Human resources direction seems like to go an of import issue in all the industry nowadays. Human resources direction has been assorted defined by the bookman. “ Effort that taken to do certain that the policies, process, and system of pulling, choosing, developing, and retaining the best employees are consistency with the house concern schemes and history for the dynamic status within the house ‘s competitory markets to back up strategic and functional alliance ” ( californium. Wright & A ; Snell, 1998 ; Way, 2006 ; Way & A ; Johnson, 2005 ) Human resources direction in cordial reception industry is different with the human resources patterns that patterns by the other industry. Human resources direction in cordial reception and touristry industry stresses more on “ The Diamond Services Model ” ( Tesone 2005, 14 ) .

The Diamond Services Model states that four facet demand to be taken into consideration in the direction of human resources which include the financial duties of the organisation, the services excellent offered to all the stakeholders, the societal duties of the stakeholders peculiarly to the clients and employees and eventually the employee dealingss in the organisation ( Shariff, 2007 ) .

Overview of hotel industry in Georgetown, Penang Island

In recent twelvemonth, the hotel industry is turning greatly in the planetary and this phenomenon consists in Malaysia. This industry is supplying services to tourist and clients who come for stay or vacation ; it ‘s besides providing employment chances to people. The undermentioned shows hotel evaluation at old ages of 2007 and 2010 in Malaysia.

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Harmonizing to the Table 1 and 2, it shows the old ages of 2007 and 2010 which are the entire figure hotel in Malaysia. The entire figure hotel in Table 1 is 624 hotels and the entire figure shown in Table 2 is 801 hotels. It has shown increasing to 177 hotels after 3 old ages. This means that hotel industry is increasing quickly in 3 old ages. In Penang country besides increases quickly after 3 old ages. Table 1 show the entire figure of hotel in Penang is 45 hotels in twelvemonth 2007 and 55 hotels in twelvemonth 2010. It has shown increased 10 hotels after 3 old ages.

“ The Pearl of Orient ” has many attract finish for tourers. The most celebrated finish of the province is Georgetown which is located at the northeasterly tip of the island is the place of disposal and is besides the commercial hub of the province. This metropolis is listed as heritage site by UNESCO in these few old ages. Furthermore, it besides is hub of commercial. This bustling metropolitan metropolis combines the old edifices and heritage and affected by different foreign influences into colourful its history. Its multiracial population contributes besides to a wealth of cultural attractive forces and gay jubilations for visitants to witness and bask. These factors are impacting the growing of hotel industry in Georgetown. The most celebrated hotels in Georgetown, Penang include G Hotel, Cheong Fatt Tze Mansion, Sunway Hotel Georgetown Penang, and Dorsett Penang Hotel. Those are four stars above hotels.

Best hotel operation with provide best services and quality installations for clients, employees are playing the of import function in the hotel operation. Kasavana and Brooks ( 2001 ) , the map of each hotel section can be summarized as front office, housework, nutrient and drink, gross revenues and selling, accounting division, technology and care, security, and human resource. Many duties and drama in of import function of each section in a hotel, so the best methods of enlisting and choice patterns are necessities to engage the best employees. The undertaking of human resources section in hotel to trades affairs of employees particularly in enlisting and choice patterns to employment. Differ abilities are needed for differ undertaking in hotel. Hence, the patterns non merely used, but the accomplishments, cognition, and experiences are besides needed in exigency state of affairs.

Problem statement

The job of this survey is limited literature on Malaysia hotel industry enlisting and choice patterns. It is deficiency of attach importance to enlisting and choice patterns. Different hotel industry has different type of enlisting and choice of employment. Variation in hotel size, location, and ownership makes the prescription of a “ best pattern ” choice model debatable ( Medlik, 1989 ) . Therefore, this is a job of this survey in the hotel industry and it is deficiency of information about the patterns in the industry. Limited literature on enlisting and choice of employment caused by diverseness occupation place and occupation feature of assortment hotel in Malaysia so could n’t stipulate procedure of enlisting and choice determination devising in the hotel industry. Furthermore, with less literature on enlisting and choice patterns, most of hotel industry in Malaysia to enroll campaigner for vacancy occupation, bulk of hotels are base on accomplishments, experience, and knowledge about hotel industry and to choose best employee and suitableness of occupation vacancy place, but non follow the patterns merely.

Research inquiry

This survey of enlisting and choice patterns in hotel industry of Penang.

The function of research inquiry in survey is gained more information and inside informations to help in research.

First research inquiry in this survey is how do Penang hotels recruit their employees? The enlisting methods include internal hunt, external hunt, and outsourced hunt. What is the significance of the internal hunt, external hunt, and outsourced hunt? Harmonizing of the methods, pickers should happen out the best and qualitative method to recruitment and suitableness campaigners and seek endowments for the occupation vacancy. The enlisting method has adopted in hotel industry of Penang to enroll their employees and what is common method of enlisting in the hotel.

Following is how do Penang hotels select their employees after enlisting? After pickers recruit the qualified campaigners, choice pattern is needed to choose possible appliers they wish to engage. With the choice activities in differ place occupation vacancy, the differ choice activities should be utilize. There are applications, interviews, pre-employment testing, background cheques, and mentions. The major activities to set about when testing employees for possibility choice and easier to take endowment to suitableness place. The choice activities should use in differ occupation vacancy in Georgetown and take the common activity for being choice employees.


The intent of this survey is importance of develop efficiency method of enlisting and choice for seek qualified employees. Based on this intent, the factors must considered by pickers prior to planning and enrolling their hotel ‘s employees enlisting. The method of patterns will convey good or bad aftereffect and it must be related to the occupations after take the employees. Therefore, the pickers can non merely utilize exclusive method in enlisting and choice patterns. Multiple methods could seek a possible employee or endowment to competency of the place.

Differences of enlisting and choice patterns depend on different size and type of each hotel. All hotels are a trust on either formal or informal methods to choose with the campaigner qualities identified as desirable. This is because every method may go a chosen for pickers or employers in order to do a right determination of employment. To pull off a hotel with scheme in hotel direction and may be linked to other factors which straight shape pattern. The survey identifies different between ownership, state of affairs and section in the hotel and direction constructions and explains enlisting and choice procedure. Impacts happening from adopt of idealised theoretical accounts of enlisting and choice, such as impacts of hotel industry and overall of state.


The chief variable in this survey is different methods in enlisting such as internal hunt, external hunt, and outsourced hunt. In add-on, the variable in this survey is the different enlisting methods which are choose will convey different affect in some facet such clip and cost consume. Besides that, assortment of selection staff such walk-in interview, application, proving and so on. This is besides includes in the variables. These choice methods are different characteristic for each one. Therefore, pickers may obtained more item and information of the appliers through those methods.

Definition of footings

Definition of hotel

Hotel is topographic point of return remainder for travels and populating along the travel paths in a room ( lodging ) and repasts ( nutrient and drink ) offered. Hotel is a topographic point of paid to offer lodging on short-run period and provides basic installations and services such as beds, pillows, private bathroom, air conditioner, housework, and cleanliness room service, and extra installations that restaurant, swimming pool, and meeting room. In general, hotel is a topographic point of set up commercial with supplying housing, repasts, installations, and services, and add-on.

Definition of enlisting

Recruitment, normally known as organisation is offer a occupation vacancy and hiring people for occupation vacancy or a procedure of bring forthing a pool of qualified campaigners for a place. It is besides a procedure of bring oning people to use a occupation and make up one’s mind move people who have involvement in place offered to organisation.

There are three types of enlisting methods to enroll employees. Those are internal, external, and outsourced hunts that are needed before hire suitableness employees. Job demand is considered of import for the organisation to hold a readying beforehand.

Method of Recruitment

Internal hunt

Internal hunt is a procedure of a promotion-from-within attack that is utilised when seeking best employees for occupation vacancy. It is besides known as the ‘in-house ‘ enlisting in an organisation. The internal hunt undertaken when organisation believes that the best campaigners for high-level places such as seeking front-office director for front-office section will be found among those presently employees internal the hotel.

This type of enlisting is less dearly-won from organisation since transportation employees from inside organisation. Additional, this can actuate the staff to work in attempt and build-up them to career chances but first-class campaigners outside the organisation unavailable to use and besides cause infighting among the work force. Internal hunt is largely for touristry and cordial reception organisation because the internal employees are really familiar about the undertaking and environment of this sort organisation.

External hunt

With an attack to seeking the best appliers for the occupation vacancy that major focal point on those campaigners who are non presently employees in the organisation. In general, it is besides defines to the enlisting taking from outside of organisation. External hunt may happen of informal or formal methods.

The organisation is seeking external campaigners with rely on assorted schemes such advertizements, public and private employment aid bureaus, educational establishments ( college or university ) , and unasked applications and so on.

For hotel industry, external hunt may make new thoughts, cognition and experience from outside campaigners for the organisation. On the other manus, this could take down the attempt of internal campaigners and besides may take longer period for new employees such offer developing plan to them.

Outsourced hunt

This hunt is organisations seeking for occupation campaigners that are performed by a professional company such executive hunt house specialising in employees ‘ hunts. The executive hunt house is which is sort of happening the possible campaigners for the occupation in organisations. The organisation can utilize to happen the making that they are looking for through this method.

Largely, the executive hunt houses will place possible campaigners for the place needed from their list and rede their clients about best campaigners available that they are looking for. The undermentioned stairss are reach them to make preliminary measure.

These houses are normally help the organisation to seeking out the possible campaigners with proper accomplishments and the campaigners can suit good with the place in organisation such seek out a campaigner is to the full experience and cognition in nutrient and drink for place of F & A ; B director.

Definition of choice

The choice pattern in hire a new employees is a important determination. It is a chosen of important after pickers have assembled a pool of qualified campaigners and they must do a determination to choose the best campaigners who they want to engage. The below are major activities to use when taking suited employees.


Application is normally used as a usher for the applier to cognize what are needed by the organisation. It consists of name, reference, work experience, and related information about the applier. Generally, acquire information about the inquiries asked on them should concentrate entirely on occupation makings. It is lucidity and introduces of appliers and need non to be complex. Organization utilizing this method to supply the chance as “ ice-breaking ” with the applicant produces interview.


Interview is a procedure choice and it interact the pickers or employers with the applicant possibility. The application or sketch is submitted, some appliers would be selected for the interview subdivision. It is involves interview with many campaigners and 2nd or following interview will be coming. The organisation may easier and clear up to acquire information of the appliers which has non listed in the application or sketch.

To exemplify, the common information could acquire in interview subdivision those are past experience, instruction background, makings, current place and employment, outlook of future, and ground to seeking new occupation and do chosen to the organisation and so on.

Pre-employment Testing

It is a common manner to better making of enlisting procedure. The significance is all the appliers who would wish to selected and derive the occupation in the organisation ; they should acquire the proving base on balls. The organisation utilizing the trial consequences to mensurate the comparative strength of appliers. Skills trials, psychological trial, and drug showing trials are normally related in cordial reception industry.

The accomplishments trials may include typing trials, computing machine testing, and nutrient production undertakings. Those are common accomplishments required in some section of cordial reception industry. Psychological testing can include personality trials, public presentation forecaster trials or outlook trial. For both of trials is importance to proving abilities of appliers.

Drug testing trial is allowance in most provinces. A drug-free environment can pull best making appliers and convey a higher-quality workplace. In the hotel industry, drug-free environment could guarantee safety of clients and pull more concern chance.

Background Checks

Background cheques should be specifically on single background to obtain information that relates straight to individual for employment. Recently, cordial reception employers are using background cheques before employment in selected place. This method most normally used such condemnable history, recognition studies, driving records, academic certificates and licences.

Condemnable records of appliers should be checked before engaging. There is a possibility that the individual could make important safety or security hazards for each one. Recognition studies include fiscal information such payment history, sums owed, liens and so on. Driving records is sing available of motor vehicle records and information about traffic misdemeanors and licence position. Academic certificates such schools attended, grade awarded, and transcript those should be verified a flat instruction is necessary for peculiar occupation. Licenses such current position and termination day of the months, should be obtained if it is required for place.

Background cheques are used as a screening device does affect some duties by employers but besides some duties. Employers or pickers are merely search information that has a straight behavior on the place for campaigners.


Mention is sought information or remarks from past employers about the employee ‘s old work public presentation. The benefits are being true approximately old employees is widely thought to be to a great extent outweighed by the possible liability associated with such honestness and earnestness. This method is really popular tool to utilize but it is more hard to obtain on presents.

Boundary line

The boundary lines of this survey are clip and topographic point. In the survey, the boundary line of clip is twelvemonth of 2011 and the topographic point is Georgetown in Penang. The boundary line of clip is twelvemonth 2011 because the industry hotel is turning shortly at the clip. The boundary line of topographic point is Georgetown Penang ; the ground is this metropolis is a batch of history attractive force and high commercialism combined in the topographic point and it is a locale of prosperity and harmoniousness so this is one of the pick tourers to see, therefore it is besides brought many benefits into the hotel industry.

Meaning of survey

The advantages will be conveying from best employees in the hotel industry. The importance function of this survey:

Penang is a celebrated topographic point in Malaysia, particularly is George Town, it is naming as heritage site by UNESCO. Harmonizing to Lee, Lim, and Aini ( 2008 ) , Penang has submitted a joint application with Melaka to be listed on the UNESCO World Heritage City List in 2005. Therefore, celebrated hotel of good quality service and installations provided to better good image of Malaysia. From this manner, most tourist need stay in hotel during they travel in this metropolis so the best employees in hotel are function in important and they should supply good service, installation, and environment to foreign that would be increase good image to them and derive much positive respond to Malaysia.

Offer enlisting of occupation vacancy which can cut down unemployment and offense rate in Malaysia. The hotel industry is increasing in late and occupation vacancy offered and possible employees needed to enroll. Consequently, the occupation vacancy is a good chance to idle people and the offenses such rob and illegal concern would be diminishing at the same clip.

Recruitment can seek endowments and develop them to be professional in hotel industry either internal or external hunt. Seek and train endowments to be professional of hotel can convey the benefits for each section and add more concern chance and challenge in hotel industry.

Quality choice of staff is increasing foreign exchange and attracts more foreign investing in hotel industry to better Malaysia ‘s economic. Government and private endeavor should collaborate together to give to the full back up for hotel industry in order to pull more foreign investing in Georgetown and whole of Malaysia. Not merely increase investing and economic for our state, besides obtain chances of cooperation and increase more relationship with foreign state through hotel industry development.

Recruitment and choice can acquire more information about well-being of employees to cut down turnover and fulfill satisfaction them in hotel. Employee turnover is common issue faced by hotel industry. High turnover rate became by many factors and some factors are sing salary, environment, and public assistance provided. In choice procedure such in applications and interview subdivision, employer could obtain more inside informations of appliers such salary and work topographic point outlook. These will be carry throughing applicant in work topographic point prior to employment. In hotel industry, these methods can fulfill all employees of each section prior to get down working and easier to pacify employees experiencing by employers or directors in each section. Employees besides may understand more ordinance and regulations of hotel through these methods.

The hotel industry besides should establish on staff accomplishment, experience, and cognition to taking qualified employees. Pickers could engage good employees through enlisting and choice procedure but they incomprehension of employees ‘ accomplishment and public presentation during working. Therefore, the pickers besides need to establish on range of employees ‘ capablenesss and adopt procedure of employment-test. The employment trial is pen and paper trial to measure cognition of undertaking such as computation for cashiering accomplishments. Practical trial in the undertaking, proficient accomplishment of chef ‘s and housekeeping experience, it is besides importance.

Literature reappraisal


From the literature it is proven that the human resource development found within hotel industry are non alone and exclusive sentiments from each one research worker.

Hotel operates in the industry within different categorization. Stutts and Wortman ( 2006 ) , the hotel industry is so complex and diverse and can be classified based on quality of installations and services provided, mark market and type of services delivered to the invitees. Therefore, hotel is operation depends on its star evaluation, size, installations provided, mark market, and location.

Yusof, Razak, Radha, and Hamid ( 2010 ) identified, Malaysia Association of Hotels ( MAH ) operates on 1 March 1974 and it was established by a group of concerned and dedicated operators of hotels to convey approximately more information of cordial reception industry. The chief intent of MAH is to supply information for human resource development supplier. Additional, MAH to upgrade the accomplishments and cognition of employees in the hotel industry in Malaysia.

Human resource section is played an importance function in each hotel. Human resource section needs to duty for developing good service to client and the interaction between employee and client. The service brush in touristry and cordial reception organisation involves an interpersonal dealing which takes topographic point between clients in a complex homo bringing system ( Shariff, 2007 ) . Furthermore, the direction is besides interaction between employers and employees. Johnson ( 1998 ) identified the direction of the relationship between the employer and employee. The human resource section is focused on all sections in hotel and duty to engage employees. Goldsmith et. al. , 1997, 2 determined a beginning of possible instability every bit far as the procedure of employee dealingss is concerned.

A research of Goldsmith et al. , 1997 ; Schneider and Bowen, 1995 determined the effectivity of service organisations is frequently linked with the single qualities of their employees. That is average of quality service provided, non merely concentrate on high star evaluation of hotel but the attitude and public presentation of employees besides need to concentrate.

Training procedure is important after engage the employees to increase the employees ‘ service quality but the enlisting and choice procedure are importance prior to get down working. Research paper 2004 established by Lockyer and Scholarios ( 2004 ) indicated in their research that a best patterns attack to human resource enlisting and choice might non ever work in an optimum manner within the hotel sector. In their paper they discuss how standard human resource processs for the enlisting and choice procedures are non ever adequate when covering with seasonal staffing challenges.

The behaviour of employees besides need to paid attending during the patterns is traveling on. Researchers Raub and Streit ( 2006 ) propose that, based upon their findings, recruiters need to be unfastened, honest, and “ realistic ” in their enlisting attempts. This is guaranting safety of invitee when the employees are functioning them and repute of hotel.

Magd ( 2003 ) identifies that hospitality industry directors need to give serious consideration to using older workers. Older workers represent a mature, matter-of-fact, and capable labour pool. They can project a positive image, are strong communicators, have good clip flexibleness ; be given to be more employer loyal and are more likely to demo up for work every bit required. The older workers had holding more cognition and experience than new employees. Therefore, new employees should collaborate with older workers to larn more experience and accomplishment from them.

The choice literature recommends the development of occupation and individual specifications and the usage of dependable and valid methods based on elaborate occupation analysis, even for little concerns ( Hunter and Schmidt, 1982 ) . Therefore, the choice pattern besides is importance in the green goodss. Hayes and Ninemeier ( 2008 ) identified of importance of applications, interviews, proving, background cheques, and mentions that human resource directors undertake when testing employees for possible choice. The choice literature recommends the development of occupation and individual specifications and the usage of dependable and valid methods based on elaborate occupation analysis, even for little concerns ( Hunter and Schmidt, 1982 ) . These are show after assembled a pool of qualified campaigners and comprehension in deeply to choose the applicant want to engage. Ineson and Brown, 1992 ; Law and Wong, 1997 determined it, in the hotel industry ; nevertheless, there is small grounds of systematic choice pattern to place quality service features. Some grounds exists for the systematic usage of structured interviews and biographical informations in larger and concatenation hotels.

The choice pattern can non be disregarding, but the recruitment procedure should be utilised beforehand. Shariff ( 2007 ) identified enlisting is the procedure of seeking for and placing occupation campaigners in sufficient measure and quality to run into the organisation ‘s human resource demands. Hayes and Ninemeier ( 2008 ) discourse differentiate between the actions human resource directors take when choosing to carry on internal, external, or outsourced hunts for qualified employees.

Conceptual model





Pre-employment testing

Background cheques


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