment.
How did the percentage of children under age fifteen working in the paid labor force in the United States change during the years leading up to World War I?
The percentage increased dramatically.
Where did married black women typically work to supplement their family income in the late nineteenth century United States?
outside the home as domestics
How did business expansion and consolidation affect the social structure in the late-nineteenth-century United States?
A new class of white-male-salaried managers emerged.
The direction of corporate goals and policies in the late nineteenth century was increasingly shaped by
managers and executives
The advent of the adding machine, typewriter, and cash register had the greatest impact on
literate white women
Most native-born white women who worked at the end of the nineteenth century held
clerical jobs in offices
What developed as a result of the opening of department stores in the late-nineteenth-century United States?
a new consumer culture
What was the Great Railroad Strike of 1877?
the result of a coalition of labor unions
What was the main lesson learned by workers from the Great Railroad Strike of 1877?
They lacked power individually, but they might gain it through a union.
What was the “Chicago school” of the late nineteenth century?
a school of architecture active in Chicago*
During the 1880s, the Knights of Labor advocated for
public ownership on the railroads, an income tax, equal pay for women, and the abolition of child labor
What happened to the World’s Columbian Exposition site after it closed its doors in October 1894?
It became an area for Chicago’s unemployed and homeless.
What was the White City, which was constructed in 1893, five miles down the shore from Chicago?
the home of the Columbian Exchange
By the turn of the twentieth century, most big-city governments were run
by compromise and the accommodation of various powerful political forces.
In the post-Civil War United States, a “city boss” was
the overseer of the building of the city and provided social services for new residents.
Which of the following describes the amenities of American city life in the 1890s?
The amenities were not easily available to the poor residents in the cities.
Which statement describes late-nineteenth-century American libraries?
They made up the most extensive free public-library system in the world.
What did the public school system in the late-nineteenth-century American cities provide?
Free tuition and open access to all children
New York City’s Central Park was planned to provide
a natural oasis away from the busyness of the city.
What development led to the emergence of the modern skyscraper in the 1890s?
the advent of structural steel
What did Coney Island symbolize in the late 1800s?
the rise of mess entertainment in America
Beginning in the 1870s, American men of all classes were united in their passion for
baseball.
Working-class courtship rituals in urban, industrial America in the late nineteenth century
shifted from family-arranged arrangements to informal meetings at the dance halls and other commercial retreats
Throughout much of the nineteenth century, middle-class American women were confined by a cultural ideology that dictated that they
exist within the private sphere of the household.
Which statement describes the Haymarket affair of 1886?
It began as a rally of laborers organized by radicals.
Samuel Gompers, the founder of the American Federation of Labor,
focused on higher pay and better working conditions.
Which of the following was an outcome of the Haymarket affair?
Skilled workers turned toward the American Federation of Labor.
How did live-in servants change households in the North by 1870?
They enabled middle-class white women to explore opportunities outside the home.
What was the Knights of Labor?
an American labor organization founded in 1869 to protect the rights of workers.
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